Organic Fertilizer Versus Inorganic Fertilizer Biology


This experiment was designed to look into the effectivity of lily-livered manure as organic fertiliser and urea as inorganic fertiliser on Lemna child. Nowadays, Lemna minor have many utilizations such as nutrient beginnings, sewerage interventions and so on. Thus, Lemna agriculture is increasing around the universe. Lemna child was used as an index for the effectivity of fertilisers in this experiment by detecting the figure of foliages after using the fertilisers. Twenty beakers with each holding 5 Lemna child that have the same figure of foliages were treated with urea and lily-livered manure. Then, all the beakers left under sufficient light status for 8 yearss and the consequences were recorded and analysed. The statistical Mann-Whitney U trial was chosen to prove the experimental hypothesis with 0.05 % of important degree. The consequences appeared that carbamide was better than lily-livered manure in exciting the growing of Lemna child.

Extra words: Lemna child, urea, lily-livered manure

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Experimental Hypothesis:

There are important differences in the concluding figure of foliages between the inorganic fertiliser ( urea ) and organic fertiliser ( lily-livered manure ) on Lemna child. Urea will be better than lily-livered manure on Lemna agriculture.

Null Hypothesis:

There is no difference in the concluding figure of foliages between the inorganic fertiliser ( urea ) and organic fertiliser ( lily-livered manure ) on Lemna child.

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Research and Rationale:

The aim of this experiment is to compare the effectivity of poulet manure and urea fertilisers on Lemna workss ( Lemna child ) . Fertilizer is a substance that contains indispensable works foods which areA addedA to the surrounding of works. The fertilisers can add straight into the dirt or H2O, or spray straight in the air or workss ‘ foliages. The dirt and H2O environment frequently do non incorporate sufficient foods for perfect growing in workss [ 1 ] . Therefore, fertilisers play a function to supply excess foods for workss to obtain maximal growing rate.

There are two types of fertilisers that are organic and inorganic. Organic fertilisers are derived from populating stuffs such as animate beings ‘ wastes, harvest residues, compost and byproducts of life beings [ 2a ] . In contrast, inorganic fertilisers are chemically synthesized from inanimate beginnings which contain the same elements as organic fertilisers.

The organic fertilisers have the belongingss of slow release of foods ; but, inorganic fertilisers do non. Problems will emerge if some workss ‘ roots absorbed excessively much foods than necessary from the fertilisers. Therefore, the roots will fire up and this is called fertiliser burn [ 3 ] . The slow releasing signifier of foods in organic fertilisers can partly forestall fertiliser burn [ three ] . Furthermore, the organic fertilisers are even cheaper and safer compared to inorganic fertilisers [ 2c ] . Apart from that, organic fertilisers are biodegradable which will non pollute the H2O beginnings [ 2b ] .

Table 1: Composition of Chicken Manure

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466 wordsOn the other manus, the advantage of inorganic fertilisers is the immediate releasing of foods for the soaking up to take topographic point. It is besides convenient to utilize every bit good as low-cost in term of pricing. The most preferred portion is that all the necessary proportions of foods can be measured and altered to accommodate certain types of workss ‘ growing.

The most of import foods for works growing are macronutrients such as K, N and phosphate ions [ 3 ] . Nitrogen ion is indispensable for the production of aminic acids, proteins and enzymes for photosynthesis. Besides, phosphate ion is of import in the formation of cell membrane and adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) . Furthermore, potassium ion is important for the metamorphosis of works to take topographic point [ two ] . Without those macronutrients, the works growing will acquire stunted. However, different workss might necessitate different proportions of foods. This leads to different rate of workss ‘ growing.

Recently, the research workers discovered that Lemna workss are really utile for the intervention of anaerobiotic wastewaters from digested hog waste under the temperate climatic conditions [ 11 ] . Furthermore, the Lemna child are nutrient beginnings for fish. Besides, Lemna child can be used to measure the toxicity of chemicals and in the biopharmaceuticals field [ 4 ] . Furthermore, Lemna child were tested for the adjuvant belongingss to heighten the human immune system [ 12 ] .

681 wordsTo conclude, both organic and inorganic fertilisers will hold an consequence on Lemna workss due to the released of excess foods.

Diagram 1: Lemna childs used in the experiment

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Several tests were carried out in the procedure of modifying the investigational process. To carry on the tests, little samples were used to give the thought of whole experiment.

Trial 1: The type of samples

A test was done to take the best sample for the experiment. First, two petri dishes with 20 milliliter of distilled H2O were prepared. Three chou seedlings with each has 3 foliages were used in the first petri dish ; whereas, three Lemna minor with each has 3 foliages were used in the 2nd petri dish. Then, two gms of poulet manure was added into both petri dishes. After 4 yearss, the figure of workss and foliages were observed and recorded in the tabular array below.

