The helianthus ( Helianthus annuus L. , 2n = 34 ) belongs to the household Compositae. It was given its name, “ sunflower ” ( Gr-helios = Sun, anthos = flower ) , in Europe in the eighteenth century. Sunflower is one of the chief harvests around the universe, cultivated on a surface of about 21 million hectares ( A koriA‡ et al. , 2007 ) . It is one of the three harvest species along with soya bean and rapeseed which history for about 78 % of the universe vegetable oil. Heterosis of these harvests has been exploited merely over the past few decennaries.
Hybrid helianthus became a world with the find of cytoplasmatic male asepsis and effectual male birthrate Restoration system during 1970. Sunflower intercrossed genteelness was started economically in detecting CMS by Leclercq in 1960 and restorer cistrons by Kinman in 1970 ( Miller and Fick, 1997 ) . First helianthus loanblends were produced in US in 1972 and reached 80 % of production in five old ages ( Fick and Miller, 1997 ) . Single-cross loanblends rapidly became dominantly in sunflower cultivars in the universe. Loanblends were preferred by husbandmans due to high output and quality potency, homogeneousness, same clip maturating and easy possibility of cultural applications worldwide.
Hybrid energy has been the chief drive force for credence of this oilseed harvest. Use of hybrid vigor has allowed sunflower to go one of the major oil-rich seed in many states of Eastern and Western Europe, Russia and South America and is an of import harvest in the USA, Australia, South Africa, China, India and Turkey. Of the about 16.5 million hectares of sunflower grown in the major bring forthing states, 11.5 million hectares are planted to loanblends. Use of hybrid vigor has allowed sunflower to go one of the major oil-rich seed in many states of Eastern and Western Europe, Russia and South America and is an of import harvest in the USA, Australia, South Africa, China, India and Turkey. Of the about 16.5 million hectares of sunflower grown in the major bring forthing states, 11.5 million hectares are planted to loanblends ( Miller, 1998 ) . Present twenty-four hours sunflower cultivars contain more than 40 % oil and 18-20 % protein. Sunflower oil is of good quality as it contains high proportion of linoleic acid which is a polyunsaturated fatty acid. It is besides a good beginning of Ca, P, nicotinic acid and vitamin E. There are a figure of advantages of turning helianthus for oil compared with other cultivated species. No particular machinery is needed to bring forth this harvest. It can be grown as gimmick harvest in many state of affairss. Bing drought resistant it is good suited for rainfed every bit good as irrigated countries. Sunflower seeds contain about 42 per centum high quality comestible oil. The harvest continuance is such that it can be sandwiched between two cotton, rice or murphy harvests. So it has a great potency to do the state self sufficient in comestible oil. It is needed to better the output potency of sunflower varieties/hybrids to increase sunflower production of the state.
Loanblends due to their higher output potency are being used throughout the universe for increasing the productiveness of about all harvests including helianthus. With an country of 2.1 million hectares and production of 1.25 million dozenss is one of the most of import oil-rich seed harvests of India. India ‘s portion in entire universe production of helianthus is about 6 % , accounting for 10.0 % of universe land area. Sunflower is grown twelvemonth unit of ammunition as a exclusive harvest and it besides fits good as an intercrop with leguminous plants, in dual cropping and in three-crop rotary motions. Despite the premier place the harvest holds in the vegetable oil economic system of the state, the mean productiveness degree is low ( 629 kg/ha ) as compared with the universe ‘s productiveness ( 1240 kg/ hour angle ) . After the debut of the harvest in India in the early 1970s, a demand for loanblends was recognized. Experimental loanblends were developed in 1974-75 utilizing the centimeter and refinisher lines introduced from USA.
The first intercrossed from public sector was released for commercial cultivation in 1980. Since so the intercrossed genteelness plan has been rather successful and 29 productive loanblends were developed by both public ( 18 ) and private sectors ( 11 ) . These loanblends are intended for different agroproduction state of affairss, which are busying 95 % of the crop-grown country. Harmonizing to the web site of the board of directors of oil-rich seeds research Hyderabad, India, eleven unfastened pollinated and 16 loanblends have been released under AICORPO. Despite these successes with the harvest, the major jobs endangering sunflower productiveness in India are the stagnating and unstable outputs and exposure to assorted biotic emphasiss. The major diseases assailing helianthus harvest in India are Alternaria leaf topographic point ( Alternaria helianthi ) , rust ( Puccinia helianthi Schw. ) , downlike mold ( Plasmopara halstedii ( Farl. ) , Rhizopus caput putrefaction and a sunflower mortification disease ( a disease of recent beginning ) . The harvest is affected at all growing phases. Disease incidence is extremely unpredictable and it tends to fluctuate from twelvemonth to twelvemonth, season to season and location to location, therefore asking region-specific direction schemes. Among the assorted attacks to pull off these diseases, host works opposition is the most dependable and economical to the terminal users. Plant engendering attempts to develop varieties/hybrids with built-in tolerance to the major diseases are constrained by the narrow familial base of the cultivated helianthus. Development of loanblends from Inbred Lines
Loanblends are besides developed from inbreds derived from the same narrow cistron pool. A cistron bank with about 1000 accessions is available in the state but it is characterized by unacceptable degrees of intra accessional heterogeneousness in many lines therefore curtailing the range for use of the stuff in engendering plans. Most surveies on engendering for disease opposition were confined to showing of the available cultivar germplasm against the diseases under natural conditions and hence, these beginnings could non be converted into useable signifiers. With the exclusion of downy mold disease, the released cultivars rated as tolerant/resistant are based on their field reaction to the pathogen. However, none of these were bred from parents that were classified as genetically immune to a peculiar disease.
