Revolution In France: Who Benefited Most From The Collapse Of The Ancien Regime? Essay, Research Paper
The Ancien Regime ( Gallic for Old Order ) was the manner society was run, in a period in Gallic history happening before the Gallic Revolution ( 1789? 1799 ) . France was ruled by an absolute monarchy ( a system where the male monarch was classed as Godhead? an infallible function ) King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. The Gallic society was separated into categories or Estates.
The first Estate was the Clergy who were highly rich. There were about 100,000 of these people. They had control over censoring of the imperativeness and of educational establishments Their wealth came from the Roman Catholic Church, which was made up of the upper and lower Estates. The upper, Bishops and Abbots who had the authorization and the lower, Priests and Monks who had a modest income and had no say in church personal businesss.
The Second Estate was the Aristocracy or Nobility, which was made up of about 400,000 people. They owned 20% of all the land in France and paid no revenue enhancements. They were really affluent and enjoyed a unworried life. Their lone grudge was the power that the First Estate held. The Second Estate were the work forces who held places in the authorities. They were besides exempt from revenue enhancements. The particular concern of the Second Estate was to see that the King did non present revenue enhancement reform. They wanted more political power to do certain events like this did non go on. While they denounced the monarchy’s tyranny they wanted to put up their ain signifier of it.
The 3rd and largest Estate was made up of the Bourgeoisie ( educated and privileged in-between category ) and the Serfs ( provincials ) . The King and the Aristocracy enjoyed parties, feasts and revenue enhancement freedoms, while the Bourgeoisie and helot had to pay heavy revenue enhancements. Many of the helot died from famishment and the life suffered under tremendous fiscal adversities. The Third Estate had no success in voting because of the differing sentiments about the revenue enhancement system between them and the Second Estate.
The Third Estate despised the privileges of the Second Estate and hated the revenue enhancement system, which involved merely themselves, the bulk, paying the heavy revenue enhancements. There was a immense demand amongst the Third Estate, who represented the? people? of France for revenue enhancement reform. The Second Estate worsened this state of affairs because they were determined non to give up their revenue enhancement grants. This was a large job for Louis and his advisers. King Louis and his married woman Marie Antoinette were running the state into monolithic debt due to extravagance and ignorance. They needed the gross that the Third Estate provided and yet the King was eager to hold the Second Estate as his Alliess and did non desire to displease them. Louis’s main fiscal adviser, Turgot knew that France urgently needed revenue enhancement reform. The state couldn? T continue to run in shortage, due to the debt that Louis had forced them into, because of Louis’s fright of upsetting the Second Estate. Turgot was forcibly dismissed from tribunal, due to Marie Antoinette’s detest for him. Neckers became the new fiscal adviser, and because of what happened to Turgot, Neckers was besides fearful of reding any revenue enhancement reform that would be excessively extremist. Alternatively, Neckers brought in a loans repayment strategy, which brought France further and further into debt. Louis, being a weak male monarch, recognized the power that the Second Estate had upon him so he did non desire to upset them. All, because of the sheer size and beauty of Versailles, could see the overspending of the tribunal. Finally, the authorities became belly-up. Under Louis XIV and Louis XV, France had gone to war several times. They had non gained any district and had been humiliated. The worst war was the Seven Years War go forthing France economically drained. Louis and Necker’s engagement with the American War against England farther worsened the economic system and yet they still refused to revenue enhancement the Second Estate.
America was contending for freedom against the rough revenue enhancement system that Britain had enforced upon them. The Bourgeoisie, whom many were soldiers in this war, could see that they were in a similar state of affairs to the Americans, but this dictatorship was from within their ain state. The Americans, were contending for the right of no revenue enhancement without representation, the right to bear weaponries against dictatorship, the basic right of freedom that was merely for the rich and baronial, and that a Republic was superior to a Monarchy. The Bourgeoisies, who were business communities, philosophers, attorneies and other educated work forces, began to spread out on these new thoughts. Any concern enlargement that occurred in France was met with increased revenue enhancements. These revenue enhancements were the unhappy duty of the Third Estate entirely. The Bourgeoisie favoured a unvarying revenue enhancement system. Peoples like Voltaire and Rousseau and others combined with new theories presented a new thought of a broad society that thrived with free commercialism. This period was called the? Age of Enlightenment? .
The Bourgeoisie’s thoughts were wholly in struggle with the Ancien Regime, and the Monarch’s absolute power. The Bourgeoisie believed that the people should hold the chances of life and commercialism through freedom, autonomy and intelligence non because of wealth or wealths, or merely because they were born into aristocracy. The provincials and helot of the Third Estate had merely contact with the Bourgeoisie who were most frequently their Masterss. The provincials saw the thought of revenue enhancement reform and equality as the manner to the abolishment of the seigneurial system, which was their chief grudge. This system allowed for greater income disparity in Fr
ance and a existent separation of categories. This frequently left provincials about isolated compared to the remainder of society. The Bourgeoisie used the relationship to influence and stir up the common people in there grudges with the Ancien Regime. A powerful voice with a beast force behind it began to take signifier.
