The sampling activities has been carried out from 16 November 2013 until 19 January 2014. The field studies were done one time per hebdomad in each survey country between 1000 H and 1500 H by individual. Each study consisted of the review of domestic and non-domestic countries of each 7 checkpoint selected survey countries for H2O keeping containers.
All types of water-filled including moisture and dry containers that could move as possible genteelness sites and were positive for mosquito larvae/pupae were recorded. The sampled containers ( e.g. bottles, cups, pails, Surs, tree hole, bottles, coconut shell ) were described and categorized harmonizing to capacity ( based on container size ) , type ( fictile, glass, metal, natural, gum elastic, glass, polystyrene ) and usage ( discarded, kept, screen, H2O storage, domestic usage, horticulture ) . Other specifics of the location in which a container was found, such as whether it was a shaded or un-shaded and cheery or unsunny location. Location of container to be found besides has been describe based on forepart, backyard, and side of premises. However beach excluded from the classification as it focuses onto the beach pace.
The containers were categorized into three sizes: little ( capacity & A ; lt ; 1 liter ) , medium ( 1 liter & A ; lt ; capacity & A ; lt ; 10 liters ) and big ( capacity & A ; gt ; 10 liters ) . Sampling methods for the all container classs are the same. For the positive containers, theAedesimmature ( pupae and larvae ) were collected utilizing pipette or screens and placed into trial tubing. Merely several random immature is taken to place the species of mosquitoes breed in the specifics container. The samples taken were besides tagged with the related cheque point so the container could be linked to the beginning sample taken for forward intents. The image of all container besides has been captured as grounds the nowadays of container.
The container besides is recorded as it located under the shadowing constructions such as trees, roof, or screen. By this classs, the container should be classified as located at shaded country or unshaded country. By this classs, it will demo the human behavior that litter the container most.
The immature captured from 8-10. Then they were transported to the research lab at the School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia on the same twenty-four hours they were collected for rise uping and designation at mature phases. During the larva phase, they were fed purchase yeast one time a twenty-four hours every bit good as alteration the H2O inside the trial tubing every 3 to 4 yearss. Immature present non the chief intent in this survey therefore the rise uping merely supply beginnings for immature to develop into grownup phases merely. The larvae so transform into pupae, so reared until the outgrowth of grownups after which the grownups were identified to species, sexed and later killed. Reared larvae or pupae were given a pinch of larval day-to-day.
Data analysis was performed utilizing the Microsoft Excel and Statistical Package for Social Science ( SPSS ) Version 15.0 or older for Windows. All the information for positive water-holding and negative water-holding containers were used for statistical analysis.
Analysis of container properties
Tables show sum-up of containers surveyed at the Batu Feringghi survey countries. There is 7 topographic points that have been studied and were inspected for possible mosquito genteelness sites. Furthermore, we besides found positive container with one or moreAedesengendering sites. Out of a sum of 1416 water-holding containers with positive and negative immature nowadays were observed throughout this survey, 175 were found in beach ( coastal country ) , 122 in chalet building ( urban coastal residential country ) , 200 in Baywatch, 138 in astaka ( canoe and boat garage ) and chalet, 302 in commercial country I ( stall and little store ) , 437 in commercial country II ( hostel and mini market ) , and in conclusion mosque country with 42 container. From the sum of 1416 container sampled merely 33 were found positive withAedesimmature which is 2.33 % .
Most of the premises and tourer are have compound that normally used to maintain assorted fresh containers that can be possible genteelness sites. The location of the genteelness containers dumped will help the occupant and Ministry of Health inspector so that these locations can be given more attention/or targeted during control attempts by obscuring or spraying control activities. Figure 4.1 show the per centum of location container distributed. The highest figure of the positive outdoor containers was found in back side of the premises ( 48 % ) , followed by front country ( 20 % ) , and ( 19 % ) side of premises. Whereas the beach placed lowest figure of containers was found at beach country. Beach is independent location whereby it doesn’t have any way toward premises.
Figure 4.2 shows the per centums of the shaded and unshaded containers found in out-of-door countries. Aedes mosquitoes preferred containers in shaded countries instead than those in unfastened countries ( Nur Aida, 2013 ) . More than half of the outdoor positive containers ( 51 % ) were found in partly and shaded countries, with 35 % shaded by bushs or trees and 16 % were partly or to the full shaded by the roof of houses. Forty one per centum ( 41 % ) of the containers were found in the unfastened countries. Chi square trial showed a important difference in the figure of container found in shaded and unfastened countries ( ?2 = , P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) .
