Teachers are the one who guides the students. It can be shown to the relationship of student from the teacher. Every classroom should have a well-educated and a professional teacher. For that to happen, school systems should recruit, prepare, and retain teachers who are qualified to do the job. In the classroom, teachers should be evaluated on a regular basis in a fair and systematic way. Teachers who are effective in teaching should maintain their way of teaching because the learning of one student is depending on them.
Every one of us, including our nation’s President is the product of teaching. The teacher is the one who molds a child into what he will be in the future. He is being taught how to read and how to write, how to deal with others and how to deal with himself. The knowledge of the teacher is being shared or transferred to the child that can make a child learn. When the child is ready to pursue for a higher degree of education and specializations, it is still the teacher who is guiding the child for him to attain his dreams and expectations. There is no profession is greater than teaching, without the teachers there will be no Engineers who will plan, design and manage the construction of buildings, roads, bridges, communication facilities and other mechanical infrastructure. Doctors, Scientist and Politician will not exist without them.
1 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE Evaluation is a way of assessing and judging the value of a piece of work of an organization or a service.
Its main purpose is to help an organization reflect on what it is trying to achieve, assessing how far it is succeeding, and identify required changes. There are two (2) advantages and disadvantages of faculty evaluation, the advantages are: first) Obtain Information that offers an opportunity to see whether the teacher uses effective teaching methods and control over the class to address the needs of all learners, second) Can provide instant feedback when the evaluator observes a teacher in action, they can provide feedback to the teacher about their performance.
The disadvantages are: first) Bias, the potential evaluator may impose his own beliefs about teaching on the teacher being observed, second) Unreliable, Many Teachers become nervous when being observed and their performance may suffer. Purpose and Description of the Project Tipas National High School started its operation in 2002 under the initiative of the Representative of Taguig and Pateros, Mr. Allan Peter Cayetano.
He passed a bill in the House of Congress establishing a national high school in barangay Tipas named Tipas National High School (TNHS) in response to the appeal of parents of the four barangays in Tipas to accommodate the growing number of enrollees in the area. During its initial operation, the local government of Taguig constructed six (6) makeshifts rooms at nearby Tipas Elementary Covered Court to house the 291 freshmen and 172 sophomores, while the construction of the three-storey building was in progress. Today, 2 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE the school accommodates enrollees from the neighboring barangay of Palingon, Ligid, Calzada and Napindan. This school year it has a total population of 1932 students. In a preliminary interview gathered/rendered by the proponent to Ms. Maricel Tuazon and Ms. Wilma J. Mico, they mentioned that there are four (4) common problems of manual process in evaluation of TNHS. First, loss of documents (misplaced, typhoon, insects), second, the manipulation of data, third, the guidance is having a hard time in computing the evaluation forms and fourth, late submission of evaluation questionnaires.
According to them, it would be helpful to their school to have the Online Performance Appraisal for the Teachers of TNHS. They also stated that the day of evaluation is on the last week of March before the submission of grades, usually Monday between 1pm to 2pm in the afternoon. In this regard, the researchers will develop the requested system, The Online Performance Appraisal System for the Faculty of TNHS in order to resolve the above mentioned problems.
The Researchers chose this system because the improvement of teaching and learning is the ultimate goal of a Faculty Evaluation, most faculties will want to learn how to assess the effectiveness of their teaching and student’s learning. Although many faculties are quite capable of knowing it and the students do not understand the materials, often teachers do not know how to go about discovering why students are not learning. Therefore, the Faculty Evaluation project should plan activities intended to help faculty “learn how “to assess their teaching and their student?
s learning. 3 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE 1. 2 Objectives of the Study General Objectives The general objective of the study is to develop an Online Faculty Performance Appraisal System of Tipas National High School (TNHS). Specific Objectives The specific objectives of the study are as follows: 1. To enumerate the process and policy used by TNHS, encountered in their faculty evaluation. 2. To find out the different problems of TNHS to their Faculty Evaluation. 3. To determine the other software use by other educational institution in their Faculty Evaluation 4.