Therefore, the Lemna child evidently is the best sample to be used in the experiment because it showed dramatic effects when fertiliser is added.

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Trial 2: The type of fertilisers

This test was conducted to detect which stuffs of organic and inorganic fertilisers will give the most pronounced effects on Lemna workss. Five petri dishes with 20 milliliter of distilled H2O were prepared. Five Lemna workss of holding same figure of foliages were placed petri dishes. Then, 10 gms of organics fertilisers ( harvest residues, lily-livered manure ) and inorganic fertilisers ( urea, anhydrous ammonium nitrate ) were dissolved in the distilled H2O. However, one control petri dish was designed with merely distilled H2O and Lemna workss. After 6 yearss, the figure of Lemna workss were counted and recorded in the tabular array below.

Trial 3: Suitable concentration of fertilisers

This test experiment was designed to infer the optimal concentration of fertilisers on Lemna workss. Six petri dishes with 20 milliliter of distilled H2O were prepared. Five Lemna workss with each holding 3 foliages were placed in each petri dish. Then, different mass of fertilisers that are 5 g, 10 g and 15 g were weighed with electronic balance and dissolved in the petri dishes with glass rod. After 7 yearss, the figure of workss and foliages were counted and recorded in the tabular array below.

As is illustrated by the tabular array, both fertilisers will give optimal effects within the scope of 5 gms to 15 gms fertilisers on Lemna workss. Fifteen gms of fertilisers cause fertilizer burn to Lemna workss. Thus, some of the Lemna ‘s foliages will turn brown and xanthous in coloring material. Therefore, 10 g of both fertilisers are used in the chief experiment.

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Trial 4: The suited measuring for Lemna ‘s growing

This test was conducted to find the most suited index for Lemna ‘s growing. Two petri dishes with 20 milliliter of distilled H2O and 5 Lemna workss that each holding 3 foliages were prepared. Ten gms of organic and inorganic fertilisers were dissolved individually in petri dishes. After 7 yearss, the alterations were observed and recorded in the tabular array below.

Growth is defined as the lasting addition in the figure of cells, mass and size of beings [ four ] ; in this experiment, it refers to the addition in figure of foliages. This can bespeak the consequence of fertilisers on Lemna workss. In contrast, the figure of Lemna works was non consistent as Lemna workss reproduce vegetive by opportunity [ one ] . Some of the workss might hold tonss of foliages but low reproduction rate and frailty versa. Therefore, the figure of foliages is the most appropriate index in mensurating the growing of Lemna workss in this experiment.

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Trial 5: The most suited clip to detect consequences

The test was carried out to place the best period of clip to acquire the consequences. The experiment was set up with 20 milliliter of distilled H2O and 5 Lemna workss that each has 3 foliages with organic and inorganic fertilisers in 2 different petri dishes. Then, the alterations in petri dishes were observed and recorded for 11 yearss in the tabular array below.

1557 wordsAs is shown in the tabular array on old page, twenty-four hours 8 will be the most preferred twenty-four hours to acquire the consequences in this experiment. After twenty-four hours 8, some of the workss had decomposed or the foods might non sufficient to excite the Lemna ‘s growing. Therefore, it is better to acquire the consequences below 10 yearss to forestall decomposition which might impact the truth of consequence. Besides, the petri dishes can be replaced by 100 milliliters of beaker to forestall H2O spill out.

Trial 6: The most suited statistical trial

Since the informations from test experiments were non usually distributed, non-parametric method is the most suited method for statistical analysis. Non-parametric statistical methods are mathematical processs for the hypothesis proving which is distribution-free on informations [ 5 ] . There are a few methods such as Wald-Wolfowitz trial, Mann-Whitney U trial and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov for two sample trial [ 6 ] .However, Mann-Whitney U trial is chosen to verify the experimental hypothesis as it is more easy to work with little samples of 2 variables.