Wild Helianthus species serve as possible beginnings of fresh familial variableness and several desirable features such as opposition to biotic and abiotic emphasiss, cytoplasmatic male asepsis, birthrate refinisher cistrons and oil quality have been successfully introgressed into cultivated helianthus ( Seiler, 1992 ) . The turning demands for extra familial variableness to better the cultivated helianthus makes it necessary to roll up, keep, qualify, measure and use the wild helianthus germplasm. Concerted attempts are required to integrate extra familial variableness from dependable beginnings by incorporating modern biotechnological tools and conventional genteelness methods. ( Sujatha, 2006 ) . Recently, a survey of familial diverseness among 177 public helianthus inbred lines was carried out. These inbred lines were developed and released by USDA -ARS from 1970-2005. Target part amplified polymorphism ( TRAP ) marker technique was foiund suited for fingerprinting of helianthus inbred lines. These inbred lines will be utile for farther intercrossed engendering programme in helianthus ( Yue et al. , 2009 ) .
Choice of adaptable loanblends combined with usage of recommended production patterns are of import factors for profitable sunflower production. Loanblends now are planted on over 99 per centum of the USA land area. Hybrids replaced open-pollinated assortments because of their increased output, pest opposition, uniformity, stalk quality and ego compatibility. Agriculturists should utilize several standards in intercrossed choice. First, they should take an stock list of available loanblends being marketed in their country. Seed yield possible is an of import trait to see when looking at an available intercrossed list. Yield test consequences from university experiment Stationss and from commercial companies should place a twelve or so systematically high giving up loanblends for a peculiar country. Consequences from strip trials or presentation secret plans on or near agriculturists ‘ farms should be evaluated. Output consequences from old old ages on an person ‘s farm and information from neighbours is besides valuable. The best bring forthing loanblends in a part may bring forth about 2,000 lbs per acre with good dirt birthrate and favourable dirt wet, or up to 3,000 lbs per acre in the most favourable turning conditions. North Dakota ‘s mean output ranges from 1,200 to 1,400 lbs per acre. An of import trait to see is pest opposition or tolerance. Loanblends are available with tolerance to corrode, Verticillium wilt, certain races of downy mold, and early maturation. Agriculturists should look into with their local seed trader or sunflower seed company representative to obtain this information. Stalk quality, another trait to see, is a stalk reaction to damage from several plagues. Loanblends with good chaff quality are easier to reap and field losingss by and large are reduced. Good chaff quality in helianthus besides allows the harvest to defy amendss and field losingss due to high air currents. Uniform chaff tallness at adulthood is another of import trait to see.
Oil per centum should be a trait to see in intercrossed choice. Several environmental factors influence oil per centum, but the loanblend ‘s familial potency for oil per centum besides is of import. If the market monetary value is influenced by oil per centum, so high oil loanblends should be considered. Current loanblends have oil per centums runing from 38 to over 50 per centum. Domestic Sun oil crushers have been paying a premium for higher oil-rich seed in recent old ages. Loanblends with oil per centums in the 40-45 scope, on a 10 per centum wet footing, should be selected. Agriculturists should analyze physiological adulthood evaluations to take advantage of helianthus loanblends, particularly when sing late plantings. Agriculturists need a loanblend that will maturate good within the mean frost-free period. Compared to the mid-late 1970s, the adulthood evaluations of helianthus loanblends available today are much broader in scope of adulthood ( earliest to full season ) . Test weight besides is an of import trait for consideration, particularly for loanblends selected for late planting or replanting. A trial weight of 25 lbs per bushel is required to do official USDA class, but late developed loanblends have test weights runing from 28 to 32 lbs per bushel. Self compatibility, the ability of the helianthus works to pollenate itself in the absence of insect pollinators, is another desirable trait in loanblends. Finally, the last point to see is the purchase of the seed from a reputable seed company and trader with a good proficient service record if production jobs do happen and assistance or audience is required.