Figure 4.3 shows the per centum of container observed during survey at Batu Feringghi, Penang Island in relation to container types. The containers were classified into seven classs ; plastic, metal, natural ( coconut shell, flower sheath, tree holes, foliage and works axils ) , cement/clay, glass, gum elastic and polystyrene. If any possible container to be found that non specified under those seven will be province as others. Fictile containers were far more abundant than any other class, stand foring 52.4 % of the sum which was followed by glass ( 27 % ) , polystyrene containers ( 11.5 % each ) , glass ( 17.2 % ) , natural ( 7.3 % ) , metal ( 5.4 % ) gum elastic ( 1.3 % ) and cement ( 1 % ) . Others make up 4 % of the per centums. A Chi square trial showed a important difference in the figure of different container types found during survey period ( ?2 = , df = , P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) .
The most abundant positive container type in each survey site was fictile containers and least abundant was cement or clay containers in ( ?2 = , df = , P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) . Figure 4.6 shows the per centums of H2O keeping containers by type at the seven sites.
Seven classs of containers were identified based on container use: 1 ) kept containers ( pigment and cement pails, aluminum tins normally for reuse ) ; 2 ) discarded ( cast-off points, plastic bag, containers ) ; 3 ) screens ( canvases, fictile sheets, container screens or palpebras ) ; 4 ) H2O storage ( membranophones, pails, armored combat vehicles ) ; 5 ) domestic utilizations ( basin for rinsing intents, flower vases, kitchen points, bowl, cups ) ; 6 ) carnal baths or imbibe dispensers and 7 ) horticulture tools ( flower pots, trays, works irrigating pot ) .
Figure 4.1: Percentage location of container toward premises distribution in seven surveies sites at Batu Feringghi
Figure 4.2: Percentages state of affairs container in out-of-door countries toward the closest premises in the seven survey sites. Figure 4.3: Percentages of possible H2O keeping containers by type at Batu Feringghi tourer country.
Figure 4.4: Percentages of cast-off possible genteelness container by use at Batu Feringghi.
Figure 4.5: Percentage size container found in seven surveies countries at Batu Feringghi tourer country.
In figure 4.4 discarded containers were the most abundant, 2nd is gardening containers. House proprietor normally keep containers which have potency for reuse such big pigment bucket for H2O storage every bit good as basin map. Cover containers were the least abundant followed by domestic utilizations during this survey ( Figure 4.6 ) ; ( ?2 = , df = 7, P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) . Meanwhile, carnal bath were non found during 10 hebdomad of surveies. Percentages in all four sites ( Figure 5.6 ) ; ( ?2 = , df = , P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) .
Analysis of container sizes ( figure 4.6 ) revealed important fluctuations in the frequence of container sizes inhabited by Aedes immature ( Nur Aida 2013 ) . Water keeping containers have been categorized into three sizes, little, medium and big. Those with capacity less than 1 liters were referred to as little containers. Water keeping containers with a capacity of more than one liter and less than 10 liters were classified as medium containers, whereas those with capacity of more than 10 liters were classified as big containers.
Out of the entire 1416 possible keeping H2O containers observed in Batu Feringghi tourer country, the little containers ( 94 % or n=1325 ) were the most abundant containers, followed by big containers ( 4 % or n=55 ) and medium containers ( 2 % or n=36 ) ( Figure 5.7 ) . Chi square trial showed that there was a important difference in the figure of containers in relation to size ( ?2 = 299.215, df = 2, P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) .
Figure 4.6: Percentages of possible H2O keeping containers by type in seven classified country in Batu Feringghi ( Beach, Chalet building, Baywatch, Astaka and chalet, commercial country I, commercial country II, Mosque and street )
Figure 4.7: Percentages of usage feature of possible container in seven surveies country in Batu Feringghi ( Beach, Chalet building, Baywatch, Astaka and chalet, commercial country I, commercial country II, Mosque and street )
Figures 4.8: Overall per centums of use in seven surveies country in Batu Feringghi ( discarded, kept, screen, H2O storage, domestic usage, horticulture )
Analysis of periodical container
Figure 4.9 show the Numbers of container based on types for each hebdomad get downing hebdomad 1, ( 16/11/2013 ) until hebdomad 10, ( 19/1/2014 ) . The figure of possible H2O keeping container is different of each hebdomad shows the batch of diverse in human activities that causes bring on the incompatibility in sum container deposited for each hebdomad. Plastic container shows the really little difference every hebdomad as it stand foring the highest figure of container found. The extremum of containers found for plastic type is at hebdomad 7 which is 28ThursdayDecember 2013, while it lowest during hebdomad 1 at 16ThursdayNovember 2013.
