Feasibility Study on Organic Fertilizer

Table of Content

CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE Introduction Philippine has been noted to be an agricultural country for the past years and has continually encouraging the appreciation for agricultural economy. Agricultural economy includes the production of healthy foods of which the government gave emphasis through organic fertilizer. Organic fertilizer performs a huge role in the efficiency and effectiveness in the production of food products in the country thus the government continuously finds ways to boost the organic fertilizer production in the country.

Recently, the government agricultural sector found a new way of producing organic fertilizer at less cost and reducing the pollution potential of organic wastes. This new process is called vermicomposting. Vermicomposting is a method which involves the action of worm as its main force in decomposting the organic wastes. These organic wastes then become into organic fertilizer.

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The organic fertilizer makes the soil fertile in the natural way thus causing no damage in its natural composition but instead adding nutrients to it as well as maintaining its neutral potential hydrogen(pH). This process provides a means of helping the environment as well as providing the farmers with lesser cost of fertilizer especially in today’s economic condition. Today’s happening shows that most farmers have relied on inorganic fertilizer despite its being costly and gradual harmful effect on the soil.

It is because of its being well advertised and its fast effect on the plant’s growth. By having the vermicomposting, the agricultural sector expects to find ways of helping the farmers as well as maintaining the nutrients of the soil. Having the lands with large production of food and other products, vermicasting has been seen as a great help in boosting the income as well as the environmental condition of the inhabitants of Mabinay Negros Oriental.

Currently, many barangays, municipalities and cities in the province of Negros Oriental started to conduct vermi culture project because it opens new possibilities to the farmers of engaging to new methods of farming without causing damage to the soil and still gaining enough to support one’s needs. With its many benefits to the society, vermin culture could be one step in attaining economic alleviation of our poor farmers as well to our country through agriculture. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Review of Related Literature

In order for the plant to grow and thrive, it needs a number of different chemical elements. That is the goal of the fertilizer. Fertilizer is a material added to the soil to provide plant nutrients. It increase crop yields and, when used properly, added to the efficiency of farming and gardening (The New Webster’s International Encyclopedia, vol. 3, p. 382). If there is no fertilizer addition to the plant, the plant simply decreases its growth rate because there are no other source of nutrients which can boast them, aside from nutrients from soil.

Here are some effects of using fertilizers: 1) fertilizer application increases crop yield up to 60 percent on lands unable to supply the necessary nutrients for intensive agriculture, according to a long term study carried out by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Fertilizer Programme; 2) improper use of phosphorous-containing fertilizer can cause agal blooms in aquatic habitats, resulting in plant and fish kills; 3) slow release fertilizers can minimize environmental impacts limiting the amount of soluble nitrogen available at any given time; 4) a University of Winsconsin study found that nitrate fertilizers, when used with pesticides, can cause immune and nervous system conditions; and 5) even natural fertilizers such as manure carry potential environmental risks from altered water chemistry and release bacteria of aquatic resources. (http://www. ehow. com) Conventionally, fertilizers are classified into two general categories. First, the inorganic fertilizers which are the products of industrial fertilizer manufacturing plants. Second, the organic fertilizers which are basically the by-products of any living organisms. According to Jovino L. de Dios, a Science Research Specialist, Agronomy, Soils and Plant Physiology Division, PhilRice Maligaya Munoz, Nueva Ecija, that organic fertilizers are residues of any plant or/and animals in various degrees or stages of composition.

It contains various types of bacteria, fungi and small animals. Majority of these organisms are essential to the normal processes in the soil system to release or fix plant nutrients in the soil. Generally, organic fertilizers contain all the essential nutrient elements needed to support plant growth and development. It also contains carbon which is the energy source of some micro-organisms in the soil. Plant nutrients from organic fertilizers are slowly released through the process of decomposition followed by mineralization. It takes several years (about three years or even more) to completely mineralized all the plant nutrient elements found in organic material in the soil system.

In most cases, organic fertilizer effects are not visually evident in a short period of time like inorganic fertilizers. (FERTILIZER USE AND MANAGEMENT: Why Organic Vs. Inorganic Fertilizers? , A Lecture Prepared/Presented During the Season-Long Rice Specialists’ Training Course on IMP at Central Experiment Station, PhilRice Maligaya Munoz, Nueva Ecija) Inorganic fertilizers, also known as artificial fertilizers, contain elements which are highly concentrated. Since it is commercially produced, money is one of the greatest considerations, not to mention that most of the inorganic fertilizers in the country are imported. Because it is inorganic in nature, it is not a complex substance like the organic fertilizers.

Therefore, nutrients from it are easily released in the available forms to be taken up by the plants from the soil system. The fast release characteristic of nutrients from inorganic fertilizers also opens the avenues for considerable losses. In greater amounts, these nutrients are being leached down with water, volatized in the air if it is nitrogenous, fixed by clay, fixed by macro as well as micro-organisms and go with eroded soil during run-off. Now, it is generally accepted that the inorganic fertilizers have low efficiencies. All inorganic fertilizers are soluble in water, and release nutrient as it dissolved and transforms to available forms.

Inorganic fertilizers are not to be applied when the plant leaves are still wet because it creates fertilizer burns in the leaves. It should be taken care wisely and avoid contaminating foods. It should be stored in dry and safe places and must be applied with proper timing. (FERTILIZER USE AND MANAGEMENT: Why Organic Vs. Inorganic Fertilizers? , A Lecture Prepared/Presented During the Season-Long Rice Specialists’ Training Course on IMP held on January 9 to April 29, 1995 at Central Experiment Station, PhilRice Maligaya Munoz, Nueva Ecija) According to Jovino L. de Dios, in common practice, inorganic fertilizers are more preferred than organic fertilizers.

This is due to ease handling and social orientation on usage. In the Philippines, the introduction of inorganic fertilizer was incorporated with the modern agriculture and its components (package of technology or POT) like proper cultivation, good varietal selection, proper water management and water availability and credit (monetary support from government and non-government organizations). The importance and the practice of organic farming were therefore overshadowed by inorganic fertilizers due to dramatic increase in yield as the result of integrated technologies. Through the years of continuous use of POT’s, previously fertile lands were gradually degraded to various degrees.

It is because it has been find out that in this practice, some of soil fertility measures were neglected and because of further crop intensification programs. Because of the arising problem, modern organic farming is developed and introduced to the farmers as the best alternative. Organic farming involves composting. Composting is a method for treating solid waste in which organic material is broken down with microorganisms in the presence of oxygen to a point where it can be safely stored, handled and applied to the environment. (http://home. howstuffsworks,com/question181. htm) Decomposition occurs naturally but could be accelerated through the action of man, invertebrates and micro-organisms. One method of composting involving the action of earthworm is called vermicomposting.