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Twenty 100 milliliter beakers, label spines, mensurating cylinder, electronic balance, forcep, glass rod, manus baseball mitt, spatula, howitzer and stamp, cleaving movie, unfastened chamber, crucible


Urea pellet, lily-livered manure pellet, distilled H2O, Lemna workss


Twenty 100 milliliter beakers that filled with 20 milliliter of distilled H2O were prepared by utilizing a measurement cylinder. Ten beakers were labelled with label spines as “ Chicken Manure ” whereas the staying was labelled as “ Urea ” . The manus baseball mitt was worn as the fertilisers are irritant. The howitzer and stamp were used to crash the poulet manure pellets and urea pellets into pulverization signifier to ease fade outing procedure in distilled H2O. Following, 10 g of urea and lily-livered manure fertilisers were weighed on crucible individually utilizing an electronic balance. Those powder fertilisers were added into several beakers by utilizing a spatula. The melting pot was rinsed with some distilled H2O in the beaker. 1895 wordsThe glass rod was used for stirring to guarantee the fertilisers were to the full dissolved in the beakers. Then, five Lemna workss of each holding 2 foliages were chosen utilizing a forcep and set into each beaker. After that, all beakers were covered with the cling movie to forestall other animals which might upset Lemna ‘s growing. All the beakers were placed in an unfastened chamber under sufficient light strength to cut down the influences of abiotic factors on Lemna ‘s growing. After 8 yearss, the concluding figure of foliages on Lemna workss were observed and recorded in the tabular array on the following page.

Diagram 2: The stuffs used in the experiment

Hazard appraisal:

The fertilisers are irritant if prolong exposed with bare custodies [ 13 ] . Therefore, the manus glove must be worn to forestall itching on custodies [ 7 ] . After the experiment, the beakers will let go of unpleasant odor which can do purging. Hence, it is suggested to go forth all beakers in a fume closet for few hours before cleaning procedure takes topographic point. Nevertheless, all the delicate setup such as beakers and mensurating cylinder must be handled carefully to forestall unwanted accidents. Therefore, this is a low-risk experiment after using hazard appraisal with some safeguards.

Table 4: The mean, average and manner of the concluding figure of leave after added fertilisers.

For urea: Mode ( 24.0 ) & lt ; Median ( 24.5 ) & lt ; Mean ( 25.4 )

Therefore, it can be concluded that the informations were positively skewed.

For lily-livered manure: Mode ( 21.0 ) & gt ; Median ( 19.0 ) & gt ; Mean ( 18.9 )

Therefore, it can be concluded that the informations were negatively skewed.

Hypothesis Testing:

H0: There is no difference in the concluding figure of foliages between the inorganic fertiliser ( urea ) and organic fertiliser ( lily-livered manure ) on Lemna child.

H1: There are important differences in the concluding figure of foliages between the inorganic fertiliser ( urea ) and organic fertiliser ( lily-livered manure ) on Lemna child. Urea will be the best fertilisers on Lemna farming instead than chicken manure.

Refer to Mann-Whitney Table of Two-tailed Test in Appendix 2:

n1 = 10 and n2 = 10 ; Critical Value=23

The smallest U-value is used to compare with the critical value ( 23 ) . Since the carbamide had the smallest U-value ( 3.5 ) which are below 23, it rejected the void hypothesis within the 5 % of the important value.


There is sufficient grounds that there are important differences in the concluding figure of foliages between the effectivity of poulet manure and carbamide.

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Datas Analysis:

From the Table 3 and Graph 3, the average figure of foliages for all the 10 similar experiments evidently showed that urea ( 25.4 ) had an amazing consequence than poulet manure ( 18.9 ) . There were differences about 6.5 of both fertilisers on Lemna workss. Therefore, urea had greater effects than lily-livered manure on Lemna workss.

Harmonizing to the Graph 1 and Graph 2, most of the informations were within the scope of 15 to 20 Numberss of foliages after added poulet manure ; In contrast, a large proportion of consequences were in the interval of 20 to 25 Numberss of foliages after added carbamide. Besides that, urea experiment had the highest figure of foliages ( 31 ) compared to chicken manure ( 21 ) . Therefore, it can be generalised that Lemna workss grow better when supplied with urea.

However, some Lemna workss had extraordinary Numberss of foliages such as Experiment 3 with lily-livered manure and Experiment 1 and 9 with urea. Many factors such as familial fluctuation can do the growth of unnatural figure of foliages. Furthermore, an advantageous allelomorph can last and accommodate better to the surrounding by reproduce quickly. Hence, more growing taken topographic point on Lemna workss.

In the Mann-Whitney U trial, the important value was set to be 5 % . It is assumed that more than 0.05 chances where the consequences will occurr by opportunity. In this experiment, the void hypothesis was rejected. Besides, the mean and statistical analysis were wholly agreed with the experimental hypothesis that carbamide is better than lily-livered manure in exciting the Lemna ‘s growing. As aforementioned in the principle and research, urea ( inorganic fertiliser ) will let go of the mineral ions more readily and faster than chicken manure ( organic fertiliser ) . Therefore, Lemna workss with urea can absorb more mineral ions in a faster rate for growing and photosynthesis. More figure of foliages was grown when more mineral ions are available. In contrast, lily-livered manure ( organic fertiliser ) will let go of foods easy for a long tally ; whereas, urea ( inorganic fertilisers ) might run out of foods.