Cytoplasmic male asepsis for developing Sunflower loanblends
The find of cytoplasmatic male asepsis ( CMS ) in helianthus by Leclereq ( 1969 ) and subsequent designation of cistrons for birthrate Restoration have resulted in the development of commercial loanblends since 1972. However, all the helianthus loanblends that are commercially grown have a individual beginning of CMS discovered by Leclereq taking to homogeneousness and possible hazard that was apparent in instance of corn. Diversification of CMS beginnings is inevitable in any hybrid-breeding plan. Fortunately in sunflower more than 62 new CMS beginnings of different beginnings have been reported ( Serieys, 1999 ) . The diverseness of the new beginnings was assessed chiefly based on cytoplasmatic male asepsis and birthrate Restoration systems. Merely a few research workers have described interactions between cytols and atomic cistrons in the look of several qualitative and quantitative characters and good cytoplasmatic atomic interactions have been reported in assorted harvests. In helianthus, a alone cytoplasmatic atomic interaction caused decrease in chlorophyll, photosynthetic rate and overall decrease in energy and positive consequence and oil content At present, the chief purpose of sunflower genteelness is the obtaining of high output commercial loanblends. Sunflower loanblends are object of engendering attending because of their agronomic and economic advantages over assortments ( high productiveness, oil content, disease opposition, etc. ) . The cardinal constituent of sunflower loanblend development is cytoplasmatic male asepsis ( centimeter ) . The obtaining of loanblends with high hybrid vigor consequence became possible after the find of the first centimeter beginning by P. Leclercq ( Leclercq, 1969 ) and sensing of birthrate Restoration cistrons by M. Kinman ( Kinman, 1970 ) .
Development of unfertile centimeter parallels of lines used in sunflower genteelness plans for commercial loanblend development is one of the practical applications of centimeter probes. CMS PET-1 is a centimeter beginning which is widely used of in sunflower loanblend development. Such cytoplasmatic uniformity presents a possible hazard for intercrossed sunflower production. The use of different cytoplasmatic backgrounds in intercrossed development will better general variableness of the helianthus and decrease the menace of epiphytotics. The different centimeter lines and familial stocks registered are presented in table 1.Thirteen new unfertile centimeter parallels on the base of different helianthus centimeter beginnings have been obtained. The obtained backcrosses have been evaluated for chief agronomic traits, including the opposition to the of import helianthus pathogens. As a consequence of this survey, the most prospective centimeter parallels were designated for future usage in engendering plans. ( Tavoljanskiy et al. , 2004 ) . Cytoplasmic male asepsis ( CMS ) in commercial helianthus loanblends is thought to be derived from a related wild species, Helianthus petiolaris, yet CMS lines are known to transport the chloroplast DNA genotype of H. annuus. Commercial helianthus loanblends released from Argentina are listed in table 3.To clarify the beginning of sunflower CMS, polymerase concatenation reaction-based scheme was developed for observing CMS in helianthus and surveyed more than 1,200 workss stand foring 55 accessions of H. annuus and 26 accessions of H. petiolaris. 160 offspring from three crosses were tested for rigorous maternal heritage of organelle DNAs to find if the evident disagreement in the species giver of the mitochondrial DNA and chloroplast DNA genotypes in CMS lines might ensue from low-frequency maternal or biparental heritage of either cell organ. No CMS cytotypes were observed in natural populations of either H. annuus or H. petiolaris, and rigorous maternal heritage of organelle DNA was observed. Pollen scarceness has been studied in an Indian intercrossed KBSH-1. In instance of scarceness of pollen during pollenation for intercrossed seed production of KBSH-1 or when there is extra handiness of pollen from restorer line-6D-1 due to miss of synchronism and to hold better public-service corporation of available pollen, pollen grains may be stored either in icebox or in earthen pots filled with H2O and covered with wet fabric and utilised decently when male unfertile line-CMS234A is receptive, to acquire increased output ( Sumathi et al. , 2007 ) . The sunflower loanblends for downey mold opposition released by ICAR India are listed in table 2. Private sector seed companies have besides released many of import loanblends for cultivation, some recent 1s are listed in table 4.
Contrary to conventional genteelness methods, the F1 intercrossed method facilitates the familial variegation of helianthus genotypes through a more efficient geographic expedition of the Helianthus genus with its possible cistron pools for superior quantitative and qualitative traits. The familial advancement already achieved will be further increased by modern methods of biotechnology and familial technology which will let development of a new ace productive type of helianthus. The output advantage of FI loanblends compared with best open-pollinated assortments stands demonstrated. Unfortunately all soon available F1 loanblends are based on the petiolaris CMS beginning. More attempts must be directed towards variegation of exploitable CMS beginnings. With the rapid gait that characterizes the development of the modern molecular genetic sciences, the sunflower intercrossed genteelness can non come on correspondingly without the joint attempts of scientists and research institutes involved. Constitution of an FAO research web on helianthus was a measure in the right way The chief current jobs of sunflower loanblend genteelness are the farther betterment of productiveness by increasing seed and oil outputs and the decrease of familial exposure to diseases and heat or H2O emphasis encountered in assorted ecological zones. ( Vranceanu 1998 ) . New beginnings of CMS and birthrate Restoration cistrons will assist cut down the familial exposure of commercial helianthus loanblends because of the current usage of individual centimeter cytol, PET1 ( French ) derived from H petiolaris Nutt and a few birthrate Restoration cistrons These new centimeter and matching birthrate Restoration lines will supply cytoplasmatic diverseness for intercrossed sunflower production ( Jan and Vick 2006 )
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