In this assignment I will be writing a report explaining how the application of relevant principles and values will allow professionals to provide holistic support for individuals, such as John and Mina, who use social services. Empowerment- Empowerment means giving individuals a good amount of information regarding themselves so that they are able to have a say in decision making and choices about their own life.
This is what is happening in John’s life as he very happy remaining in his own council flat even though it would make much sense for him to be put into a care home, here he can be cared for at all times but his decision is that he wants to live on his own he will not be forced to do anything but he can only receive information that he needs about things that he can do whenever he is ready. This benefits John in the way that it will lift his self-esteem. Making him feel empowered will make him feel that his say matters and that his thoughts and feelings are not being ignored. T will make him feel as if he is being respected and still considered as a responsible human being. As for the professional staff supporting him, enabling John to feel empowered may make them feel like they are enhancing radioactivity and collaboration by working together with him. It may give them a sense of shared purpose. Promotion of choice- This is encouraging that all individuals need to be able to select, either independently or with assistance, things like options and activities which are specifically for them.
Choice can be promoted by explaining to the individual what is important to them and might not be to others. In Main’s case she wants to study at university and this is her own choice and something that she really wants to do and no one can stop her from wanting that. Promotion of rights- This would be acknowledging and expecting somebody’s individuality. This includes confidentiality, discrimination, age and race. John seems as if he isn’t having problems concerning his rights because his neighbors seems to be trying their best to help him instead of discriminating against or seeing him as annoying because of his age.
The promotion of choice and rights will benefit Mina because she will feel as if she is being acknowledged and that the steps are taken regarding her health are entirely up to hers and that she is not just going by what other people think. It also means that Mina can say or do what she wants and is entitled and not eel as if it is okay because she has already been told that she will not be judged or ridiculed. This will make careers feel satisfied in knowing that they are doing their job right and being fair to the service user.
Recognition of service users- This is just recognizing a vulnerable person’s preferences. If this is acknowledged it makes working together easier. Individuals like John may wish to state his preferences regarding the type of support that he wishes to receive, such as if a career comes to his house on certain days of the week to check on him however he might not be comfortable with this being every day. The benefit of this is that it may give John the sense that he is still living independently despite of all the help that he may be receiving.
It is important that he is not made to feel like everyone is making a big deal over him. It is important that he feels he is still allowed to stay in control of his daily life and activities. Careers may benefit from this by feeling like their job is made easier because if John is feeling independent the chances are that he will be a pleasure to work with. Involvement of individuals in planning their support- This is a person-centered approach to care. This means that care is focused on the individual to ensure that independence and autonomy are promoted.
Care workers should not make decisions without discussing and consulting the individual which is involved. For example, John wouldn’t suddenly be informed that he is being moved into a care home without his own consent. Both John and the care worker benefit from this because they engage in conversation. John benefits out of this because, he is stating what he really wants as this is all about him, his interests and abilities so this means they have his best interest at heart and will provide him with what he is asking for.
The care worker may benefit from this because collecting this information will help them long term as they are finding out things about John which they may have never really need. Respect for religious beliefs, moral beliefs, values and care- There is a diverse range of backgrounds in Britain and this means there is a wide range of behaviors and beliefs which should be recognized and valued. Living and working in a culturally and socially diverse society can benefit us because we are exposed to many different kinds of people and we learn from them and enjoy the things that they may have to share.
For example, Mina loud benefit if she was to be sent a duty social worker originally from South Africa and she may really get along with him/her because they might always tell great stories about South Africa and its wildlife and in turn the social worker may enjoy hearing Minas stories about where and how she grew up, she would enjoy these visits from social services and would probably feel less like she is being interrogated all the time. This benefits both Mina and the duty social worker because they are both socializing and may gain new found interests.
Anti-discriminatory practice- Discrimination is caused by prejudice and that dads to negative behavior. It is to treat someone differently because of their class or background without regard to the individual. Examples include, social, racial, religious, sexual, disability, ethnic and age related discrimination. There is also a danger of stereotyping or making assumptions about people because of the above factors, for example people may stereotype against an individual like John because he is older.
The anti-discriminatory practice benefits John because it means that he doesn’t have to worry about being discriminated against. The anti-discriminatory practice makes sure that an individual like John doesn’t offer from discrimination which means that his physical and psychological needs are not being ignored as discrimination leads to stress which could make his dementia worse. The care worker benefits from this because it means that there is less risk of John’s health deteriorating.
