oral communication Essay
Once viewed as two separate disciplines, business and communication, have now meshed together to produce a hybrid business environment in which the everyday functions of business are intimately tied to communication (Pincus, 1997) - oral communication Essay introduction. Communication in the business world is imperative for success. This holds true for interpersonal communication, communication between management and staff, and for practically every other contact a business has, both within its own establishment and the outside world.
Effective communication is critical for the success of any organization. Through the use of proper communication skills, individuals will be better able to function as a group, thus allowing organizations to share information, analyze situations and to set goals (Nelton, 1995). Communicating properly among peers improves an individual’s all around skills. The more successfully a business functions the better it enables employees to perform jobs better. Managers pass on information and train subordinates more effectively, and in general a business has a better chance of profiting. In today’s turbulent economic environment and rapid technological change, communication is critical in allowing a business to deal with the restructuring of national and international economies, in preventing market saturation, and in allowing a business to deal with their competitors more effectively (Nelton, 1995, PG). Cushman and King (1997) have proposed the “high speed management” to describe this new business environment. They emphasize the importance of communication in this theory and conclude that:
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“In the final analysis it is the innovative, adaptable, flexible, efficient, and rapid use of information and communication which allows an organization to reorient rapidly and successfully in a volatile business environment.”
Another very important factor in the changing business environment is that of globalization (Nelton, 1995). It is very evident when we look at the current state of world affairs that our world is becoming a smaller place. We now have overnight delivery of packages, email communication and the ever so popular cellular communication. Globalization and increased international business can be directly attributed to mass media and mass transit. With new technologies such as videophone, Internet chat and Internet meeting rooms the thought of globalization becomes a reality for even the smallest of companies. The concept of globalization sometimes approaches this change as being one which either should or will result in a complete homogenization of culture and the formation of a unified global community. At the very least globalization will result in a number of distinct border cultures, which are hybrids of interacting cultures. What this means is that the savvy business person not only has to be prepared to communicate with those of his or her own culture but also with other cultures (Nelton, 1995).
Many obvious precipitators of this increased business contact between the world’s cultures can be attributed to this globalization phenomenon. One of the reasons is international agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement. The North American Free Trade Agreement was initiated between the United States, Canada, and Mexico on January 1, 1994. This agreement referred to as the “trade agreement” has had a huge impact on exchange of material and cultural goods between the United States and other nations in North America as well as on the degree of business communication which occurs between these countries. Increased business diversity is not only occurring because of factors such as the North American Free Trade Agreement, it is also occurring because of a greater number of cultures within business itself. Women in the workplace are also making the work force more diversified and increasing the need for more effective communication skills (Nelton, 1995).
It is an acknowledged fact that conversational styles and communication skills vary between cultures and genders (Nelton, 1995). It has been noted regarding the increased business contact between cultures as a result of globalization; increased diversity in the workplace itself, whether through the presence of an increased number of cultures or through the presence of a greater number of women; businesses must now devote greater amounts of effort toward communication in recognition of the different communication styles which exist (Nelton, 1995). Deborah Tannen, author of “Talking from Nine to Five” states:
“Each individual has a unique style, influenced by a personal history of many influences such as geographic region, ethnicity, class, sexual orientation, occupation, religion, and age—as well as a unique personality and spirit (Nelton, 1995, PG)”.
The North American Free Trade Agreement is even more important now because the businesses of United States and the Latin American countries are beginning to make greater efforts to understand these individual and cultural communication styles. They are accepting input as a two-way vehicle of exchange, which can be of direct economic and cultural benefit to each. By reducing or limiting trade barriers, this agreement has bolstered business activity between Mexico and the United States tremendously as well as between the United States and other Latin American countries. Each country is taking on certain aspects of the other, at least in certain sometimes poorly defined geographic and cultural areas.
Communication skills play a large role in business from the time an applicant initially approaches the business for employment. In at least one study communication skills were weighed more heavily by potential employers than were grade point averages, degrees, or even technical skills in determining whether or not to hire entry-level applicants (Wardrobe, 1994). Correlations have been made between the level of communication skills and those who rate high in job performance (Scuder and Guinan, 1989). Oral communication skills have, in fact, been found to be the second most important job skill by the American Society of Personnel Administrators (Curtis, Winsor, and Stephens, 1989).