For metal, the highest figure container found is at hebdomad 2 and 3 ( 16Thursdayand 23rdNovember ) while the lowest is at hebdomad 8 in 11ThursdayJanuary 2014. For natural container the peak figure at hebdomad 8 and 9 ( 4Thursdayand 11ThursdayJanuary 2014 ) while the lowest at both hebdomad 1 and 7 ( 16ThursdayNovember 2013 and 28ThursdayDecember 2013 ) . Cement and clay based container recorded none much different of altering in figure for every hebdomad. The highest glass container found on hebdomad 10 and the lowest for this type found in hebdomad 1. For gum elastic containers show non numerical alteration for get downing from hebdomad 2 ( 23rdNovember 2013 ) until hebdomad 10 as the hebdomad foremost non-shown any recorded container found. Polystyrene container recorded that at the highest in hebdomad 7 and the lowest at the first hebdomad and 2nd hebdomad of surveies. Others container in extremum at hebdomad 10 and lowest at 2nd hebdomad.
Figure 4.10 show the figure of container distribution for each surveies site get downing hebdomad 1, ( 16ThursdayNovember 2013 ) until hebdomad 10, ( 19ThursdayJanuary2014 ) . Beach show the highest figure at hebdomad 2 ( 23rdNovember 2013 ) while the lowest at hebdomad 10 ( 19ThursdayJanuary 2014 ) . The 2nd survey sites was in chalet building shows the highest container found on the 8Thursdayhebdomad of the study. Meanwhile the Baywatch’s container
Figure 4.9: Numbers of container based on types for each hebdomad get downing hebdomad 1, ( 16/11/2013 ) until hebdomad 10s, ( 19/1/2014 )
Figures 4.10: Number of container distribution for each surveies site get downing hebdomad 1, ( 16/11/2013 ) until hebdomad 10, ( 19/1/2014 )
Figure 4.11: Percentages container found for each hebdomad get downing hebdomad 1, ( 16/11/2013 ) until hebdomad 10, ( 19/1/2014 ) .
found show highest at hebdomad 7 ( 28ThursdayDecember 2013 ) as the lowest is in hebdomad 2 ( 23rdNovember 2013 ) . In astaka and chalet country the highest at hebdomad 6 and the lowest in hebdomad 5. In commercial country I ( stall country, nutrient store ) the highest figure found in hebdomad 7 while the lowest found in hebdomad 9. The commercial country II shows the different with the highest container found in both hebdomad 4 and 10 and the lowest at hebdomad 1. The mosque and street country did non demo the important different between the each hebdomad of the container found.
Figure 4.11 shows that the overall per centums of the container found in seven surveies country for temporal hebdomad. As the hebdomad 7 during 28ThursdayDecember 2013 is the highest per centums with 14.16 % followed by hebdomad 6 with 11.93 % . The 3rdhighest is in hebdomad 4 with 10.95 % . Both hebdomad 3 and 8 show the same per centums which is 10.1 % . The lowest is in hebdomad 1 which merely 5.44 % followed by hebdomad 2 with 8.05 % .
Analysis of positive container
Alongside the container found there is several container positively present of the mosquitos immature includingAe. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Culexspp andArmigeresspp. From out of 1416 container recorded in 10 hebdomad of surveies 35 of them were positively immature represent merely 2.47 % of the entire containers.
During the surveies, hebdomad 4 ( 7ThursdayDecember 2013 ) recorded the highest topographic points of immature nowadays which is 6 while the lowest in hebdomad 7 ( 28ThursdayDecember 2013 ) with merely one frequences for that hebdomad.
Figures 4.12: Percentages of immature nowadays in container found during 10 hebdomad surveies in Batu Feringghi
Figure 4.13: Number of positive container copiousness during 10 hebdomads surveies in Batu Feringghi