To outline the system design requirements for TNHS in terms of hardware, software and other tools. 5. To establish a level of acceptability in terms of: Functionalities, Security, Portability and Usability. 6. To implement and install an effective Faculty Evaluation System for TNHS. 4 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE 1. 3 Scope and Limitations of the Study The main users of the system are the Faculty, System Administrator, Evaluators which is the Subject Department Heads and the Principal of TNHS. They will facilitate the Online Faculty Performance Appraisal of Tipas National High School.
The Property Custodian of TNHS with the authority from the Principal shall operate the system and with proper knowledge in managing the Faculty Evaluation. Additionally, The Property Custodian can edit, add and delete questionnaires found in the proposed system. The Functionalities of the system are: User Authentication – This module is responsible for the logging and logging out events and all other events that is relevant to authentication. It is decomposed into these sub components: ? Login / Logout Purpose: To allows users to log onto the web application and log out from it. ? Change Password
Purpose: To allows the user to change his/her password. ? Password Recovery Purpose: This allows the user to retrieve his/her password in the event that user forgets his/her login details. 5 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE User Registration – This function is to register a new user in order to access through the system. User Interface Faculty Page and Evaluator Page ? Home Purpose: This function shows the main page of the system, where the user can see the announcements of the evaluation schedule that will be submitted and also the mission and vision of TNHS. ? View Faculty Information
Purpose: This form shows the information of all Teachers in TNHS. ? View Subject Assignments Purpose: This form shows the assigned subjects of the teachers in TNHS. ? Evaluation Proper Purpose: This form shows the questionnaires that the faculty will need to answer. If the user is already through in evaluation, this function will be disabled. ? Edit Answered Questionnaire (Evaluator only) Purpose: This function can edit the all answered evaluation proper. 6 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE Admin Page and Principal Page ? Manage Users Purpose: To add, delete, edit users. ? View Reports
Purpose: To show the result of the evaluation proper. ? Add Subjects Purpose: This button can add new subjects. ? Manage Questionnaires Purpose: To edit, add, and delete the questions in the evaluation proper. ? Edit Answered Questionnaire Purpose: This function can edit the all answered evaluation proper. ? Print Results Purpose: To prints-out the evaluation results. Search ? Search Subject Assigned Purpose: To search a subject that the teacher is assigned to. ? Search Teacher Purpose: This button can search a faculty member that is registered in the system. 7 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE
Help – This function contains the information of the system. If you need help you can click the help button for assistance. The study gives emphasis in the computerization and enhancement of the manual Performance Appraisal System of TNHS, going beyond the concern of the study is no longer significant to the study. As a limitation of the study it is also limited to the statistical analysis such as: first, Evaluation Result Graphs and second, Chart Reports. In the overall rating of the faculty member being evaluated with the two (2) combined evaluation results of the Department Heads and faculty member?
s appraisal. The Proponents also consider that the laziness of users to perform their task as a limitation of the study because the process cannot be done without them. The faculty performance evaluation had been done and the overall evaluation of duty result has been computed, the online faculty evaluations are generated. Likewise, the outcome of this study is based on the specifications as defined and set by TNHS. 1. 4 Significance of the Study On the developed system, the proponents foresaw possible contributions to the Students, Faculties, Principal, Proponents and the school. Tipas National High School
Through the aid of the study, the school provides an efficient leading staff because of a more reliable faculty evaluation to measure the teacher’s performance inside the classroom through the evaluation of their students with the Online Performance Appraisal 8 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE for the Faculty of TNHS. The study helps ensure quality in the teaching and learning environment that enhance student learning. Faculty The study helps the faculty of how competent, effective and productive they are inside their classrooms. The study served as a tool with respects to the alignment of performance.
Moreover, the faculty of Tipas National High School realized their needs in improving their way of instruction to the students. Principal The study helps the principal to easily monitor the evaluation process. It lessens the difficulty of monitoring the manual process using questionnaire papers. Students Students of TNHS are direct beneficiary of the study. The study helps the teachers to be more productive in teaching. It is equally acceptable to solicit individual perceptions of their teachers that’s why the study supports each individual growth and development.