On June 17th 1788 the Third Estate decided to organize the National Assembly to interrupt free on the vote issue. They decided to ignore the King’s sentiment. Louis was alarmed and closed down their meeting hall. The National Assembly responded by traveling to a Versailles tennis tribunal and curse, in what is known in history as the? Tennis Court Oath? , that it would non fade out until it had drafted a fundamental law for France. At this clip, the other Estates had heard of this curse and many of the lower category members of the other Estates decided to fall in the National Assembly. After this, Absolute Monarchy ended and Constitutional Monarchy began.
On July 13th 1789, the Paris Commune was formed ( Municipal Council ) and the National Guard. The National Guard was comprised of about 200 work forces. They were under the bid of the Marquis de Lafayette. The units of the guard were responsible to the Municipal Councils. This gave the Bourgeoisie a radical force to utilize as a reserves and constabulary administration that was designed to settle the rioting of the popular multitudes. Lafayette tried to protect the fundamental law from both the King and the rabble.
On July 14th 1789, a Paris crowd stormed the Bastille. It had long been a symbol of political subjugation, for this was where people were sent if they opposed the Ancien Regime. The storming of the Bastille demonstrated that the capital was in the Revolutionaries custodies and the King’s forces were withdrawn. The Paris Commune was established and the National Assembly continued to run into with the realization that they needed to run into the demands of the multitudes. The? Law of the Lamppost? was used during this clip. Aristocrats, profiteers, authorities functionaries and army officers were all hung from lampposts. After this, peasants so continued to ramp around 40,000 Bastilles. This signified the first usage of force to accomplish Revolutionary purposes by the provincials. It besides signified the start of? Le Grande Peur? – a period in which the popular multitudes rose up and attacked the blue bloods and the privileged. This resulted in many blue bloods flying and traveling to nearby states go forthing their land and ownerships in the custodies of the provincials.
On the dark of August 4th 1789, the National Assembly met and the abolishment of feudal system was brought approximately. The members gave up their privileges and looked towards equality. All freedoms from revenue enhancement, all feudal dues and tithes, tolls and pensions were abolished.
The? Declaration of the Rights of Men? was issued on August 26th 1789. The intent of this papers was to make equality within France and to get rid of the category system that was prevailing in France. This meant that a adult male could accomplish high position despite his parenthood. Harmonizing to the papers, all citizens had the right to take what revenue enhancements should be levied and how public gross should be spent. It besides said that you could hold a right to freedom of address, freedom of the imperativeness, freedom from improper imprisonment or apprehension and spiritual autonomy.
On October fifth 1789, 7000 hungering people marched on the tribunal at Versailles to inquire the King for some staff of life. They camped outside the castle. That dark some adult females broke into the castle and attempted to kill Marie Antoinette. She escaped and ran to the King’s room but was untouched because the King was still considered sacred. Lafayette so prevented any bloodshed by assuring that the King would return with the rabble to Paris. This is where Louis XVI became a practical captive in the Palace of Tuileries. The Ancien Regime had collapsed.
The Bourgeoisie benefited most from the prostration of the Ancien Regime because they seized an chance handed to them on a platter. They were the enlightened, educated 1s and the action takers. While the King and the First and Second Estates were distracted seeking to keep on to the yesteryear and their power and money, they underestimated the power of the common people, the provincials. The Third Estate knew that the helot were hungering under the heavy revenue enhancements and were discontent under the category system. They besides knew that they could tap into the force that the serfs held by being the bulk in France. With the power of bulk over minority, they took over France. They promised staff of life to the starvation and had thoughts of making a state where you could accomplish high position, which disregarded your parenthood. An improved France, free of Absolute Monarchists, Anarchists and Nobility. The other Estates could non lift over them was because they were the minority and did non hold the support of the multitudes that the Bourgeoisie could command. The provincials benefited slightly with the abolition of revenue enhancements, yet even if they were still hungering and lashed out, the Bourgeoisie now had a force to incorporate them. The Bourgeoisie formed the National Assembly, a National Guard, a new fundamental law, the Declaration of Rights to Men, power over the multitudes, power over the King, the riddance of revenue enhancement freedoms, riddance of categories, riddance of tolls and pensions, riddance of feudal dues and tithes. The Bourgeoisie had power, had abolished the revenue enhancements that they were loathe to pay and had placed themselves in high places of power to govern France, with the King a practical captive in his ain state.