According to Provincial Agricultural Office, Dumaguete City, that vermicomposting is a waste stabilization technique using earthworms which converts waste into potentially recyclable materials such as worm protein and worm cast. The concept vermicasting started from the knowledge that certain species of earthworm grow and consume organic residues very rapidly, converting them into earthlike, soil-building substance that forms a beneficial growing environment for plant roots. (http://www. wormsphilippines. com/docs/Agroforestry%20Farm%20wate%20by%20Salamnca. htm) The earthworms that are involved in vermicomposting belong to the ecological category of epigeics which live in the litter and feed primarily on pure organic matter. Bouche,1997;Lavelle, 1981)The characteristics of the worms used in vermicomposting are the following: segemented body, can survive only in the cold or/ and moist area, breathe through their skin, each worm has two sexes both male and female, more active during the night time and each has five hearts. And here are some worm facts (apply to most compost worms): 1) compost worms can eat about ? their weight in food everyday; 2) compost worms can lay cocoons that contain and hatch 1-5 eggs; 3) compost worms can double in population every 90 days(approximately) and 4) compost worms are epigeal, they feed on the top 6-8 inches of compost. (http://www. happydranch. com)

These are the worms used in the vermicomposting process;1) African Night Crawler worms measure 4-8 inches long also called Super Reds, Japanese Tigers or California Super Reds. They are responsible for improving soil and promoting healthy plants and flowers. They help to increase the amount of air and water that gets into the soil. They also break down organic matter, like leaves and grasses into things that plants can use. They are excellent vermicomposting worms. For almost two decades, they have been revitalizing the soil and playing a major role in solid waste management in Southern nations, including being one of the main characters of vermicomposting in the Philippines.

They are perfect worms for home vermicomposting and composting more fibrous materials like leaves. (http:www. localharvest. org/African-nightcrawler-worms-C9064); 2) Red worms are formally known as eisenia fetida, is an Epigeic worm. Epigeic worms live on the surface of the soil or in the top ten inches or so of the topsoil under the little layer. Red worms are the most popular composting worm in the United States. These worms have other aliases including brandling worms, tiger worms, or red wrigglers. But no matter what they are or how they are called, they are definitely the best worms for composting. Here are few facts about red worms: 1) red worms excrete a pungent liquid then roughly andled (presumably as a defense mechanism), 2) red worms grow to be 3-4 inches long and 3) red worms thrive in temperature climates between 70-80 degrees. (http://www. happydranch. com/articles/Red_Worms. htm); 3) Dew worm, an earthworm found or near the surface of the ground is used as fishing bait. The terrestrial worm that burrows into and helps aerate soil and used in vermicomposting process; and 4) Asiatic worm is an earthworm which of nice quality used in the vermicomposting process. According to Elen V. Singco of Soils and Water Management Division, Provincial Agricultural Office, Dumaguete City, that the African Night Crawler is the only vermicomposting worm available and being used here in the Province of Negros Oriental.

The vermicomposting process includes the biodegradable materials also, aside from worms, like, 1) animal manures- including feces of chicken, swine, cattle and goat that can be decomposed using worms. Animal manures may also include their animal products such as wool shoddy, feathers, blood and bone. (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/manure); 2) green manure or plant manure-according to Jovino L. de Dios, during the presentation, that green manures consist of branches of trees, leaves of trees (like Sebastiana, Aeschynomene, Azolla, Kalawati, Ipil-ipil, etc. ), dry grasses, etc. (from plants); 3)rice straw, farm weeds and other residues or compost. As a rule of the thumb, according to Jovino L. e Dios, the farm residues should not be burn unless it is heavily infested and crop protectionist advise to destroy it; and 4) food waste- according to the legal definition of waste by EU Commission, food waste is any food substance, raw or cooked, which is discarded, or intended or required to be discarded. In contrast with other traditional processes of composting, vermicomposting takes advantages of the biological and physiological capabilities of earthworms and their activities and qualities to enhance the aerobic decomposition of organic materials. (http://www. wormsphilippines. com/docs/Agroforestry) Worm composting is a method for recycling food waste into a rich, dark, earth-smelling soil conditioner.

The great advantage of worm composting is that this can be done indoors and outdoors, thus allowing year round composting. (http://www. cityfarmer. org/wormcomp61. html) According to Jovino L. de Dios, those organic fertilizers (end product of vermicomposting) are by-products of agriculture in various fields. Therefore, if the by-products will become inputs, efficiency will be increased. Recycling the organic waste of a household into compost allows us to return the badly needed organic matter to the soil. In this way we participate in the nature cycle, and cut down on garbage going into burgeoning landfills. (http://www. cityfarmer. org/wormcomp61. html) According to Jovino L. e Dios, in the lecture prepared/presented during the Season-Long Rice Specialists’ Training Course on IPM held on January 9 to April 29, 1995 at Central Experiment Station, PhilRice Maligaya Munoz, Nueva Ecija, that, in principle, organic fertilizers are better than inorganic fertilizers because of long term fertility and environmental considerations and to some extent, economic aspects. In practice, inorganic fertilizers are more preferred by the farmers because the present day farmers were oriented to use commercial inorganic fertilizers. Another reason, we have increasing demand for food as the population increases but agricultural lands are continuously diminishing. Meaning we must produce more foods than before our existence. For this reasons, we must go on with the modern high yielding technologies.

Furthermore, higher crop removal from the soil is inevitable. By considering both the high yields and soil fertility conservation measures, we have to stop comparing the characteristics of organic and inorganic fertilizers and arguing which is best to use. They both have beneficial as well as unbeneficial points. The truth is “we cannot go on without them”, we must live with them and manage them wisely. (FERTILIZER USE AND MANAGEMENT: Why Organic Vs. Inorganic Fertilizers? , A Lecture Prepared/Presented During the Season-Long Rice Specialists’ Training Course on IMP at Central Experiment Station, PhilRice Maligaya Munoz, Nueva Ecija) The only solution is Integrated Nutrient Management.