Even business colleges have begun to recognize the importance of communication skills in business success and many have begun to offer their own communication classes (Ober, 1987; Sorenson, Savage, and Orem, 1990). Right here in Beaverfalls, P.A, we have a fine business institute in Geneva College. Some feel that the emphasis on communication skills is still not enough however. Pinkard (1997), for example, reports that ninety-eight percent of those pursuing MBAs at Stanford University in 1996 complemented their coursework with only one workshop in communication. Pinkard and others criticize business programs as being inadequate in regard to imparting communication skills to their students and encourage the inclusion of many communications courses in business programs. In fact, only half of 215 MBA programs which Pinkard reviewed across the nation in 1995 required any sort of training in communications skills. In acknowledgment of this Pinkard (1997, PG) states:
“As I see it, we’re barely halfway up the mountain. Way too early to hoist the flag and sip champagne. The truth is, according to many business employers and research, MBA graduates today are unprepared to enter a work place where the manager’s role is fast shifting from order-giver to team-builder”.
The situation is improving but slowly. Public speaking skills are gaining a particular emphasis in recognition of various studies, which identify public speaking as a crucial employment skill (Bowwman and Branchaw, 1988; Hyslop and Farris, 1984; Wentling, 1987; Wilmington, 1989). Mitchell, Scriven and Wayne (1990) report that public speaking skills are particularly crucial given that fifty-eight percent of new employees are expected to deliver at least one oral report of twenty minutes or less in the first six months of employment. The importance of improving communication skills in the business environment cannot be overestimated. Business success very simply revolves around effective communication both within a business and between representatives of that business and others on the outside. Many employees already have effective communication skills that they have learned through school or through their own personal efforts. Others, however, have a long way to go. Employers should develop ways to assess these skills and to provide appropriate training where necessary.
Bowman, J. P., & Branchaw, B. P. (1988). Are we teaching communication skills for the next decade? Business Education Forum, 42, 17-18.
Curtis, D. B., Winsor, J. L., & Stephens, R. D. (1989). National preferences in business and communication education. Communication Education, 38, 6-14.
Cushman, Donald P. and Sarah Sanderson King. (1997). Communication and High-Speed Management. State University of New York Press. New York.
Hyslop, D. J., & Faris, K. (1984). Integrate communication skills into all business classes. Business Education Forum, 38, 51-57.
Mitchell, R. B., Scriven, J. D., & Wayne, F. S. (1990). An analysis of business recruiters’ assessment of the importance of verbal, nonverbal, and group interaction communication skills. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Business Communication International/National Convention, San Antonio, Texas.
Nelton, Sharon. (1 Nov 1995). Face to face: by communicating the old-fashioned way – through talking and listening to customers and employees – companies are achieving new goals. Nation’s Business.
Ober, S. (1987). The status of post secondary business communication instruction–1986 vs. 1982. Journal of Business Communication, 24, 49-59.
Pincus, J. David. (1 Feb 1997). To get an MBA or an MA in communication?, Communication World.
Scudder, J. N., & Buinan, P. J. (1989). Communication competencies as discriminators of superiors’ ratings of employee performance. Journal of Business Communication, 26, 217-229.
Sorenson, R. L., Savage, G. T., & Orem, E. (1990). A profile of communication faculty needs in business schools and colleges. Communication Education, 38, 148-160.
Wardrope, William J.-Bayless, Marsha L. (1 Feb 1994). Oral communication skills instruction in business schools. Journal of Education for Business.
Wentling, R. M. (1987). Employability skills: The role of business education. Journal of Education for Business, 62, 313-317.
Wilmington, S. C. (1989). Oral communication for a career in business.
Oral Communication Essay
In the communication process verbal or oral communication has mentioned its own importance - Oral Communication Essay introduction. It is true that in the God’s Creation ‘ma’ is the only species gifted with the language and the use of language is primarily in speech. In any organization our communication depends more in verbal form and it is builds up the human relationship in different manners. Without oral communication, the organization is just a body without heart. The oral communication, which is one type of verbal communication, is most important both for the sender and the receiver of the message in the communication process.