Proponents The Proponents gives their best to complete the system in order to complete the client’s requests. The proposed study will give benefits and help the proponents as their guide. 9 10 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE / STUDIES 2. 1 Theoretical Background The chapter deliberates the literature of the study, composed of discussions of facts and principles to which the present study is related. It should be in the form of a brief critical analysis and purposes, principal findings, method of study, principal findings and conclusions.
In order to gain a deeper insight into the area of study a review of related studies and literature in the Philippines and foreign countries has been conducted by the researcher. Administrative Order No. 161 of 1994 According to the Administrative Order No. 161 as of 1996, it prescribed the standard incentive pay system based on productivity and performance, for all officials and employees of the government, national and local including those of government-owned and/or controlled corporations and government financial institutions and for other purposes.
Therefore, President Fidel V. Ramos, President of the Republic of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested by law do hereby direct: Section 1) Policy, Section 2) Coverage, Section 3) Basis and Amount of Reward, Section 4) Total Cost of Incentive, Section 5) Funding Source, Section 6) Release of Funds to National Government Office/Agency, Section 7) Prohibition from Establishing/Authorizing a Separate Productivity and Performance Incentive, Section 8) Strict compliance by all concerned with the provisions of PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE
this Order is enjoined, Section 9) Cases not covered under this Order shall be referred to the Department of Budget and Management for proper study and recommendation to the Office of the President, Section 10) The Department of Budget and Management is directed to issue the appropriate circulars for the implementation of this Order, and Section 11) This Order shall take effect on January 1, 1995 based on the performance evaluation of officials and employees for CY 1994. (http://www. lis. dar. gov. ph/home/document_view/9083) DepEd Memorandum No. 6 and 12 The memorandum from the office of the President dated December 14, 2012 entitled Performance-Based Incentive System (PBIS) for the information and guidance of all concerned. The PBIS is a new incentive system launched in 2012 that awards the Performance-Based Bonus (PBB) to deserving employees of the national government agencies.
The mechanics of the program, criteria and other relevant information on the PBIS and PBB are discussed in the enclosure. (DepEd Memorandum No. 6) Pursuant to the provisions of Executive Order No. 80, s. 2012 entitled Directing the Adoption of a Performance-Based Incentive System (PBIS) for Government Employees signed by President Benigno S. Aquino III on July 20, 2012 and Memorandum Circular No. 2012-01 issued by the Inter-Agency Task Force (AO No. 25, s. 2011), the Performance Based Incentive System (PBIS) consisting of the Productivity Enhancement Incentive (PET) 11 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE and the Performance Based Bonus (PBB) shall be adopted in the national government beginning Fiscal Year (FY) 2012. (DepEd Memorandum No. 12) (www. deped. gov. ph)
(See the Appendix for the complete information of DepEd Memorandum No. 6 and 12) Theory of Evaluation and Performance Appraisal According to Feldman (1981), Performance Appraisal is interpreted as the outcome of a dual-process system of evaluation and decision making. There are two separate bodies of research bearing on the issue of the employee evaluation; one concerned with the instrument and the other with its user. The first, in the classic psychometrics tradition, centers on the development of formal evaluation instruments and their susceptibility to both random error and various systematic biases.
The other area of research is based in social psychology and is concerned with attribution, stereotyping processes and their influence on evaluation. In the book entitled “Human Resource Management 4th Edition” by Chatterjee, 2009, He enumerates the twelve (12) uses of Performance Appraisal such as: first, Human Resource Planning, second, Sustaining and Enhancing Employee Performance, third) Motivation, fourth, Determining Training Needs, fifth, Employee Development, sixth, Supervisory Understanding, seventh, Making Promotion and Transfer Decisions, eight, Compensation, Rewards, and Punishments, ninth, Validation of HR Programs, tenth,
12 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE Assessing Employee Potential, eleventh, Separating the Chaff, terminations and downsizing and twelfth, Legal Compliance. 2. 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies 2. 2. 1 Foreign Literature Process of Faculty Evaluation In the published Park University manual policies entitled “Teaching Evaluation” published on year 2005 author mentioned that, the Park University is a core content of each course is created by content-expert. Once the core content is reviewed and approved by the relevant department chair, all instructors teaching that course utilize the same core content.