We should manage them both in the field and we will be benefited by them. In true meaning, we must integrate the use of both the management of soil, therefore, for better yield and soil fertility conservation. They are not contradicting like enemies, but complementing like friends in the soil system supporting each other for one great purpose-to support agriculture. Organic fertilizers are by-products of agriculture in various fields. Therefore, if the by-products will become inputs, efficiency will be increased. We have better chance for continuity. Here are the beneficial effects of combine used of organic and inorganic fertilizers according to Jovino L. e Dios: 1) because inorganic fertilizers contain few nutrient elements and mostly only the major elements, (N,P,K,S, and Ca) if we combine it with organic fertilizers, microelements (Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn, B and other essential metals) in the soil will be supplied from organic fertilizers; 2) because the inorganic fertilizers release nutrient elements in considerable short period of time, there is great change for losses if those released nutrients will not be temporarily deposited in organic substances or materials (like micro/macroorganisms or humus) to be released in the later stages of the crop when the organism dies and decomposed; 3) because the organic materials (compost, animal manures, etc. ) contain various kinds of organic substance in various degrees of decomposition they simultaneously carry various types of microorganisms that performs specific functions in the soil system to continuously supply the plants with complete nutrients to support their growth and development and 4) because of the excessive or continuous use of inorganic fertilizers which are considered as salts (product from a reaction of bases and acids) can affect the soil particle aggregation that has something to do with soil structure, organic matter do the other way around.

It enhances soil aggregation for better physical properties of soil to support plants and to take care those nutrient elements. (FERTILIZER USE AND MANAGEMENT: Why Organic Vs. Inorganic Fertilizers? , A Lecture Prepared/Presented During the Season-Long Rice Specialists’ Training Course on IMP at Central Experiment Station, PhilRice Maligaya Munoz, Nueva Ecija) The efficiency of any fertilizer is increased by improved cultural management practices such as the combined use of organic and inorganic fertilizer, well prepared land before transplanting/planting, efficient water management, efficient plant/cultivars and crop protection as well as weed control. (Tisdale, Samuel and Werner Nelson. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers, c. 1975, p. 505-506)

Review of Related Studies Increase crop production is the current goal of our government today. Farm products must be available all over the country from the farthest barangays to highly populated municipalities and cities. That’s why there was a study conducted by Leopoldo S. Geconcillo, the former farm manager of the Agriculturist Office of Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental, about Vermicomposting. It’s all about organic fertilizers produced through the process known as composting. The process involves the composition of plant and animal materials into organic matter or humus through the action of soil microbes and other organisms specifically the earthworms.

Worm compost is made in a container filled with moistened bedding with worms and food waste. And with the assistance of micro-organisms, the worms will convert bedding and food into compost. There were studies conducted about the earthworms and its types and there were a number of trials made just to ensure that the said study works. And it proves that vermipost is a natural agent that positively enhances soil fertility and healthy plant growth, which is always equated with bountiful production. This could also lower the Ph level of the soil and raise the potash content of the soil. Vermicompost is more effective than ordinary compost as organic fertilizer as proven in the fields tests conducted.

A good point of this study also is that it is environmental friendly for it reduces the instances of burning and disposing our wastes everywhere. This also promotes a clean and green attitude among the people. THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem The study is aimed to determine the feasibility of the production of organic fertilizer through vermi worms in Brgy. Namangka, Mabinay Negros Oriental. The researchers seek to specifically answer the study with the following questions: 1. Is the proposed organic fertilizer production through vermi culture in Brgy. Namangka, Mabinay Negros Oriental feasible from the management point of view? 2. Is the proposed organic fertilizer production through vermi culture in Brgy.

Namangka, Mabinay Negros Oriental feasible from the marketing point of view? 3. Is the proposed organic fertilizer production through vermi culture in Brgy. Namangka, Mabinay Negros Oriental feasible from the technical point of view? 4. Is the proposed organic fertilizer production through vermi culture in Brgy. Namangka, Mabinay Negros Oriental feasible from the financial point of view? 5. Is the proposed organic fertilizer production through vermi culture in Brgy. Namangka, Mabinay Negros Oriental feasible from the socio-economic point of view? Significance of the Study Through this study many will be benefited; the farmers, barangay constituents, environment and government.

The organic fertilizer production using vermi worms will enable the farmers of Barangay Namangka improve economically for they will not spend bigger amounts in order for them to buy many sacks of inorganic fertilizers instead they could buy organic fertilizer at cheap price but safe in maintaining soil fertility and bigger possibility of earning additional income. The researchers are considering the welfare not only of the farmers of Barangay Namangka but as well as its every constituents for this organic fertilizer production using vermi worms could be easily adopted by many and can be used as source of income. The researchers introduce this study to be able to help lessen the problem regarding the garbage disposal in Barangay Namangka, Mabinay Negros Oriental and to promote sanitation and saving Mother Earth.

This study also aims to help the government, specifically the Municipality of Mabinay through additional tax collectons which means additional funds or revenues and license fees that can contribute to the coffers of the government which would lead to realization of its various programs and projects. Scope and Limitation of the Study The study concentrates on the proposed feasibility of organic fertilizer production using vermi worms in Barangay Namangka, Mabinay Negros Oriental and is only limited within the framework of the significant aspects on management, marketing, technical, financial, and socio-economic. Other aspects of the study may be handled separately. Further, the study limits itself with the data and information gathered and observation noted.

Projections are limited to a period of five (5) years. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This part of the study includes the research design, research environment, research respondents, research instruments, research procedures, and statistical treatment of data. Research Methods A feasibility study approach was used to determine whether this specific manufacturing industry is feasible in penetrating into the market. This approach is a thorough and systematic analysis of the different feasibility in the proposed business with regards to its management, marketing, technical, financial, and socio-economic aspects that affects the viability of the proposed project.

The researchers used direct or interview method, in which there is an exchange of information that is significant in doing the feasibility study and survey questionnaires was also administered to enable to establish baseline or benchmark of data. This study utilizes the descriptive method in gathering data regarding the preferences of the respondents and other related information. Research Environment Mabinay is a rural municipality in the Philippine Province of Negros Oriental. It is known as the “Cave Town of Negros Oriental,” because of the more than a hundred caves seen beneath the town. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 70,548 people. The inhabitants of the town have farming as their common means of living. The town has a land area of 30,226. 35 hectares.

It is located in the interior part of the province surrounded by municipalities of Manjuyod, Bindoy, Ayungon and the cities of Bayawan, Bais and Kabankalan, Negros Occidental. It is politically divided into 32 barangays, all classified as rural. The barangays are mostly in the inmost part of the mountains of Mabinay thus the travel is frequently rough. Barangay Old Namangka is one of the barangays of Mabinay, located in the southern part of the town. It has a land area of 776. 90 hectares and according to 2007 census, it has 1,153 inhabitants. Its roads are mostly cemented already though there are still some parts which are rough to go through. Research Respondents A sampling plan was initiated in this study to specifically determine and identify the research respondents.

