Cited by Gillian Coote Martin (2014), Cultural diversity in the workplace with the increase of globalization in the world has grown as a trend over the passage of time. Employees belonging to different cultures has a positive effect that usually has different ways of thinking and can thus analyze a matter at hand from a variety of perspectives. Diversity can bring about burden in like manner be advantageous yet likewise benefits an association thus it can be an issue to an affiliation (Meritt, 2016).
Wheeler (1997) states that an important part of a manager’s job is managing diversity. He also believes that the value of workforce diversity cannot be overlooked. If workforce diversity was not managed correctly, thus it can result in negative consequences for the organization. ‘We need to always go back to our business case, and emphasize the value and benefits of workforce diversity.’ (Wheeler, 1997). Increased innovation and creation that in turn can create a competitive advantage for the firm is the cause of successful diversity practices. Foster and Harris (2005), states that by successfully managing individual differences, an organization can establish a competitive advantage. Cox and Blake (1991), acknowledged an entity that manages cultural diversity effectively and efficiently can create a competitive advantage. Sia and Bhardwaj, (2003) mention that if diverse groups of employees are not managed in a correct manner it can lead to certain consequences, with being organizational ineffectiveness the end result. Top management can reduce the negative effects and enhance the positive effects of cultural diversity in the workplace with proper strategic planning,
Religion is the high levels of traditional religious belief, frequent involvement in religious institutions such as churches, synagogues, mosques, and temples, and engagement in religious practices such as reading scripture, worship, and prayer (McCullough & Willoughby, 2009). Lin (2010), states that it can impact a moral conduct of a person because of its religious desires, masked as a religious self-personality. In shaping the cultural environment of an organization it is identified as one of the critical elements that influence an individual’s value system. (Kutcher, et al., 2010). Religion affects the way in which people behave through an individual’s value system said by Abdel-Khalek (2010). As observed by the expansion in the enhancement and strengthening programs religious practices are getting to be a common and satisfactory in the working environment. Employees’ quality of work life can be improved to those who are allowed to express their faith, religion, or spirituality (Miller 2007). With the growing evidence, Elm (2003) states that the line between workplace and religious beliefs is growing thin by the day.
All individuals treat others and conduct themselves has possessed a moral compass, defined via values (Merrit 2000). Individuals are part of societies and culture manifests itself. (Brette & Weast, 2012). Knippenberg (2000) states that human beings depending on the culture they live in have different expectations and goals about their work. Hofstede (1980) said that the degree to which the behaviors of individuals, groups, and institution within cultures are viewed as legitimate, acceptable, and effective and asserts that the values and beliefs held by members of cultures influence the degree to which they are enacted. Shahzad et al. (2012) through an investigation of existing observational examinations and models interface with the firm culture and performance, he concentrated on characterizing and measuring the firm culture and its effect on the firm performance. It was discovered that on the assortment of association’s process, employees and its performance the firm culture has a profound effect. The study demonstrated that they can build the performance toward accomplishing the general firm objectives if employees are committed and having indistinguishable standards. Soares (2007), adds that an organization performance can affect if people who work can lack strong or ethical values may participate in negative behavior. The organization can try to influence employee behavior in the workplace but a company cannot do anything about the influences that shape a person’s values and behavior before hiring (Li, Lam, & Qian, 2001).
Person’s language is the key to self-identity (Mecheo, 2016). Imberti (2007), it allows us to relate and understand each other. Language allows individuals to communicate as a system of conceptual symbols. It is an artifact of how thoughts are formulated as well as how they are communicated and discussed (Bartel, 2001). Language impacts almost every element of life. It no longer only aids in communication but is also a link to an individual’s identity (Lauring, 2008). It allows the character to express emotions, share feelings, inform stories, and convey complicated messages and knowledge (Imberti, 2007; Lauring, 2008). Femi (2014) examined the impact of verbal exchange on specialists’ overall performance in chosen associations in Lagos, Sta. Nigeria. The language used by decision makers in a company both shapes and bounds what the company focuses on and how it articulates its strategic options (Brannen & Doz, 2012). In this regard, language can facilitate and significantly limit strategic growth and performance of companies. Key factors that prevent information about the target market from reaching organizational decision makers is the language barriers (Brannen & Doz, 2012). The connections between a company and all of its stakeholders strengthen because of effective communication (Levinson, Kita, Haun, & Rasch, 2002). Bartel (2001) explains that effective communication is critical to the success of any organization with an increase in the complexity of the organization’s structure and technology.
To support continuous improvement in employees‘ performance the culture of the organization should be developed so that employees are able to identify with the values, norms, and artifacts of the organization, hence the need for organizational culture (Ojo, 2009). An organization is a learning environment because it is through this process that employees learn about the organizational culture and decide whether they can cope with it or not (Arinanye, 2015). It makes employees perform better if they understand the organizational culture, hence an individual is carrying out an assignment or task understanding more of performance as to the extent. (Cascio, 2006).
Studies indicated a relationship between organizational culture and employees‘ performance. Magee (2002), as cited in Agwu (2014), argued that organizational practices are inherently connected to the organizational culture which in turn influence employees‘ performance but Hellriegel and Slocum (2009) contend that if organizational culture can be understood then it can enhance employees‘ performance. In another study, Mohammad, Uddin, Huq, and Saad (2013) showed a positive association between a strong culture and performance improvement on the impact of organizational culture on employee performance and productivity.
Kenney et al (1992) state that the performance standards set by the organization are the measure of employees‘ performance. There are a number of measures that can be taken into consideration when measuring performance — for example, using of productivity, efficiency, quality and profitability measures (Ahuja, 1992), as cited in Nassazi (2013). Efficiency is the ability to produce the desired outcomes by using as minimal resources as possible (Stoner, 1996). Productivity is expressed as a ratio of output to that of input (Stoner et al, 1995). Quality is the characteristic of products or services that bear an ability to satisfy the stated or implied needs (Kotler & Armstrong, 2002).