In addition to ensuring compliance with University-wide learning outcomes and promoting academic equivalence and curricular coherence between delivery methods, the type of standardized curriculum allows the instructional skills of faculty members rather than their ability as instructional designers. The curriculum development model also acknowledge the realities of developing and facilitating content within an accelerated format by providing instructions with full course instructional materials that they can supplement as desired reflect their expertise and suit learner needs.
Since Park University utilizes the system, there is less emphasis during evaluation on the content of a course. As such, the Online Instructor Evaluation System (OIES) was designed to focus exclusively an online instruction while relying on department oversight to ensure content quality. (Donnelli, Dailey and Schulte, 2005) 13 14 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE (Meador, 2013) enumerates the different aspect of Teacher Evaluation such as: First) Know Your State’s Teacher Evaluation Guidelines, Second) Know Your District?
Policies on Teacher Evaluations, Third) Have a Current Meaningful Teacher Evaluation Tool, Fourth) Don? t Be Afraid of Constructive Criticism, and lastly) Change Your Focus. According to the book entitled “North Carolina, Teacher Evaluation Process” (2012), the intended purpose of the North Carolina Teacher Evaluation Process is to assess the teacher’s performance in relation to the North Carolina Professional Teaching Standards and to design a plan for professional growth.
The principal will conduct the evaluation process in which the teacher will actively participate through the use of self-assessment, reflection and classroom demonstrations. The North Carolina Teacher Evaluation Process shall include the following components: First) Training, Second) Teacher Self-Assessment, Third) Pre-Observation Conference, Fourth) Observation, Fifth) Post Observation Conference, Sixth) Summary Evaluation Conference and Scoring the Teacher Summary Rating Form Seventh) Professional Development Plans and lastly) Effective Dates and Effect on Licensing and Career Status.
(Public Schools of North Carolina, 2012) In evaluation process, the principal shall inform teachers of the standards and procedures involved by conducting faculty meeting to distribute and review the Handbook of Procedures in the Evaluation of Teachers after the 20 school day, but, prior to the 40 days of each visitation/observation shall be made by the principal or assistant principal during the school year. At least one of said visit shall be made by the principal. The signed and dated Classroom Teacher visitation shall be given to the classroom teacher during the follow-up
PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE conference with the principal or assistant principal. Additional visitations/observations will be made and conferences held, if necessary. In NCTEP Manual, At least once during the school year, the principal or appropriate unit administrator of each non-classroom teacher will observe and review the services performed by the teacher. The principal or appropriate unit administrator shall hold a follow-up conference with the teachers subsequent to the observation.
During the conference, a copy of the signed and date Non-Classroom teacher Observation form shall be given to the non-classroom teacher. Additional visitation/observation will be made and conferences held, if necessary. On or before the Friday immediately prior the final week of the teacher’s regular work year. The principal or appropriate administrator will prepare and present the Teacher Evaluation and Review Form to each teacher. The form contains a listing of visitations, and follow-up conference.
The principal shall list the strengths and weaknesses of the teacher with supporting reasons. (Duncan, 2004) In evaluation, a teacher can be given an appraisal of success in meeting certain standards of achievement, can be apprised of points of weakness and strength, without conversion of the information into a comparative score or classification. (Stinnett, 1968) Chandler (1965) in supporting Stinnett said that the ultimate objective of all rating plans is to improve the school program by promoting better teaching.
Broadly speaking, the evaluation of teaching is the evaluation of the total effect of the school since the school exists for teaching and learning. 15 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE The other useful purposes are those suggested by Bolton (1973) validating the school’s teacher selection processes; rewarding superior performance; protecting students from incompetence; and supplying information that will lead to the modifications of teacher’s assignments such as placement into other positions, promotions and terminations.
Different problems in Faulty Evaluation Anderson mentioned that during Obama’s Administration it requires the Top competition, Tennessee is one of more than a dozen states overhauling their evaluation systems to increase the number of classroom observations and to put more emphasis on standardized test scores. But even as New York State finally came to an agreement last week with its teachers unions on how to design its new system, places like Tennessee that are already carrying out similar plans are struggling with philosophical and logistical problems.