2891 wordsNevertheless, the figure of foliages after 8 yearss was diminishing for both experiments due to decomposition and therefore, non recorded as a consequence in the Table 3. For urea, it might run out of foods and this lead to no growing in Lemna workss.

The results of this experiment are really utile on Lemna farming. Hence, it is recommended to the husbandmans to utilize the inorganic fertiliser ( urea ) because the Lemna workss will turn more quickly. Therefore, the demand of society on Lemna workss can be fulfilled and the utilizations of Lemna workss can be maximised.


The initial figure of foliages and workss were remained the same in order to see the alterations after adding urea and lily-livered manure. Random choosing of Lemna workss from the same population to guarantee that there is no prejudice in this experiment. Besides that, the chosen size of foliages was about same for both experiments. Furthermore, ten similar samples of both fertilisers were carried out at the same clip to acquire the concluding mean figure of foliages which can cut down the likeliness of inconsistent consequences.

To cut down the mistake, the melting pot was rinsed with distilled H2O to guarantee no any fertilisers that leave in crucible. This can partly forestall the instability distribution of fertilisers ‘ content in the experiments. Furthermore, the abiotic factors such as light strength, humidness and ambient temperature were kept under control in a chamber. This is to bring forth valid consequences that were caused by the types of fertilisers. Besides, Lemna workss need at least 7 hours sunlight per twenty-four hours to make the day-to-day demand [ 9 ] . Since this state is tropical, there is no job of acquiring the sunshine for Lemna workss.

The experimental consequences can be considered accurate and dependable because the experiments were carried out with minimal mistakes, safeguards and big repeated samples.

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Restriction and Alteration:

There were some restrictions in the experiment. One of them was the abiotic factors which are impossible to be to the full controlled with the college lab ‘s equipment. It has been assumed that those abiotic factors were negligible and would non impact the experimental consequence. One of the alterations was commanding the abiotic factors with detectors under programming in more advanced labs.

Besides, the content of fertiliser in the pellets was less than what is written on the packaging due to several grounds such as long storage and procedure of fabrication. There was a restriction to mensurate the content of the pellet with the equipment in college ‘s lab. Hence, it was negligible and ignored in the experiment. However, it can be farther improved by fabricating the specific content of fertilizer pellets for the experiment.

Furthermore, the genectic fluctuation of Lemna workss was the restriction in this experiment. This is due to different cistrons in Lemna workss will find its ‘ endurance rate and reproduction rate. It is non easy to place genetically indistinguishable Lemna workss to transport out the experiment. But, it is possible to cut down the restriction by taking the same Lemna workss from the same population of same home ground.

In the hereafter, more researches can be done on which mineral ions are more utile in exciting Lemna ‘s growing. It is normally known that urea and lily-livered manure contain assortment composing of mineral ions. The composing of the mineral ions in fertilisers plays a major function to give the best effects on works ‘s growing.


Based on the collected informations and statistical analysis, the experimental hypothesis was well-supported. Therefore, it is concluded that both fertilisers will hold an consequence on Lemna workss and urea ( inorganic fertiliser ) will move better than lily-livered manure ( organic fertiliser ) on Lemna workss.

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Evaluation of Beginnings:

A scope of resources were chosen from cyberspace for mentions and background survey. One of the beginnings chosen is Source 7. This is a well-known web site which belongs to United State National Library. It is a celebrated organisation which works with federal bureaus, public wellness establishments and international organisations to supply current scientific and wellness information for populaces. Furthermore, the information in the web site is ever updated to supply quality information.

Besides that, the beginnings 11, 12 and 13 are on-line database diary from INTEC, UiTM. These beginnings are considered accurate and dependable because all the information are to the full supported by groundss and links from other web sites. Furthermore, all scientific database diaries that signed up by INTEC, UiTM are internationally creditable.

Furthermore, beginnings 3, 4, 5 and 8 are from Wikipedia which is a popular mention sites for 1000000s of people. The information is trustable because all the information are cited and linked to many other academic researches around the universe.

A few book beginnings such as I, ii, three and four were used. Those are published book and therefore the information should be dependable after reviewed by experts before publication.

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Appendix 1:

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Appendix 2 – Unit of measurement 6 Individual Investigation – Checklist:

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Organic Fertilizer Versus Inorganic Fertilizer Biology. (2017, Jul 09). Retrieved from