Pschological disorders

Table of Content

Researchers have identified a memory mechanism situated in the synapses of brain neurons.

Date published: May 19, 2000

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According to a depression study, a combination of drug therapy and psychotherapy was discovered to be highly effective.

Date published: May 24, 2000

Manipulation of scents can alter the suckling behavior of newborn rats.

The date of publication is May 29, 2000.

A recent study indicates the possibility of significant alterations in the medications employed to treat schizophrenia.

Published on: June 16, 2000

5. A Revolutionary Scientific Theory That Could Revolutionize Treatments for Inherited Conditions

Neurodegenerative diseases are developed.

Date published: July 13, 2000

Scientists at Hopkins have discovered a compound in mice that can switch off appetite.

Date published: June 30, 2000

Canadian scientists have discovered a higher prevalence of homosexuals among individuals who are left-handed.

Source: Science Daily

Date published: July 10, 2000

Brain Study Uncovers Insights into Impulsive Violence

Source: Science Daily

August 15, 2000

9. There could be a protein that is remarkably alike in both Alzheimer’s disease and Mad Cow Disease.

Date of publication: August 24, 2000

Scientists at Jefferson are working towards improving gene therapy by eliminating the need for viruses.

The publication date is August 28, 2000.

The “Memory Mechanism Found at Nerve Cell Connections in the Brain” is a significant discovery in psychology. Researchers have identified a new process that results in the formation and long-term storage of memories through the examination of weakened synapses in the brain. Both memory and synapses are influenced by sensory experiences, as proven by an experiment conducted on rats. The findings suggest that activity within the mammalian brain can regulate individual synapses, as stated by lead investigator Kimberly Huber. In order to investigate this phenomenon, scientists isolated synapses from their cell bodies in hippocampal tissue and introduced inhibitors of protein synthesis directly to these synapses. By blocking synaptic depression, they supported the notion that proteins are produced at the synapse.

The main topic of this article is motivation and emotion, specifically the role of the hippocampus in creating long-term memories. The experiment conducted focused on the hippocampus region, which helps in storing long-term memories by promoting brain connections. Therefore, it can be concluded that the brain plays a crucial role as the primary pathway to the body.

“Drug-psychotherapy Combo Found Highly Effective in Depression Study” reports the success of combining Serzone, an antidepressant, and psychotherapy for treating chronic depression. The study involved 681 participants, making it the largest ever conducted to compare the effectiveness of medication alone, psychotherapy alone, and a combination of both for chronic major depression treatment. Approximately 14 million Americans suffer from chronic types of depression, with over 46 million individuals experiencing depressive episodes annually between ages 15 and 54. The research was conducted at various psychiatric clinics nationwide. Patients were randomly assigned to receive Serzone twice daily, Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy sessions (16-20), or a combination of both over a twelve-week period. During this timeframe, the combination therapy showed an impressive response rate of 85 percent. Serzone on its own had a response rate of 55 percent while psychotherapy alone achieved a response rate of 52 percent. Despite being approved for current depression treatment use, Serzone does not have specific classification for addressing chronic illnesses.During this study, it was observed that Serzone did not cause common side effects such as sexual dysfunction or weight gain. These findings align with previous research confirming the efficacy of antidepressants.

The article examines the impact of different types of psychotherapy and their effects. Researchers used an efficacy study, which employs experimental methods to assess whether a specific therapy produces positive results for its recipients. Currently, psychotherapy plays a crucial role in the field of psychology.

“New Research shows that the behavior of suckling in newborn rats can be manipulated through the use of scents.” This study, conducted by psychologist Norman E. Spear and colleagues, demonstrated the importance of newborn mammals learning when to suckle. The researchers found that exposing newborn rat pups to a combination of lemon odor and milk significantly increased their likelihood of sucking on an imitation nipple for a ten-minute period, with 80 percent doing so. In contrast, three control groups of rat pups only sucked for 20 percent of the same time period. This finding indicates that learning plays a significant role in the suckling behavior of newborn rats, as they can be influenced to suckle on an empty imitation nipple. Dr. Spear concludes that the newborn rats associate both the lemon scent and milk as equally important for their nutrition and survival. Moreover, because these young rats have no other competing stimuli, their sensory experiences regarding milk are innate and natural.