It is a fact that more than 60% if time in an organization is spend on talking to others in different matters. Hence, the importance of oral communication its most basic level, oral communication is the spoken interaction between two or more people. Oral communication Is composed of multiple elements which, when take as a whole, result in the success or failure of the interaction 1. Face –to- face Conversation: Conversation is the most common form of oral communication. It links People together be it in Social or Professional life.
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A face –to- face is possible between two individuals or small group of persons in the interview, or in a small meeting and communication can run two ways in this situations. There is immediate feedback, which makes clarification Possible. Simply we can define as ‘face- to – face communication means the exchanging of information, thoughts and feelings when the participants are in the same physical space. ’ Face – to- face communication occurs with our friends, relatives and colleagues whom we like and trust. That’s why conversation rarely finds a place in a programmer of formal instruction.
In a wide range of business activities, including formal meetings, coffee room, chitchat, hallway encounters, one-on-caching, annual evaluations, job interviews and more face to face communication depends on the meeting of eye balls. Like all communications, face – to- face involves a sender and a receiver, messages are directly communicated and its effectiveness depends on perfect relationship between both the parties i. e. sender and receiver. 2. Telephonic Conversation: One form of dyadic conversation is the interaction between two persons on the telephone.
In this form, the advantage of using body language and eye contact is lost. But it is one of the commonest and fastest ways of contacting persons. It is simple, handy and in the long run economical. It has therefore, been termed as “A priceless means of communication. ” Recently, telephone conference facility is available at different places where two to five persons can make a conversation together. The most important here is the requirement of clarification of message through speech and skillful use of voice. The wireless telephone is becoming a requirement of modern age.
In a wireless telephone, there is no chance of missing calls. The features needed for this type of telephone depend entirely on the need of the users. It is advisable that one can get a model of wireless telephone that can receive e-mail, media, internet, storing for contacts and maintain daily calendar. There are many features for which one can choose one standard and wireless phones, such as call waiting, call forwarding, conferencing capabilities and voice mail. It is important to treat that telephone is an important business tool. 3.
Interviews: The word ‘Interview’ is derived from the word ‘intrevue’ meaning “sight between”;by definition it means ‘A meeting for obtaining information by questioning person-to-person. ’ An interview is a classic example of communication that takes place through the process by which meanings are exchanged between people through the use of a common set of symbols. It is a purposeful, interpersonal communication between two individual. James M. Black defined it as, “An interview is a conversation usually between two people, which is confined to a specific subject.
The role of the interviewer is to seek information that of the interviewee is to provide it . ” In other words “It is a conversation yet, but directed to a purpose other than personal, social Satisfaction . ” Interviewing is a skill that requires training and experience. To face and conduct the interview both are skills of communication. Interviewing skill is one of the aspects of personality development. In the today’s competitive world, one can get a job through his interview skill. There are various occasions where interviews are to be conducted. The employer may interview several applicants for the job.
A politician, public servant or chief of the organization may be interviewed by press reporters through television, radio, journals and magazines. The nature and type of interview can be charged according to purpose. * An interview has three stages such as opening, middle and closing. Each stage has its own set of questions. The interviewer has to start the interview with the introduction and make the interviewee feel at ease. The interviewer must be well prepared for the questions that are likely to be asked. Eye to eye contact is very important in this form of communication and politeness.
At the end the process should be closed with a positive note. For job aspirants the interview as a way of communication is very important. 4. Group Discussion: A group discussion is a discussion among participants on agreed topics. This helps him exchanging information and ideas, helps to create a team spirit. Each participant can stimulate ideas in the other people present, and through a process of discussion, the collective view becomes greater than the individual part. A group discussion is a formal discussion among ten to twelve participants who analyze a topic and share information and opinions on it.
The group is given a few minutes to think about a topic and then asked to discuss it among themselves for a fixed period of time, say for 10-15 minutes. One or more experts will observe the discussion and evaluate the members of the group. Group discussion topics are usually of four kinds: a) Factual for examples ‘the dangers of passive smoking’, b) a social or political issue, example moral policing’, c) abstract, for example ‘conscience’ and d) case-study based. Where the group discusses a case study and analyses it or offers solutions.