It consists of determining who is to be surveyed (sampling unit); how many are to be surveyed (sample size); how are they to be selected (sampling procedure) and how are they to be reached (sampling media) which my include cell phones, telephones, mail and personal interview. The target respondents of this are the small farmers and owners of farm plantations in Mabinay Negros Oriental. It will cater individual consumers ranging from lower-class, middle-class to upper-class that requires such product. Research Instruments The main instrument of this study was the questionnaire. In gathering information, the questionnaires were distributed to support the fundamental data of this study.

The researchers also interviewed the reliable sources in order to obtain necessary information that is useful for this study. They also made use of research materials and other manuals pertinent to this study. The use internet and library books were also availed. Research Procedures The researchers requested permission from Mrs. Arceli P. Tumacole, the adviser of Accounting 401b of Saint Paul University Dumaguete to conduct a feasibility study on the production of organic fertilizer through vermi worms in Mabinay, Negros Oriental. A survey was conducted in the local area of Mabinay Negros Oriental. Questionnaires were distributed to the respondents.

Some of the data were gathered also from the local NSO (National Statistics Office), DTI (Department of Trade and Industry), PAO (Provincial Agriculturist Office), DA (Department of Agriculture) and individual interviews to those who are engaged in this business for the facts and figures to be used in the computation of financial statements, potential market and environment analysis. Statistical Treatment of Data The researchers used the following methods in gathering the data related to this study: Random Sampling It is the basic sampling technique where the researchers select a group of subjects (a sample) from a larger group (a population). Simple Frequency Table

It is the tabular arrangement of data consists of categories with the corresponding frequencies in every item. Financial Aspects The financial aspect shows in specified terms whether the project will be profitable even with existing competition and unfavorable economic conditions, and present detailed figures to show the improvements of the project’s financial condition over time. The financial soundness of the firm is measured through the total project cost, initial capital requirements, and sources of financing, financial statements and financial analysis. Payback Period refers to the length of time required in recovering the initial cost of investments from the incremental cash benefits of the project.

It emphasizes liquidity and measures of returns in terms of net cash inflows. Payback Period = Net cost of Investment Annual Net Cash Inflows Current Ratio is the ratio used to evaluate the solvency of the company to meet current obligations from current assets as a going concern. Current Ratio = __Total Current Assets__ Total Current Liabilities Working Capital to Total Assets indicates relative liquidity of total assets and distribution of resources employed. Working Capital to Total Assets = Working Capital Total Assets Working Capital Turnover indicates adequacy and activity of working capital. Working Capital Turnover = _______Net Sales________

Average Working Capital Gross Profit on Net Sales ratio indicates the adequacy of the mark up on sales to cover the expenses and yield profit. Gross Profit on Net Sales = Net Sales – Cost of Goods Sold Net Sales Management’s Rate of Return is a profitability ratio that compares operating income to operating assets. Management’s Rate of Return = Operating Income Fixed Assets + Net Working Capital Break-even Analysis is an equally important approach in analyzing a small business. Break-even is the point where the firms neither lose nor gain. Break-even Point (units) = _____ Fixed Costs_________ Contribution Margin per Unit

Break-even Point (pesos) = _____ Fixed Costs_________ 1-(Variable Costs/Sales) DEFINITION OF TERMS To eliminate the vagueness of the terms used in this study, the researcher hereby defined the following: Composting- is a method for treating solid waste in which organic material is broken down by microorganisms in the presence of oxygen to a point where it can be safely stored, handled and applied to the environment. Eisenia Fetida- is a worm that lives on the surface of the soil or top 10 inches. Fertilizer- is a substance added to soil to improve the growth of the plants. Fertilizer Placement- the determination of the proper zone in the soil in which to apply fertilizer.

Food Waste- is any food substance, raw or cooked, which is discarded. Manure- feces of animals; plant waste Organic Fertilizer- is basically the by-product of any living organism. Vermicast- earthlike, soil building substance that can be found on the compost pile after the worms consumed the organic waste. Vermicomposting- is a biological decomposition of organic material through the action of earthworm. Worm- the organism used to accelerate the decomposition process. ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY This part of the study gives a short description on what comprises of the Chapters. Chapter I comprises the problem and its scope which includes introduction, theoretical framework and review of related literature.

It also contains the problem which includes the statement of the problem, significance of the study and scope and limitations of the study, research methods, research environment, respondents, instruments, statistical treatment of data, research procedure, operational terms and organization of the study. Chapter II is the presentation, analyses and interpretation of the data, which consists of the management aspect, marketing aspect, technical aspect, financial aspect and socio-economic aspect of the study. Chapter III covers the summary, conclusions, and recommendations of this project feasibility study. These topics are discussed in this chapter to give the reader an overview and insight regarding the proposed project. The last part includes the bibliography, appendices, and curriculum vitae. CHAPTER II PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA MANAGEMENT ASPECT

The management aspect provides details on the number of administrative personnel, their job requirements, specifications, responsibilities and functions, recruitment process, employment conditions and compensation package. This also contains the type of ownership and capitalization of the proposed business, name of establishment and proposed location. Project Proponents The proposed project will be established by the following individuals namely: Monica Grace P. Cadiente, Nina Theresa L. Ragay, Kristen Grace A. Taguibulosan, Delicano Vilando and Liedelyn P. Vilando, CPA with the initial capitalization of Php 460,000. 00. The nationality, the address of each proponent, the capital contribution and profit sharing are shown in the table 1. Table 1 Project Proponents Information Names Nationality Address Contributions

Ownership Monica Grace P. Cadiente (GP)FilipinoLuyang, Mabinay Negros Oriental Cash Php 100,000 22% Nina Theresa L. Ragay (GP)FilipinoKatikugan, Siaton Negros Oriental Cash Php 100,000 22% Kristen Grace A. Taguibulosan (GP)FilipinoPoblacion, Mabinay Negros OrientalLand Php 60,000 & Cash Php 40,000 22% Delicano P. Vilando (GP)FilipinoDaro, Dumaguete City Negos Oriental Cash Php 100,000 22% Liedelyn P. Vilando, CPA (GP)Filipino Sampaloc, Manila Cash Php 60,000 12% (GP) – General Partner Proposed Name of the Business The establishment’s name is Green Grow Partnership. The word green comes from the Old English word grene, or, in its older form, gr? ni.