This article explores the importance of learning in human behavior and its involvement in nearly all activities. It focuses on classical conditioning, a basic learning process where one stimulus serves as a signal for another stimulus. Classical conditioning allows organisms to gain knowledge about relationships between different stimuli, rather than just creating simple associations.

“Study Opens Doors to Significant Changes in Medications for Schizophrenia” is a research conducted by experts at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health and the University of Toronto. The study challenges the previous belief that the effectiveness of anti-psychotic medications relied on their presence in the brain. According to Dr. Robert Zipursky, a part of this study, our understanding of how these drugs should work has been altered. The traditional notion was that anti-psychotic drugs functioned by attaching to dopamine D2 receptors within the brain. However, recent findings from this study indicate that only approximately 60 percent of these receptors are occupied when evaluated 2 to 3 hours after taking the new anti-psychotic medication. Furthermore, there is minimal binding of the anti-psychotic medication to D2 receptors after a 12-hour interval. These discoveries suggest that anti-psychotic medications can still be effective even without prolonged interaction at the targeted receptor location.

Research is being conducted on non-pharmaceutical alternatives for schizophrenia, a psychological disorder characterized by chronic brain dysfunction. This dysfunction leads to reduced frontal lobe activity during memory and abstract thought tasks, indicating cognitive impairments and abnormalities in brain function. Although anti-psychotic medications are effective treatments for schizophrenia, scientists are exploring other options as well.

“New Scientific Theory may change how Treatments for Inherited Neurodegenerative Diseases are developed” is a study conducted by researchers from The Hospital for Sick Children and The University of Toronto. It focuses on neurodegenerative diseases, which involve the progressive loss of cells in the nervous system. Data from patients with Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease was utilized in the study. Ultimately, the cumulative theory was debunked and replaced with the mutant steady model. This new model provides an explanation for how mutant genes contribute to nerve cell death in inherited neurodegenerative diseases. According to this model, mutant genes elevate the risk of programmed cell death in cells. As a result, researchers will now concentrate on identifying factors that activate this heightened risk of neuronal death caused by mutant genes.

Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, are mental disorders that impact a person’s behavior. These diseases are caused by genetic factors that affect chemical reactions in the brain and other organs. It is important to note that these genes do not directly control behavior or other aspects of life. Additionally, environmental factors can also play a role in influencing these chemical reactions.

Scientists at Hopkins University have discovered a compound called C75 that can deactivate appetite in mice. This breakthrough finding has the potential to eliminate hunger within 20 minutes when injected. However, the appetite-suppressing effect diminishes after a few days once the injections are stopped. The compound works by targeting an important pathway in the brain responsible for controlling appetite, leading to substantial weight loss and even reversing insulin resistance in obese mice lacking leptin. Neuropeptide Y, found in the hypothalamus of the brain, plays a critical role in this pathway. Interestingly, mice injected with C75 experienced more pronounced weight loss and body tissue loss similar to fasting mice.

The psychology of motivation and emotion, specifically the role of the hypothalamus in the brain, is addressed in this paragraph. Modifications to the hypothalamus can result in a decline of interest in a specific domain. Hunger motivation, which refers to the craving for food, can be impacted by administering a chemical that affects the body. In psychological studies, changing one’s physique is accomplished through manipulation of the brain.

Researchers from Canada conducted a study titled “Canadian Scientists Find More Homosexuals Left-handed” where they examined the data of 23,410 individuals who identified as either heterosexual or homosexual. The findings showed that lesbian women were more prevalent than gay men, suggesting a connection between handedness and sexual orientation. This indicates that certain factors influencing adult sexual orientation may appear early in life. Additionally, the study concluded that there could be a common cause for homosexuality among both gay men and lesbian women. However, it is important to note that these findings have limited overall significance. It is not possible to determine someone’s sexual orientation solely based on their handedness since this characteristic does not exclusively indicate either homosexuality or heterosexuality.