Jenny Anderson also stated that, the president of the Tennessee Education Association (Gera Summerford) compared the new evaluations to taking your car to the mechanic ad making him use all of his tools to fix it. (Anderson, 2012) The shortcomings of evaluating teachers by test scores were apparent in the recent report of the American Institute for Research (AIR), which developed the New York growth score model. AIR, in its BETA report, shows how as the percentage of students with disabilities and students of poverty in a class or school increases, the average teacher or principal growth score decreases.
In short, the larger the share of such students, the more 16 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE the teacher and principal are disadvantaged by the model. She predict that when the state results are made public, you will see a disproportionate amount of teachers of students with serious learning disabilities and teachers in schools with high levels of poverty labeled ineffective on scores. And that label will be unfair. (Burris, 2012) According to the article of Thomas Kane (2013) entitled “Should Student Test Scores Be Used to Evaluate Teachers?
” that some of the questions that surround the issue of whether student test scores should be used to evaluate teacher performance. The author said that “Some say it’s unfair to base teacher personnel decisions on student test scores. ” Students have different levels of ability and commitment, and different experiences outside the classroom. No two students get exactly the same amount of parental support. The student test scores give an incomplete view but provide a starting point, a basic means
of comparison. Combined with reports from trained classroom Observers and surveys of how students rate their teachers, supporters say, the test scores may be very useful indeed. (Kane, 2013) According to Donaldson and Peske (2010) the following encountered by the faculty evaluation systems are: Lack of time Finding the time to spend on the evaluation process was a common impediment to high quality evaluation. Lack of recognition for outstanding performance 17 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE
As in most conventional public school settings, teachers who perform exceptionally well on evaluation in the three charter school networks we examined do not receive recognition or rewards within the school. Lack of consistency in evaluation Principal at all three charter school networks also express a desire for more consistency among evaluations. Millman (1981) has distinguished the two major roles of teacher evaluation, the formative role and the summative role. Formative teacher evaluation helps teachers improves that have implications for what to teach and how.
On the other hand, summative teacher evaluation serves administrative and tenure, assignment and salary. Governing boards, public agendas, and public responsibilities and accountability all shape university agendas in ways that are often in conflict with faculty aspirations and objectives. These conflicts stress faculty and result in threats to their security, personal incentives interests, and values. Evaluation must resolve the conflict by establishing clear consequences of value to the institution, yet also support through concrete roles and rewards the common departmental values and needs of the faculty.
In those institutions where the disparities between faculty and campus goals are greatest, maintaining high faculty morale will be challenging. Any faculty evaluation system will have its strengths and weaknesses each will have its positive elements, and each will generate some disadvantages and unintended consequences. On the positive side, merit evaluation of faculty allows for 18 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE differential reward based on best performance.
It also provides clear priorities as to what is valued and functions as a stimulus to faculty to work toward some subset of identified measures. Such a merit system allows the unit and institution to verify that faculty rewards are based on performance measures and determined by an explicit evaluation process. (Malik and Lees, 2000) Software used by the other Educational Institutions According to Gehkre (2006) although its meaning has been broadened by popular use, even to include non-electronic databases; the article takes a more technical perspective towards the topic.
A possible definition is that a database is a structured collection of records or data which is stored in a computer so that a program can consult it to answer queries. The records retrieved in answer to queries to become information that can be used to make decisions. The computer program used to manage and query database is known as database management system (DBMS). Functionalities, Securities, Portability and Usability in terms of Acceptability Criteria used to evaluate an administrate faculty member?
s performance under administrative functions area divided into the six broad areas of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, managing financial resources, and evaluating. While the specific criteria for each of these six areas will vary considerably depending upon the responsibilities of the administrator being evaluated, each administrator to one extent or another must demonstrate a degree of 19 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE involvement in the activities which follow: First) Planning, Second) Organizing, Third) Staffing, Fourth) Leadership and Lastly) Evaluating.