This adjective is closely related to the Old English verb growan (“to grow, turn green”), which in its wonted usage referred primarily to plants, and goes back into Western Germanic and Scandinavian languages. Cognates in other languages include West Frisian grien, Dutch groen, German grun, and Danish gron. And grow means to increase in size by a natural process. These two words are related to the product the business is offering which is organic fertilizer. The green in the name represents the plant for which the fertilizers are made to. The “grow” specifies the main purpose of the fertilizer and that is to let the plants grow healthily. There are no other words more fitting than this for it capsulated the main purpose of the business. Type of Business Organization The partners choose General Partnership.

The proponents chose such type of organization because it is easy to organize. And the proponents also believe that with the combined talents, judgments and skills of the partners they can carry out the business properly. Location of Head Office and Factory The location of the proposed business will be in Barangay Namangka, Mabinay Negros Oriental. Personnel (Administrative) The number of people needed in this project is five, two care takers, one delivery boy, one bookkeeper and one manager. And these people will work according to their respective responsibilities. The bookkeeper and the manager are from the partners, which are Kristen Grace A.

Taguibulosan and Monica Grace P. Cadiente respectively. And to ensure the efficiency and effectiveness of the operation as well as to clearly identify the designated responsibilities of each member of the organization, the management established a chart as shown in exhibit 1. 1 below. Exhibit 1. 1 roposed Organizational Chart (Line and Staff Organization) This type of organizational chart is called Line and Staff Organization. It starts with the owners of the business or the partners of this business. Next in authority is the manager who has direct authority and control to the four workers. The advantages of using this type of organization is that here would be easier workloads because there will be proper assistance of the persons involve since they will report directly to the manager and it is very effective provided there will be coordination among the staffs. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES Manager The managing partner will be responsible for the overall supervision of the activities of the organization. She will report to the office every lunch time and every afternoon at five o’ clock. She is the one responsible for collecting the money from the delivery boy every day and deposits it to the bank. She will check the vermi house every time she goes to the site for her to know the performance of the caretakers.

She will call or tell the delivery boy about the orders received if there are customers who order directly to her. She will also approve and sign all the related documents before it will be issued. Bookkeeper The bookkeeper is one of the partners. She is responsible for record keeping of the business transactions. She will report to the manager monthly. Care Takers The caretakers will be responsible of taking care of the vermi house. They have to maintain the cleanliness of the vermi house, to take care of the vermi worms, to water it or to put additional soil in the chambers if needed, to get the vermi cast and put it on the sacks provided and to write on the warehouse logbook the number sacks with vermi cast that they put into the warehouse every day.

They are also responsible for watering the plants in the business site, taking care of the plants in the surroundings, fetching water for the comfort room and turning on the lights before leaving the office every afternoon and turning in off every morning upon arrival at the business site. And whenever there is a delivery they will also help the delivery boy when they are on duty. Delivery Boy The delivery boy is responsible for the delivery of the goods to the customers, collecting the payments and remits the collections made every day to the manager. He is also responsible for receiving orders for he is the one who is always at the office if there is no delivery. And whenever there are no customers yet he will also help the caretakers. QUALIFICATIONS Manager (one of the partners) Bookkeeper (one of the partners) Caretakers ?Must be 20 years old and above Preferably farmers or has passion in farming ?Must be willing to be trained. ?Physically fit. Delivery Boy ?Must be 20 years old and above. ?Must be a high school graduate. ?Physically fit and knows how to drive. ?Must be trustworthy and honest. CHECKLIST REQUIREMENTS Manager (one of the partners) Bookkeeper ((one of the partners) Caretakers ?Application Letter ?2×2 pictures (2 copies) ?Medical clearance ?Police clearance Delivery Boy ?Application Letter ?2×2 pictures(2 copies) ?Diploma ?Medical clearance ?Police clearance ?Drivers license SALARY RATES AND BENEFITS Schedule 1. 1 Compensation Package of the Caretaker Part Time Basic WagePhp 20/hour SSS- Phil Health- 3th Month Pay- Schedule 1. 2 Compensation Package of the Delivery Boy ContractualRegular Basic WagePhp 120/day or Php 720/weekPhp 235/day or Php 1,410/week SSS-Php183. 30/month Phil Health-Php 62. 5/month 13th Month Pay-Php 7,050. 00 The schedules shown above shows the different wage rates of the workers and the benefits they are entitled into. The caretakers will be employed as part time since their job does not really need a whole day duty. The delivery boy will be employed in a contractual basis and is renewable after six months and will be subject to regularization after five years. They are going to receive their wages weekly, every Saturday.

The surroundings of the establishment will be planted by vegetables and will be fertilized by the organic fertilizer, this will serve not only as proof that the fertilizer is effective but it also benefit the employees for they will be given vegetables. The bookkeeper will be given an honorarium of Php 5,000 yearly and the manager will be given Php 29 / hour, she will report two hours a day for the whole year all in all Php 20,880 yearly. Schedule 1. 3 The Employees’ Schedule EmployeesReporting TimeRest Day Manager12:00pm – 1:00 pm, 5:00pm – 6:00 pm – Caretakers6:30am – 8:30 am, 11:30am – 12:30pm, 4:30pm – 5:30 pm – Delivery Boy8:00am – 12:00 pm, 1:00pm – 5:00 pmEvery Monday of the week BookkeeperMonthly- Schedule 1. 3 is all about the employees’ time in reporting in the office. The manager will only report to the office for two hours since she has an occupation other than being a manager.

As to the two caretakers, they will have a shifting duty, one in the first two hours and the other one in the next two hours. Then in the following day they will interchange their duty time. As to the distributor, he will report eight hours a day in the office and his rest day is still subject to change when there would be request for day off especially regarding important matters. The bookkeeper will only report monthly and this will depend on the manager as to when. Management Proposals The management will use the Theory Y in managing their proposed business. The management believes that people loves to work and that threat and punishment is not necessary.