Various factors, including upbringing and cultural environment, can affect sexual motivation, a crucial element in shaping human behavior. For example, if a male individual is raised in a feminine surrounding, there is a higher chance of embracing his feminine traits. It’s important to mention that culture also impacts psychological aspects such as sexual orientation. Moreover, genetic factors play a significant role in human development, including sexual orientation.

“Brain Study Sheds Light On Impulsive Violence” is a study conducted by UW-Madison psychologist Richard Davidson. The study examined the brains of individuals who exhibited violent tendencies or were agreeable to violence. It identified common neurological patterns among more than 500 subjects and specifically focused on the prefrontal cortex. Noteworthy findings include the interaction between various brain areas. The orbital frontal cortex inhibits impulsive outbursts, whereas the anterior cingulate cortex mimics other brain regions during conflict response. The amygdala plays a role in fear formation and other negative emotions. Surprisingly, certain study groups lacked normal activity in the orbital and anterior regions but exhibited normal amygdala activity. The research was successful due to its diverse participant pool and consistent results. It encompassed 41 murderers, a group suffering from aggressive impulsive personality disorder, individuals diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder, and a sizeable population with a genetic deficit that affects serotonin levels in the brain. In the future, new treatments will address this issue.

Impulsiveness is the act of prioritizing instant gratification over a delayed but greater reward, as seen in smokers and heavy drinkers who prioritize the immediate pleasure of smoking or consuming alcohol over potential future consequences. This behavior is considered part of the learning process. However, seeking assistance instead of engaging in negative behaviors to express anger would lead to receiving appropriate help instead of facing negative punishments. The article states that negative emotions are controlled by the brain and when it becomes overwhelmed with such emotions, impulsiveness arises.

In the study “Strikingly Similar Protein may be in Alzheimer’s And Mad Cow Disease” by Chi Ming Yang, the similarities between Alzheimer’s and prion diseases (such as mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) are explored. These diseases are caused by malfunctioning proteins – prion protein in prion diseases and amyloid precursor protein in Alzheimer’s. Both types of diseases result in neurodegeneration. Although proteins have specific three-dimensional structures that determine their functions, malfunctioning proteins remain partially unfolded. Despite sharing common origins, Alzheimer’s progresses at a slower rate compared to prion diseases, which advance more rapidly.

Acetylcholine plays a crucial role as a neurotransmitter in the nervous system and is associated with attention, arousal, and memory. In individuals with Alzheimer’s disease, the decline of cells that produce acetylcholine is believed to contribute to severe memory loss. Postmortem studies have shown lower levels of acetylcholine in the brains of deceased individuals with this condition. Additionally, a decrease in amino acids can cause protein plaques formation which is responsible for prion diseases.

“Jefferson Scientists Hope to Perfect Gene Therapy without Viruses” is a study conducted by researchers at Jefferson Medical College, who have been utilizing DNA and bacterial proteins for the purpose of delivering genes to specific locations within human DNA. Nevertheless, the utilization of viral techniques in gene therapy has posed challenges due to concerns about the quantity of gene copies generated and their positioning within the cell’s DNA. Presently, these experiments have solely been executed on bacteria; nevertheless, continuous endeavors are being made towards establishing a non-viral method. Researchers from both domestic and international backgrounds are presently carrying out clinical trials on gene therapy involving both viral and non-viral approaches.

Genetics, falling under the heredity and behavior form of psychology, involves chromosomes composed of DNA. Each human cell typically has twenty-three pairs of chromosomes, which contain thousands of genes. These genes, essentially segments of DNA, serve as basic units of heredity, ultimately determining various aspects of our biological makeup.

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Pschological disorders. (2018, Jul 03). Retrieved from

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