Principle is any fundamental or significant truth that have been tested over time and found to work. Many managerial thinkers have defined management in their own ways, the most common of which are: a)Management is an individual or a group of persons dedicated to work and make sure that the organisational activities are performed in order to achieve personal and organisational goals.
A body of individuals who make up the upper part of the organisation hierarchy. This includes the supervisors, manager, directors and others. Management is active, not theoretical. It is about changing behaviours and making things happen. It is about developing people , working with them reaching objectives and achieving results. In deed all the research in to how managers spend their time reveals that they are creatures of moment, perpetually immersed in the nitty –gritty of making things happen. d)Henry Fayol has proposed that to manage is to:
- To forecast
- To command
- To coordinate
- To control
Fayol also suggests that a set of well-established principles would help concentrate general discussion on management theory.
He emphasises, however, that the principles must be flexible and adaptable to changing circumstances. He recognised that there were no limit to the principles but advocated 14 of them. Division of work/ labour. This means that a worker is given only a small portion of the work in which he becomes a specialist.
A high degree of specialisation should lead to efficiency
- Authority and responsibility: Authority is the right to command and power to exercise obedience in order to get wok done. Responsibility is the accountability of the authority so that the official authority is not misused. Responsibility is the corollary of authority.
- Discipline: Fayol considered discipline as an outward mark of respect observed in accordance with employment agreement and organisational rules. The management must decide on the most appropriate form of sanctions on cases of offences against discipline.
- Unity of command: Each organisational member should receive orders from one superior only; if not, authority is undermined and discipline, order and stability threatened.
- Unity of direction: In order to provide for unity of action, coordination and focusing of efforts, there should be one head and one plan for any group of activities with the same objective. E. one department, one manager.
- Subordination of individual interest to general interest: The interests of one employee or group of employees are subordinate to the interests and goals of the organization. The interest of the Organisation must take priority whenever there is a conflict of interests.
- Remuneration of personnel: Salaries the price of services rendered by employees – should be fair and provide satisfaction both to the employee and employer.
- Centralization: The objective of centralization is the best utilization of personnel. The degree of centralization varies according to the dynamics of each organization.
- Scalar chain: A chain of authority exists from the highest organizational authority to the lowest ranks. Order: Organizational order for materials and personnel is essential. The right materials and the right employees are necessary for each organizational function and activity.
- Equity: In organizations, equity is a combination of kindliness and justice. Both equity and equality of treatment should be considered when dealing with employees. Stability of tenure of personnel: To attain the maximum productivity of personnel, a stable work force is needed.
- Initiative: Thinking out a plan and ensuring its success is an extremely strong motivator. Zeal, energy, and initiative are desired at all levels of the organizational ladder.
- Esprit de corps: Teamwork is fundamentally important to an organization. Work teams and extensive face-to-face verbal communication encourages teamwork. There are other ten neew principles for effective administrative management.
FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
According to Mamorial, management functions are extended to 10 and derived from the term POSDCORB. But the general one are the first five.
- Planning: this function includes forecasting and selection of objectives with the policies, procedures and programmes for achieving them. It involves the assessment of the furture and making decisions for that future.
- organising: this is concerned with the division of work and allocation of duties, authority and responsibility.
- staffing: it involves looking for the right candidates recruiting, orienting, rewarding, disciplining, maintaining, training or terminating or managing the separation process.
- Directing: it involves guiding and supervising subordinates. These subordinates must be oriented in to the understanding ways, guided towards improved performance and motivated to work effectively towards enterprise goals.
- Coordination: this is the unification of efforts and ensuring that all activities of the business are in pursuance of the same policy. Policy is a major decision of a company that can be a plan.
- Controlling: this is the process involved in setting up standards, the regulation comparison of physical events with standards and then taking the corrective action.
- Budgeting: this involves activities of allocating the available resources to various units of the organisation.
- Commanding: this involves giving instructions to ensure that decisions are carried out.
- Communication: this is concerned with the transfer of information between different people in a business.
- Motivation: this is the driving force behind actions . in involves raising of employees morale and change of behaviour and feeling mong the organisation members.
STEPS IN DELEGATION
- Identify the task to be delegated and the right persons to delegate to.
- Assignment of tasks: this is to determine clearly what the subordinates are supposed to do and communicating the same to them.
- Delegation of decision making authority: the authority is given to subordinates to make and implement decisions within their work assignments.
- Creation of obligation: The person given the task is morally responsible to do his best since he has willingly accepted these tasks
- Creation of accountability: being answerable to someone for your actions.
BENEFITS OF DELEGATION
- When used properly, delegation of authority and responsibility to subordinates offers several advantaged as follows:
- It results in quick decisions- decentralisation of decision making authority.
- It gives executives more time for strategic planning and policy making. d)It is a motivating factor through tasks to the employees.
- It can be a training ground for executive ability e. g assisting, seconding and deputing.
- It gives managers opportunity to experience decision making and consequences of their decisions.
- It enables organisations to meet the changing conditions more flexibly especially at the boundaries of their systems.