Since the people to be employed are farmers and their work is related to what they have been used to, they will definitely show commitment to their work. General Policies ?Every applicant will be employed if they can pass the requirements needed and be able to pass the interview conducted by the partners. ?Every employee should be present during his/ her assigned work days. A deduction to his/ her salary in every absence. ?Every employee should wear a modest and presentable attire in the office except the caretakers when they are in the field. ?When an employee would request that his/ her rest day be transferred, it should be submitted to the manager in a minimum of three days before the date requested. Every employee that commits mistakes or wrongdoings will be sanctioned. Ground for punishment: First offense – reprimand Second – suspension; minimum of 3 days Third – suspensions in 2 months Fourth – termination Mistakes or failures done will be judged accordingly, sanctions will be based on the graveness or weight of the failure or mistake done. The effectivity of the third and fourth sanctions will be delayed by 2 months to look for replacement. Training, Seminars and Staff Development Programs There will be a training to be conducted so as to inform the employees of the nature and kind of the business. This will be conducted by one of the partners, Nina Theresa L.

Ragay. This will be two-day seminar, one day of lecture and the second day is the application or the actual practice. The employees are required to attend in the said seminar on the first day. On the second day, only the caretakers are required for they are the ones who will apply it in actual practice. The delivery boy is required in the first day for him to have a background of what the business is all about and for him also to inform the prospect customers about the products that the company is offering. As to the updates regarding anything about the business, Nina Theresa L. Ragay will inform the workers. Facilities, Equipments and Machineries

The management will be needing office supplies which are daily time record cards, record book, bond papers, folders, pencils, ball pens, stapler, carbon papers, calculator and other necessary supplies to perform the office works which would cost the company at around Php 1000. Project Implementation and Timetable The realization of the proposed project is based into two stages: the pre-operating stage and the operating stage. In this section, the Gantt chart is being presented to show all the work preparation. During the pre-operating stage, which will start by June 2011, the project feasibility study was conducted to determine the viability of the proposed project in different aspects which are Management, Marketing, Technical, Financial, and Socio-economic aspects.

It also includes activities such as sourcing of funds, construction of building, procurement of business permits and legal requirements, hiring of employees, gathering of waste materials and decomposing them, purchasing of supplies and equipment, advertising period as well as the allocated period for the production of the vermi casts. Upon the completion of the pre-operating activities, operating activities will commence on February 2013. System and Form Design Exhibit 2 Project’s Administrative Flow of Operation The administrative flow of operation can be clearly seen in exhibit 2. The thick arrow lines that connect each rectangle are the first flow of the operation.

The manager will tell the delivery boy that there are orders if there are customers, who order directly to the manager, and then the delivery boy informs the care taker to prepare the goods and place it in the delivery truck, if the caretaker is not on duty the delivery boy will do it on his own, and the delivery boy delivers it. The manager also gives instructions to the bookkeeper as to when the financial reports are needed and anything else which concerns the record keeping of the business. The thin arrow lines represent the second flow. The caretaker will report to the manager about the supplies on hand and any other matters about the business.

The delivery boy in turn remits to the manager the cash paid, if there are sales transactions during the day and the manager deposits the cash on hand to the bank. The bookkeeper also submits the report needed and present it to the manager. Exhibit 3 ARTICLES OF CO-PARTNERSHIP OF __GREEN GROW COMPANY__ KNOWN ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS: That we, undersigned, of legal age, citizens and residents of the Philippines, have this day voluntarily bind ourselves together for the purpose of forming a partnership, effective as of this date, under the terms and conditions herein after set forth, and subject to the requirements of existing laws of the Republic of the Philippines. AND WE HEREBY CERTIFY: Title I

That the name of the partnership shall be “Green Grow Company” and shall operate and transact business under said firm name. Title II That the principal office of this partnership shall be at Brgy. Namangka, Mabinay Negros Oriental, Philippines, which office may be changed from time to time upon the agreement of the partners. Title III That the names, surnames and postal addresses of the partners of this partnership are as follows: NAMES ADDRESS Monica Grace Cadiente Brgy. Luyang, Mabinay Neg. Or Kristen Grace Taguibulosan Pob. Mabinay Neg. Or. Nina Theresa Ragay Caticugan, Siaton Neg. Or. Delicano Vilando Brgy. Daro, Dumaguete City Neg. Or. Liedelyn Vilando, CPA Sampaloc, Metro Manila Title IV

That the capital of this partnership is Five Hundred Thirty Thousand Pesos (Php530,000), which has been contributed as follows: in the amount of One Hundred Thousand Seven Hundred Pesos (Php100,000), Philippine Currency for Monica Grace Cadiente, Kristen Grace A. Taguibulosan, Nina Theresa Ragay, Delicano Vilando and Liedelyn P. Vilando,CPA and One Hundred Twenty Seven Thousand Two Hundred Pesos (Php130,000) representing the net assets of the Green Grow Company owned by the partners and managed by Kristen Grace Taguibulosan. Title V That the purpose or purposes shall be to engage in and carry on a general mercantile and trading business and to import, export, trade or otherwise dispose of organic fertilizer. Title VI That Kristen Grace Taguibulosan will serve as managing partner of the company with the right to overall supervision and the preparation and signing of contracts and agreements. Title VII

That the profits and losses shall be divided by the partners in the ratio of Monica Grace Cadiente 19%, Kristen Grace A. Taguibulosan 19%, Nina Theresa Ragay 19%, Delicano Vilando 19% and Liedelyn P. Vilando, CPA 24%. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, we have hereunto set our hands, this January 1, 2013 at the City of Dumaguete, Philippines. _________________________________ __________________________________ MONICA GRACE CADIENTE KRISTEN GRACE TAGUIBULOSAN __________________________ ______________________________ DELICANO P. VILANDO, Jr. NINA THERESA L. RAGAY ____________________________ LIEDELYN P. VILANDO, CPA Signed in the presence of: ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬____________________________ __________________________________ Witness Witness Acknowledgement NOTARY PUBLIC MARKETING ASPECT The answer to the basic question in marketing: Is there a demand for the product? The corollary issue as to the marketability and the product on supply and demand is considered. The prime consideration of the marketing aspect is mainly focused on the price, supply and demand situation of the ORGANIC FERTILIZER PRODUCED THROUGH VERMI CULTURE IN MABINAY NEGROS.

Negros Oriental or the Eastern Negros-where Mabinay is included as one of its municipality- is known for its being abundant with agricultural products. It is noted that it is one of the biggest source of income in the province aside from its fishing and other industries. With the great demand for the farmers to continually make their land fertile, it is not far from being possible that the product the researchers try to introduce to the public will have a great demand. With the foreseen potential market of the project, it will immensely create a big impact not only in the economy of the town but also to the agricultural industry of the province and to the environment. It will also escalate the standards of living among people.