Holistic approach- This would be considering all of a person’s needs and providing opportunities for the needs to be met. This includes physical, intellectual, emotional and social needs. Even though Mina has enough physical needs, this should not be the only thing that is being paid attention to. Perhaps her social well-being should also be acknowledged , this can be done by social workers suggesting things to her such as clubs where she can be involved in playing chess with her peers every once or twice a week.
This would benefit Mina because it will mean that her mind will work better for a reasonable amount of time and it means that not only one part of her whole self is being considered. This will make the care worker feel as if they are doing their job properly because providing care for Minas PIES means taking care of her as a whole. Working in partnership- This would be different health and social care agencies working together. Sharing good practice contributes to he support of vulnerable individuals.
For example, when it comes to supporting John, the social worker and the doctor need to work together in order to share ideas and suggestions regarding John’s health support plan. This benefits John because many people working together to provide care for him means that there will be more options for him since everyone has a say and there are more suggestions for him. This benefits the care worker because they are not working on their own, they have others to help them out and share each others ideas, that some people on their own wouldn’t have been able to put together.
A multi- capillary/inter-agency approach- This is different professions and services co- operating so that certain problems are avoided when planning support. Different options can be considered and resources can be offered to be included in the support plan in order for things to run smoothly for individuals like John, they may arrange to refer him to local authorities and various organizations such as age concern in order for him to receive the best support. This also means that he will never run short of anything or people around him.
This will provide a better outcome coming from the care workers as their job is made simpler cause a well organized multi-disciplinary team can help avoid duplication of roles and conflicts of responsibilities between the different agencies, support plan manager and John himself. Confidentiality- This means that an individual has a right to privacy and control over their personal details. If the individual has trusted you enough for them to reveal their information, it is important to keep information provided by the individual confidential, it is also legal requirement.
Sometimes this information needs to be passed on to another professional in John’s case, his doctor may need to pass on some information o his duty social worker but this must not be done unbeknownst to him. This benefits John because it means that sometimes he can let all of his thoughts out in confidence to somebody that he trusts and can feel as if a weight has been lifted of his shoulders this is because sometimes it is good to talk to someone about how you are feeling as it will help his emotional needs.
This benefits the care worker because John opening up to them may make it easier for them to help him, advise him and hear his cry for help without having to wonder what he is really thinking. Fulfilling responsibilities- Care workers must follow the leslies and procedures of the place in which they are employed and they must take full responsibility because they signed a contract.
By doing this, they are safeguarding individuals like John who are in their care and are being good role models. This will also ensure that people like John feel like they are actually being heard and that they are not alone and their needs are being fully met. This also benefits the care workers themselves because if John is satisfied then that gives them the heads up that they are meeting his needs and that they didn’t come into the job to be unhelpful and a disappointment.
Dumaguete City Boulevard: A Breeding Ground for Prostitution Research Team: Czarina Isabelle G. Guath BSPA – II Jacklyn M. Sontillanosa BSSW – II Prof. Joan C. Generoso Basic Communication 25 – E September 2013 Topic Outline Dumaguete City Boulevard: A Breeding Ground for Prostitution Thesis: Prostitution in Dumaguete is the highest increasing illegal activity in the city which takes place in the boulevard causing tourist’s constant coming in the area. Introduction I. Prostitution A. Definition B. History II. Causes of Prostitution A. Poverty B. Lack of Parental Guidance C. Environmental Factors D. Peer Pressure III. Effects of Prostitution
A. Sexually Transmitted Diseases B. Unwanted Pregnancy C. Low self-esteem IV. Arguments against Prostitution V. Interview with social workers in Dumaguete City Conclusion Sentence Outline Dumaguete City Boulevard: A Breeding Ground for Prostitution Thesis: Prostitution in Dumaguete is the highest increasing illegal activity in the city which takes place in the boulevard causing tourist’s constant coming in the area. Introduction: Prostitution is a never ending war like abortion which is considered as an immoral activity in the society. Dumaguete is known for its women who sell sexual services which has been going on for years now.