Besides being an excellent method of classroom used by business schools as well as employers to select candidates for the final personal interview. They are used to find out whether a candidate has certain skills and qualities needed for him or her to do well in a course or a job that involves working in groups, giving opinions and asking for those of team members to achieve common goals. Even when you are enrolled in a business management course or working in a large company, you will need to participate in group discussions in order to learn skills or concepts or solve problems together with others.
When you participate in a group discussion, you are tested for you knowledge and your communication skills as well as your ability to work as part of a group and to lead others towards conclusions and solutions. You should be able to use your understanding of a subject to give your opinion on it and support your ideas with logical arguments. Since communications is a two – way Process, it is important that, besides speaking, you listen to the other participants in the group discussion and respond to their ideas or take them forward. 6.
Meetings: Business without meeting and conferences cannot function effectively. In all international and national business meetings and conferences play a vital role. Meetings include board meetings, training sessions, technical discussions etc. Generally, meetings occur for various reasons, specifically when there is a need or when sharing of common experience is for the benefit of the organization. In short, we can say, the purpose of the meeting is to move group actions forward. For an effective meeting the participants have two done the followings: – Presenting information to other participants. Review, evaluate, discuss, problem solve and discussion with each other. – Communicate, build and share common reality. – Targeting achievement of the objective – Group efforts – Resolve conflicts, confusions and disagreements. – Generate enthusiasm and a positive attitude.
Meeting is perhaps the most commonly used form of discussion in a professional organization. It is a formally arranged gathering for the purpose of discussing an issue. Every meeting is result oriented and the discussion in the meeting is directed towards a specific end. . Speech / Public Speaking: Speech is a form of verbal communication where the speaker has to talk to a large gathering. Generally, it is given on some occasions or functions of specific type. A purpose of a speech is basically to encourage, appreciate, congratulate or entertain. The speech may be lengthy or short, well illustrated or suggestive. Whatever, the occasion and the nature of the speech, the spoken word is the most powerful, effective medium of communication having immense flexibility of Interpretation depending on many factors.
Emerson defined speech as “Speech is power; speech is to persuade, to convert, to compel. ” Video Conferencing When actually being in close proximity of one another isn’t possible, video conferencing provides a strong alternative. Many foreign outsourcing companies and international offices of multinational companies rely on regular video conferences to ensure smooth and effective communications. Often this form of oral communication helps reduce misunderstandings due to linguistic and cultural differences. Group Discussions * A discussion among a group of people is another type of oral communication.
Often one or two people will emerge as leaders of the discussion and direct the flow of information during the discussion. Other times, people will speak one at a time or alternate talking without leadership. In a group environment, there may need to be ground rules like no interrupting to have an effective discussion. Written communication Reports * Reports are a type of written communication. These typically follow a certain format with a title page, table of contents, pertinent content and appendices, for example. A school report will differ from a business report in style and format.
Reports might also include graphics or tables to further explain technical or complex information. Letters * Letters are a form of written communication. People used to write letters to friends and family more frequently than they do today, but letters still remain a viable way to report personal and professional information. Use letters to describe emotions and share stories eloquently. 6. Radio and television: These are means of one way communication. Radio is oral communication where onlyaudio technology is used and messages only can be informed.
But television is an audio-visual technology where oral messages are supported by video pictures. In fact radio, television are mass media. These are the basic forms or media of oral communication. Besides these seminars,counseling, announcement etc. are also media of oral communication. seminars A seminar is generally understood to be a small group meeting in which students and a tutor discuss information on a chosen topic. They may be called something else such as “tutorial groups”. Seminars provide an opportunity to explore topics by discussion, and to identify and sort out any problems.
Some tutors may use the opportunity to introduce new related topics. Most seminars last for an hour. Seminars need not necessarily be face-to-face contact, they can also occur in online environments. Seminars create opportunities to: * explore topics in more depth; * share ideas in a way that will advance your thinking; * learn from other people’s experiences and background knowledge; * gain perspectives and points of view that you might not have otherwise considered; * identify and sort out any misunderstandings.