The proponents will establish their market first in Mabinay Negros Oriental and once the proponents have established their market there, they will eventually penetrate the bigger market. The researchers’ target market for this project is composed of farmers. These farmers could be either small owners or big owners of land. This project will also cater to those who are not farmers but are interested to buy the product. In order to know the marketability of this business project, they floated 100 questionnaires as an initial sample size. Table 2 The Annual Income of the Farmers IncomeFrequencyPercentage 10,000-50,0006565% 50,000-100,0001515% 100,000-200,0001010% 200,000-500,00033% 00,000 up77% Total100100% The farmers of Mabinay, which is the target market of the proposed project, as shown in the table are composed mainly of the small-earning farmers. Only 35% of the total respondents can be able to finance their farms with costly fertilizers while the rest of the farmers cannot finance alone their own farms. This only shows that there is a great need for lower cost of fertilizers in the market so that the farmers will be able to have enough income to finance their needs. Table 3 Kinds of Crops Cultivated Kinds of CropsFrequencyPercentage Sugarcane5031. 25% Corn6540. 625% Rice2515. 625% Vegetables2012. 5% Total160100%

The Table shows that most of the farmers are cultivating corn in their farms while the sugarcane, having the 31. 25%, is only second to the corn. The rice and the vegetables have the minimal results which consist of the 15. 625% and the 12. 5% of the total crops they cultivate. Demand In order to determine the level of demand of organic fertilizer, the researchers asked the respondents on how many sacks of fertilizer they can consume within one year. And the result of the survey shows that majority of the respondents consume inorganic fertilizer. Considering that inorganic fertilizer contribute to faster growth of the crops according to them and they are used to it. Organic fertilizer on the other hand is new to them hough some may have a background already but do not represent the total picture of organic fertilizer is, like the advantages of using it. The result of the survey also shows that this product has a potential market in Mabinay, Negros Oriental. The researcher projected that at the first year of operation has lesser sales. The table below shows the result of the survey. Table 4 Frequency Of Respondents According To How Many Sacks Of Fertilizer They Can Consume In A Year Number of Sacks Per yearFrequencyPercentage 544% 1044% 1511% 2044% 2511% 3077% 4522% 5-45 (inorganic)7272% No response55% Total100100% The table shows that most of the farmers consume large quantities of fertilizers during the year.

This only means that the organic fertilizer has already a large target market. The problem though lies on the fact that most of them are using inorganic fertilizer than the organic fertilizer Table 5 Frequency Of The Responses Of The Respondents According To Their Reasons Of Buying Fertilizer Reason of buyingOrganic FrequencyInorganic frequency “Mas dali”1125 “Maayo gamiton”713 “Muoy naandan”324 “Ka save”20 “no answer”09 “wala pay gigama nga organic sauna”01 Total2372 In table 5, it shows the responses of the respondents according to the reasons of why they choose inorganic or organic fertilizer. The majority said using inorganic will contribute faster effect on the growth of their crops and they are used to it.

Despite of the responses of the respondents about their satisfaction in the benefits of the existing organic fertilizers, the respondents are still willing to patronize the organic fertilizer according to the informal interview of the researchers in fact there are some who both use organic and inorganic fertilizer in their farmlands. Projected Demand The projected demand presented by the researchers below is based on inquiries to outside source related to the proposed study like Provincial Agriculturist Office at Dumaguete City, Nergros Oriental; Barangay Captain of Caticugan, Siaton, Negros Oriental and one Agricultural Technician as well as the result of the survey conducted by the researchers. Table 6 Projected Demand Figures for Five Years Year of OperationTotal Projected Demand 013505 sacks 2014606 sacks 2015727 sacks 2016873 sacks 20171048 sacks The projected demand is computed considering within the limits of Mabinay, Negros Oriental. In the above table shows 20% each year as projected. These figures are subject to change considering the different factors like for example possibility of having full demand in Mabinay or if the government persuade the existing land owners to use organic fertilizer as well as considering the successful marketing programs and strategies of the partnership in the next year of operations. The researchers find out the ratio of organic vs. inorganic is 40:30 in sacks to be applied on one ectare. Supply In the survey questionnaire, the researchers asked their respondents how much money they allocate for buying fertilizers for their crops. The table presents the summary of how much the respondents are going to allocate for the fertilizers of their crops. TABLE 7 Frequency Of Respondents According To Their Response On How Much Should They Spent On Buying Fertilizers Annually AmountFrequencyPercentage 1,000-10,000 Php5252% 10,000-20,000 Php1919% 20,000-60,000 Php1818% 60,000-80,000 Php66% 80,000-100,000 Php55% Total100100% Based on the survey, it shows that the respondents are willing to incur such expenses just to have a good crop.

That is why the researchers found a reason that they can enter into the market because all farmers need fertilizers and they are also willing to spend more for fertilizers. The farmers spent such amount for fertilizers because most of them are using inorganic which is expensive. And these inorganic fertilizers are found everywhere in the market. Table 7 shows some of the stores, establishments and cities where the respondents buy those fertilizers. TABLE 8 Frequency Of Respondents According To Their Response On Where They Are Going To Buy Their Fertilizers Name of Store/CityFrequencyPercentage Rodney’s Marketing2424% Villar’s Store88% Daisy Cruz, Bais2121% Jerry Rial Store22% Honey’s Marketing77% Jera’s Store33% Madaline’s Store11% Abrio’s Store11% Kabangkalan City44% Mabinay44% Viser66%

Green Base11% First Farmer11% Total100100% The establishments where they buy their fertilizers depends on where they have been used to, who offers lesser price, who offers discount on bulk purchases, what store are near to them and others are when occasion permits. When occasion permits means when there is an opportunity like when they sent their sugarcanes for milling in the neighboring cities when they went home they brought fertilizers with them already for they are after of a lesser price and they can save as to freight payments. So based on the survey the researchers can conclude that that the supply of inorganic fertilizers in the market is many.

But the researchers see this as not a hindrance of entering the market but an opportunity to gain some of the inorganic buyers by using some of this establishment as one of their distributors. TABLE 9 PROJECTED SUPPLY FIGURES Year of OperationMonthly Projected SupplyNumber of monthsTotal Projected Supply First45 sacks11495 sacks Second47 sacks12564 sacks Third52 sacks12624 sacks Fourth60 sacks12720 sacks Fifth72 sacks12864 sacks The projected supply is computed to have a yearly increase of ten percent on their monthly projected supply. The number of months in the first year is eleven because on the first month of operation it is assumed that the business cannot produce yet. Demand-Supply Analysis The table below shows how projected supply reacts to the projected demand for five years. Table 10 Demand and Supply Analysis

Projected Years DemandSupplyD-S GapPercent 2013505495101. 98% 2014606564426. 93% 201572762410314. 17% 201687372015317. 53% 2017104886418417. 56% General Marketing Practices The government offers different alternatives to the farmers to help them increase their crop production especially in terms of fertilizer which is vital in the production of the crops. The government, in addressing the supply and demand of the crops, had first introduced the use of inorganic fertilizers because it has a faster result in the production of crops. Due to the costly price of the fertilizers, the government also created agencies that would lend the farmers in buying these inorganic fertilizers.