Prostitution is the highest increasing illegal activity in the city which takes place in the boulevard causing tourist’s constant coming in the area. I. Prostitution is one of the branches of the sex industry. A. It is the practice of providing sexual services in return for payment. B. It is considered as the world’s oldest profession. II. There are four causes why people engage in prostitution. A. Poverty is the major reason why women enter prostitution. B. Parents don’t meet their children’s needs. C. Society can greatly influence a person’s decision-making skills. D. Peer pressure is another cause why women enter prostitution.
III. Prostitution has several effects to people. A. Sexually Transmitted Diseases can be obtained. B. Unplanned pregnancy might happen. C. Sex workers tend to have low self-esteem. IV. There are arguments to prove that prostitution is the highest increasing illegal activity. V. Interview with a social worker and two prostitutes who share information which greatly help in the completion of the study. Conclusion The above discussion showed that because of poverty, women opt to become prostitutes; prostitution is the highest increasing illegal activity in the city which takes place in the boulevard causing tourist’s constant coming in the area. Dumaguete City Boulevard: A Breeding Ground for Prostitution Prostitution is a never ending war like abortion which is considered as an immoral activity in the society. Dumaguete is known for its women who sell sexual services which has been going on for years now. In October 1997, the Marina Clinic of the SUMC organized these women into the Magdalena group. They studied the prostitute’s psychological as well as their socio-economic status (Flores, 2001, p. 3). Persons prostitute themselves when they grant sexual favours to others in exchange for money, gifts, or other payment and in doing so, use their bodies as commodities.
Prostitutes may be of either sex, but throughout history the majorities have been women, reflecting both the traditional socioeconomic dependence of women and the tendency to exploit female sexuality. Prostitution in Dumaguete is the highest increasing illegal activity in the city which takes place in the boulevard and cause tourists to flood the area. This paper presents the discussion of local prostitution happening in the City of Dumaguete and the reason why this business exists nowadays. The first part of the research paper presents the overview of the topic which is Local Prostitution.
Next, the paper presentation will discuss the main causes why women commit themselves to this business and be followed by its effects. The third part of the paper presentation is the discussion of the arguments against the local prostitution as a high increasing illegal activity. And to end the paper presentation, an interview with sex workers and a Marina Clinic member was conducted to add their criticism against the subject. The paper claims that local prostitution in Dumaguete is an increasing illegal activity that needs to be stopped.
Prostitution is one of the branches of the sex industry. The legal status of prostitution varies from country to country, from being permissible but unregulated, to a punishable crime or to a regulated profession. Estimates place the annual revenue generated from the global prostitution industry to be over $100billion. Prostitution is the business or practice of providing sexual services to another person in return for payment. The person who receives payment for sexual services is called a prostitute and is a kind of sex worker, and the person who receives such services is known by a multitude of terms. Many women earn their living as sex workers in one or another branch of the sex industry such as pornography, nude dancing, telephone sex, computer pornography and prostitution which categorized women into different ugly stereotypes such as being drug addicts or disease carriers. Women who entered the sex industry are women at work–supporting children as single parents, trying to save money to go to school, surviving economically in a job market that underpays women at every economic level.
As we look straight to the lives of these prostitutes, being an economic failure causes women to enter sex industry. For these women to survive their daily lives, women decide to commit themselves in that kind of industry, they do not want this choice but it is the last option that they could have. Today, there are different forms in which prostitution thrives such as street prostitution, bars, brothels, akyat-barko, “massage parlors”, escort services, sex tourism, cybersex, local and international sex trafficking and even on the internet (McTavish, 2012).
Brothels are establishments specifically dedicated to prostitution. In escort prostitution, the act may take place at the customer’s residence or in a hotel room, or at the escort’s residence. Another form is street prostitution. Sex tourism refers to traveling especially from developed to underdeveloped nations, to engage in sexual activity with prostitutes. Some rich clients may pay for long term contract that may last years. Wherever they find evidence of human culture, they find evidence of prostitution.
When the earliest known human societies emerged in the fertile crescent of Mesopotamia, the sex trade evolved alongside temples, customs, markets and laws. Beginning in the third millennium B. C, the Sumerians, the first major inhabitants of ancient Mesopotamia, worshiped the goddess Ishtar, a deity that would remain a constant throughout Mesopotamia’s Babylonian and Assyrian empires. Ishtar was the goddess of love and war, symbolized by the planet Venus, and was born anew as a maiden every morning only to become a ‘whore’ every evening – the etymology of the word lying in the Indo-European root meaning ‘desire.