(Grey, 2011) Implementation of effective Faculty Evaluation System CEL? s(Center for educational Leadership) nationally recognized faculty, staff, and consultants have expertise that supports schools, districts and states in strengthening instructional leadership to improve student learning. We believe that evaluation goes hand in hand with deepening the expertise of teachers to engage students in high-quality learning while simultaneously increasing the expertise of school leaders to guide and support teachers in the improvement process.
Examples of CEL’s services are First) District and school readiness, Second) Observation support, Third) Analysis and calibration, and lastly) Leadership coaching. A web-based evaluation system for residents to provide feedback on faculty was piloted in four training programs at the Aga Khan University prior to institution-wide implementation. Of the four programs, less than 50% of forms were submitted by residents of three programs while more than 70% of forms were submitted by the residents of one program.
The study was conducted to identify reasons for the varying participation rates of the four programs with a view to improving the system. (Ibrahim, 2009) 20 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE 2. 2. 2 Local Literature Process of Faculty Evaluation Educational systems reflect the economic, political, social and religious values of the society; Philippine education has been influenced mostly by the Spanish and American systems. Early historians, however maintain that before the conning of the Spaniards, the Filipinos knew how to read and write. (Jocano, 2008)
“Studying teaching, learning and technology: A toolkit from the flashlight program. ” Revision of the article originally published in active learning IX(December 1998) is somewhat technical essay shows how to design flash-style studies whose findings can show a program how its technology can foster better educational outcomes. The article explains key flashlight concepts such blob, triad and scenario. “Evaluation benefits of educational uses of technology” the chapter for a volume on cost analysis methods serves as a primer of issues to consider when evaluation benefits of its educational uses to technology.
(Ehrmann, 2007) Different Problems in Faculty Evaluation A need for educational opportunities that transcend constraints in geography, time and resources is being answered increasingly by distance education; the widening access to educational opportunities gives people relative freedom to pursue professional and personal growth and development in modes that suit their needs. In the workplace, competition has become stiff with information, knowledge and skills we possess fast become 21 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE obsolete and redundant.
Retooling and reorienting one-self to remain relevant is now the call of the times. More and more people are therefore seeking opportunities to educate themselves the distance education has proved a viable option to pursue educational goals with minimum sacrifice. (Mariano, 2004) Cashin (2010) stated that “The single most important action an academic administrator can take to improve teaching is to assess it accurately and to reward effective teachers” however, effective teaching is an incremental process, especially given to the number of variables involved in using the new teaching technologies.
To ensure that fledging efforts of instructors are encouraged rather than quashed. Administrators might consider a more development view of progress overtime. The criteria used for evaluation could involve with the instructors experience with using technology. The school system may be viewed as belonging to the general institutions are under supervision of the state and subject to its regulation in line with re-organization of the government based on the guidelines and simplicity, economy and effectiveness, the department of education are divided into different offices and bureaus.
(Socorro, 2007) Functionalities, Securities, Portability and Usability in terms of Acceptability Qualitative Contribution (QC) is the continuous improvement towards excellence by faculty member in all four (4) functional areas of the institution, namely: instruction, research, extension and production. For those seeking promotion of higher sub-rank of Instructor and Assistant Professor, the QC shall be on Teaching Effectiveness. For those 22 PATEROS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE seeking promotion to the Associate Professor rank, the QC shall be in any two (2) functional areas chosen by the candidate prior to any assessment year.
For those seeking promotion to the Professor rank, the QC shall be in any three (3) functional areas chosen by the candidate prior to any assessment year. (Cruz, 2006) The three areas of faculty performance, teaching is the most difficult to measure. Nevertheless, it is possible to evaluate an individual faculty member’s teaching performance. The system introduces five (5) ways to converse a new way of evaluating teaching performance using multiple sources of information: first) Faculty members themselves, second) Students, third) Deans, Fourth) Peers and Fifth Chairpersons.
(Garcia, 2004) 2. 2 Related Studies 2. 2. 3 Foreign Studies Process of Faculty Evaluation In the book entitled “Principles and Methods of Teaching” teaching is defined as the direction of learning. It is the process of providing learning materials, activities, situations and experiences that enable the learners the acquired knowledge, attitude, values and skills. The principle of teaching is a fundamental truth regarding relationship of f