It has become a dilemma for the proprietors of the entering organic fertilizer because the inorganic fertilizers have created a strong market in the agricultural industry. Though the government has been having the project of the organic fertilizer through the Department of Agriculture, most of the farmers have not been educated about this new organic fertilizer or some have been resisting to the changes and are not yet comfortable in using this new way of method. In the town of Mabinay, most of the distributors of fertilizers and the future competitors of the proposed project are using the inorganic fertilizers. They are located mostly within the town but some are also coming from the neighboring cities of Kabankalan and Bais.

They always maintain stocks of fertilizers in the whole year in an equal minimum amount but will increase it during after milling season which will be the start of the planting season. The prices of the competitors within the town are usually the same but those in the cities offer lesser price. They usually offer delivery services but with an additional charge to the customers. Proposed Marketing Program Target Market The target market is the farmers of the Municipality of Mabinay, Negros Oriental. It maybe small or big owners of the farmlands, as well as those who are tenants. The researchers projected that they will expand their market share after two (2) years.

As to the climate since it is located in the Philippines known to have a tropical climate which is an agricultural country. There is no limit as the age, everybody can avail this product. Market Timing and Scheduling Strategies Since it is a continuous production, the researchers project that sales will decline during harvesting and milling seasons. The researchers will decrease the number of sacks to be consigned at least 40%, since they are into a consignment basis during peak seasons to earn more profit. Pricing Strategies The price of the product will be based on the existing selling price of the product plus 20% markup from the existing price. Therefore, Php. 250 plus (Php. 250*20%) equals Php. 300. Terms and Conditions of Sale Strategies

The researchers allow discounts and allowances to those customers who are loyal to the product for at least 5 years; cash discount of 1% of the total price the customer pays will be given. There will be trade discounts will be given and credit term of 2/10, n/30 will be imposed during the growth stage of the crops for the customers who are loyal for 5 years. Channels and Distribution A commission of Php. 15 is given in every sack that will be sold. The researchers select two channel’s level; first, manufacturer-customers which means from the direct distributor to customers and the second, consignor(manufacturer)-consignee-customers this means that from the vermihouse to the retailer (Honey Aggrivet Supply, Rodney’s Marketing) then to the costumers. Transportation and Delivery Strategies

The type of transportation delivery method, the researchers will used is through national highways and roads loading their product on a multicab and deliver to a costumer. In the part of the consignment basis the costumer will buy at the store. Every month they will pay the cost of the gasoline and fuel at the Caltex for they will negotiate it to be the gasoline and fuel supplier. Branding and Packaging Strategies The researchers will buy sack with the print of the name of the product GREEN GROW Organic Fertilizer. The strategies on the packaging are they will fill up the organic fertilizer on the sack and closed it with the use of “lambo” then sew it.

The sack itself carries the trade name of our product. But if in case if the customers have their own sack they can make use of it. Advertising and Promotion Strategies Here are the following advertising and promotional strategies that the researchers will do: 1. Make use of tarpaulins and streamers in advertising the product and will be posted at the public areas in Mabinay, Negros Oriental except church like Mabinay terminal, at Honey’s Aggrivet Supply, near the roads or at our project site. 2. They will conduct also educational seminars on the farmers in coordination with Department of Agriculture on the disadvantages and advantages of inorganic vs. organic fertilizers.

The demo farm or a bed plot which they are using organic fertilizer on the plants. They will give free samples. Since Department of Agriculture is currently having a program in production of organic fertilizer with the use of worms and the researchers believe that this proposed study will also help the environment. 3. The researchers will have a demo farm to support their advertising and promotional strategies. Storage and Warehousing Strategies It is assumed that the researchers owned the storage house for organic fertilizer with a capacity of 100 sacks. There will be expansion plans after five (5) years. third year and 15% for the fourth and fifth projected years of sale.

The ending inventory in the first year is 8% which will be gradually decreased because of the growth in sales. The consigned goods shown in the table is 40% of the total sales from the present production. Researchers came up with these assumptions due to the fact that the inorganic fertilizers have already built a strong market and that it will be hard for them to penetrate the market. Systems Forms and Design 1. Official Receipt 2. Check Voucher 3. Petty Cash Voucher 4. Sales Invoice TECHNICAL ASPECT The technical aspect plays an important role in project feasibility study, because it shows the project viability in terms of its physical plants and overall structure of the business. Product Description

Castings also known as worm droppings, vermicompost, is marked as the nature’s ultimate plant food and that vermiculture by some is declared as the “missing link that makes sustainable agriculture a reality. ” It is a premium organic fertilizer dubbed as “Black Gold” by organic farmers for its nitrogen richness. Castings compared to soil has: •5 times the nitrate •7 times the phosphorous •11 times the potash •3 times the exchangeable magnesium •1. 5 times the calcium Production Process Vermi-composting is the biological degradation of organic material or waste through the digesting action (consumption) of selected earthworm species. Waste include a variety of organic materials such as plant and animal wastes, mixed municipal or city refuse, manufacturing and processing waste and sludge.

The end-result of the feeding action of the earthworm is the production of soil-like excreta known as casts. It is a fine cylindrical excretion containing a considerable quantity of humus and is the highest quality control topsoil produced by nature. Vermi Production Process 1. Gather the substrates such as; rice straw, banana leaves, ipil-ipil leaves, madre de cacao or any assorted dried leaves and kitchen refuse which comprises 70% of the mixture and small amount soil. 2. Mix the substrates with 30% animal manure such as carabao, cattle, swine and goat wastes. 3. Stock the substrates into the chamber and let it undergo the decomposition process for about 6 (six) weeks. 4.

Sprinkle the pile with water as needed especially during dry season to maintain the moisture for rapid decomposition. 5. Stock ? to 1kg of earthworms per chamber. Depending on how big you

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Feasibility Study on Organic Fertilizer. (2019, May 02). Retrieved from


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