Ironically, Mesopotamian religious practices gave birth to the prostitution trade, as women in Ishtar’s service would help men who offered money to her temples with the ‘sacred’ powers of their bodies. Achieving a priority of communication with the goddess from their fertility, only women enjoyed this religious position. Thus Ishtar temples became knowledge centres concerning birth, birth control, and sexuality. Priestesses became the nurses and sacred sex therapists of these early societies.
Men of all rank could hire these women and, in turn, make an offering to the goddess from whose temple the prostitute came. The king would also take part in certain sacred sex rituals with the high priestesses in conjunction with grain harvests: the fertility of the earth was secured through a ritual that celebrated the fertility of the womb. The king, regent of the earth, and priestess, regent of the goddess, coupled in this highly symbolic manner that celebrates the sexual process that brought both grain and people into being. Thus Ishtar became known as the protector of all prostitutes.
Prostitution, or at least the religious prostitution involved in these sacred sex rituals, existed without taboo or prohibition, as evidenced in some of our species’ earliest literary works (Fanni, 2013). Drug addiction, severe poverty, low self-esteem, and emotional problems are the known causes why people enter prostitution. The most important reason however is money. Some of them don’t have decent jobs, need to support their family or some other specific things. But these reasons aren’t enough for a woman to become a prostitute. Someone might have introduced her into the business of prostitution (Thio & Taylor, 2012, p. 192). Prostitution is very much related to poverty, by the chronic unemployment and the lack of economic opportunities, it indirectly reflects our country’s poor economic performance and poor priorization of needs and goods. Because the government cannot provide job to everyone especially to those uneducated ones, these people cannot be able to sustain their daily needs to survive life. Prostitution has never been their choice, yet this is the remaining option to women who need to earn money to fulfil their own personal needs and to support their family.
If there are only employment choices for the poor and uneducated, there would also be a decrease in women who are entering prostitution. Another reason why women become prostitutes is because they lack parental guidance. Irresponsible parenthood has also been cited as one of the causes why young boys and girls are driven into prostitution. The City government and DSWD created a task force which gives these women some livelihood incentives, spiritual formation, and theatre arts workshop, peer education and counselling (Flores, 2001, p. 3).
The family is the one who extends to the family member the benefits of moral guidance, self-discipline, and religious instruction. Parents also have the duty to know their children’s friends and their activities in order to prevent the latter from falling into bad company. But the fact is, most prostitutes had their first experience from a direct family member. This means that the first who violated their body is a family member; it could either be the father, uncle, step-father or even their brother. Women choose to become prostitutes because their parents were no longer there to protect them.
Women have been tricked into prostitution with guarantees of decent job opportunities either in the cities or abroad or have been kidnapped and then forced to work as a prostitute. Not all prostitutes come into the profession because of the idea that they are going to earn money and provide sex satisfaction for the men. Some are victims of illegal prosecutors who promised to give them good jobs but unfortunately they were tricked and pushed to work for these recruiters as prostitutes. These women have become victims of human trafficking. There are a lot of known effects when women, men, and children involve themselves in prostitution.
Our study focuses on three of these known effects which are Sexually Transmitted Diseases, unwanted pregnancy, and low self-esteem. First, we will discuss STD; Sexually transmitted diseases (STD), also referred to as sexually transmitted infections (STI) and venereal diseases (VD), are illnesses that have a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of sexual behaviour, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. Prostitution is physically harmful to women in prostitution. STDs are alarmingly high among women in prostitution.
Second, unwanted pregnancy might also occur among prostitutes. Unintended pregnancies are pregnancies that were unwanted at the time of conception. There are a lot of methods in which unwanted pregnancy could be avoided; it could be by the use of contraceptives or Withdrawal (Pull Out Method). But if prostitutes get pregnant, most of them turn to abortion. Some might push through with their pregnancy but will later on send their children into adoption. Third, Low self-esteem connects directly to prostitution and porn. It’s easy to prey upon and manipulate a person of low self-esteem.
Prostitution need not necessarily cause low self-esteem. It might do so if the sex-worker feels that he or she has entered prostitution for economic reasons, because they have no other option, or because they have been forced into it against their will. For many clients, low self-esteem may be a factor in their decision to use a sex-worker. Their guilt afterwards may only worsen their self-esteem issues. A life of prostitution may reduce the chances of having an intimate relationship outside of work and limit the possibility of being able to respond sexually with a partner in an authentic way.
In the Philippines, there are some arguments against the oldest profession. The law makers suggest that prostitution must be legalized such as in some countries in Europe in which the sex industry had been legalized. The recent International Labor Organization (ILO) which urges the government to officially recognize sex industry has not elicited much reaction to date. The report actually wants the government to apply labor regulation and standards “Where prostitution is recognized as legal works. “ But some has the stand that prostitution must never be legalized in the Philippines.
Under the Revised Penal Code, prostitution is classified as a crime against moral, punishable by a fine for the first offenders and jail sentences and fines for repeaters. Franklin Llaguno, in a column in another paper, notes that the ILO Report may give new life to the case of decriminalization of prostitution because as it stated in the Revised Penal Code, prostitution is classified as crime against oral and punishable and jail sentences for the offenders. (Manila Bulletin, 1998). The Gabriela Women’s Group strongly disagreed in the Legalization of Prostitution.
According to them, prostitution is a human rights violation. It is among the recognized forms of violence committed against women and children. It is not work or occupation that women undertake by choice. Viewed in the Philippine setting, it is a situation, most often characterized by physical abuse, exploitation and discrimination which women and children endure when they are forced by circumstances to be prostituted. They also added that the legalization of prostitution is tantamount to the legalization of exploitation and of the violence that commonly exist within the system (Philippine Star, 1998).
Legalization creates a situation where prostituted women and children are legally subjected to slave-like conditions. The notion that patrons or clients are legally buying sexual services does not in any way dignify or uplift how society looks at women and children. Another argument against prostitution is the rampant child prostitution. Children nowadays are pressured by their parents to work on mainland cities in order to alleviate poverty. Most of these children work as prostitutes and are being sold in brothels or on the streets to foreigners.
If the child prostitute doesn’t reach her daily quota, he/she would be beaten by the recruiter or pimp. Father Shay Cullen helped smuggle a television camera inside a jail that showed hundreds of children as young as 5 locked in cages stacked a half-dozen high. Most were child prostitutes, caught in that country’s rampant sex tourism trade. (Kielburger & Kielburger, 2007). Trice stated that “these traffickers and pimps, they know what they’re doing, such as the manipulation, the brainwashing,” she said.
“They make the girls believe that the only way the girl can be successful is through (the pimps) direction. Otherwise, the girls are worthless and they have no value” (Trice, 2011). The researchers strongly believe that prostitution must not be legalized in our country because more and more tourists and even fellow Filipinos would continue to look at women as mere sex objects. Innocent children should not be victimized by this kind of profession. The researchers conducted an interview on 2 female sex workers named Ludy and Bebot, and to an acting coordinator of the SU Marina Mission Clinic, Dr.
Fe Sucip-Wale. Dr. Wale stated that the main causes of prostitution are poverty, low education, broken homes, and sexual abuse. Health is affected when women get into the sex trade; they develop sexually transmitted diseases and are vulnerable to HIV / AIDS. However, medical assistance is available for these women if they acquire STDs. These women can go to the City Health Office for examination and treatment for free or subsidized. The age bracket of women who does prostitution in Dumaguete City ranges from 15-50 years old. They usually have an income of P5, 000-P15, 000 per month.
Statistically, there are about 100-200 prostitutes in the whole city (Wale, 2013). When the prostitutes were asked the same questions, they stated that “katong una, katong wala pa mi na organize, ni tungtung mi tanan ug 50, mga 19-50 ang edad sa mga gatrabaho ug ingun ani, depende ang among income, depende rapud ang customers. Kadaghanan sa mga kauban namu diri naay mga anak. Pwede man mu bulong ug laing trabaho pero lain-lain man gud ug sitwasyon sa pagpuyo sa pamilya. Naa mi live-in partners ang uban mga balo, ang uban naay bana pero magbulag ky manakit man.
Naay mga customers pud nga sakit kaayu mang-storya, abi ingun ani nalang amung trabaho sayun nalang kaayu ilang panglantaw. Naa man puy uban nga mu sabot sa sitwasyon. Pare-pareho raman ang among mga customers, daghan mang Pilipino ug mga foreigners pud. Mas daghang foreigners basta November-February kay mao man nay tig bakasyon sa mga foreigners diri; uban ky muhatag ug pagkaon o tip. Naa man pud mi mga tambal like suppositories, pills ug uban pa. Pero ug seryoso na jud ang sakit, muadto mis City Health Office o ang uban mu adto jud ug private nga doctor.
” (Bebot & Ludy, 2013). In conclusion, this research paper has shown that prostitution is the highest increasing illegal activity in Dumaguete City which is occurring in the boulevard and causing tourists constant coming in the area. APPENDICES Silliman University Dumaguete City ___Mrs. Leodel Y. Sarote___ ___SUMC Marina Clinic___ September 20 , 2013 Dear Mr. / Ms. _Sarote_: We are students from the School of Public Affairs and Governance and Social Work who are currently conducting a research entitled Dumaguete City Boulevard: A Breeding Place for Prostitutes.
The study is in partial fulfilment of the requirement in BC 25 (Research Writing in the Disciplines). In this regard, may we request for an interview with you at your convenience. You will greatly help in the completion of this study. We assure you that your answers will be kept confidential and will be used solely for the purpose of this study. Thank you for your cooperation. Sincerely Yours, Czarina Isabelle G. Guath 09174957601 Jacklyn Sontillanosa 09154692954 Silliman University Dumaguete City __Dr. Fe Sucip – Wale____ __Acting Coordinator____ __SU Marina Mission Clinic_
September 20 , 2013 Dear Dr. Wale: We are students from the School of Public Affairs and Governance and Social Work who are currently conducting a research entitled Dumaguete City Boulevard: A Breeding Place for Prostitutes. The study is in partial fulfilment of the requirement in BC 25 (Research Writing in the Disciplines). In this regard, may we request for an interview with you at your convenience. You will greatly help in the completion of this study. We assure you that your answers will be kept confidential and will be used solely for the purpose of this study.
Thank you for your cooperation. Sincerely Yours, Czarina Isabelle G. Guath 09174957601 Jacklyn Sontillanosa 09154692954 Name/s of Interviewee/s: Ludy and Bebot_ Date of Interview: 9-26-2013 Name of Interviewers: Czarina Guath &__ Time Started: 7:00 pm Jacklyn Sontillanosa Purpose of the Interview: For our research paper Time Ended: 7:30 pm INTERVIEWER’S QUESTIONS INTERVIEWEES ANSWERS 1. What are your reasons for enteringPoverty prostitution? 2. What is the age bracket for women19 years to 50 years old. who work as prostitutes? 3.
How many prostitutes are working nearWhen we were not yet the boulevard area? organized, we reached up to 50 women. 4. Is medical assistance available ifYes, there is. you get infected with STDs? 5. Do you have children? Yes, we have. 6. Are you in favour of legalizingThat would be favourable. prostitution here in our country? 7. Have you or your co-workersSome women here have been experience incest? victimized by their stepfathers. 8. If given a chance to look for anotherIt depends. We have different job, would you? standards of living. 9. Are you in favour of prostitution?
Yes, we are. REFERENCES Bebot [Personal Interview] 26 September 2013 Deepa, N. (2002). The feminist perspective. p. 446 Fanni, Z. (2013). A history of prostitution: How old is the sex trade? Retrieved from http://sabotagetimes. com/life/a-history-of-prostitution-how-old-is-the-sex-trade/ Flores, J. (2001). Prostitution in Dumaguete. The Negros Chronicle, vol. 27, no. 61, p. 3 Fritzie, R. (2001). Gender violence: Its socio cultural dimensions. New York,NY. Kielburger, C. & Kielburger, M. (2007). Helping girls flee brothels. Ludy [Personal Interview] 26 September 2013
Manila Bulletin (1998, August 8). p. 9 McTavish, J. (2012). Prostitution in the Philippines-A time for change. Millet, K. (2002). The sexual politics. Illinois, IL: University of Illinois Press Philippine Star (1998, September 15). p. 9 Priscilla, A. (2001). Prostitution;A difficult issue for feminist. p. 344-345 Saulnier, F. (1996). Feminist Theorist and social work. Philadelphia, PH: Haworth Press Thio, A. & Taylor, J. (2012) Social problems. Trice, D. (2011). Life after 25 years of prostitution. Wale, F. S. , Dr. [Personal Interview] 24 September 2013