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Rockefeller Research Paper John Davison Rockefeller



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    Rockefeller Essay, Research Paper

    John Davison Rockefeller ( July 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937 ) was the guiding force behind

    the creative activity and development of the Standard Oil Company, which grew to rule

    the oil industry and became one of the first large trusts in the United States, therefore

    breeding much contention and resistance sing its concern patterns and signifier

    of organisation. Rockefeller besides was one of the first major altruists in the U.S. ,

    set uping several of import foundations and donating a sum of $ 540 million to

    charitable intents.

    Rockefeller was born on farm at Richford, in Tioga County, New York, on July 8, 1839,

    the second of the six kids of William A. and Eliza ( Davison ) Rockefeller. The household

    lived in modest fortunes. When he was a male child, the household moved to Moravia and

    subsequently to Owego, New York, before traveling west to Ohio in 1853. The Rockefellers bought

    a house in Strongsville, near Cleveland, and John entered Central High School in

    Cleveland. While he was a pupil he rented a room in the metropolis and joined the Erie

    Street Baptist Church, this ulterior became the Euclid Avenue Baptist Church. Active in its

    personal businesss, he became a legal guardian of the church at the age of 21.

    He left high school in 1855 to take a concern class at Folsom Mercantile College. He

    completed the six-month class in three months and, after looking for a occupation for six

    hebdomads, was employed as adjunct bookkeeper by Hewitt & A ; Tuttle, a little house of

    committee merchandisers and produce shippers. Rockefeller was non paid until after he had

    worked there three months, when Hewitt gave him $ 50 ( $ 3.57 a hebdomad ) and told him

    that his wage was being increased to $ 25 a month. A few months subsequently he became the

    teller and bookkeeper.

    In 1859, with $ 1,000 he had saved and another $ 1,000 borrowed from his male parent.

    Rockefeller formed a partnership in the committee concern with another immature adult male,

    Maurice B. Clark. In that same twelvemonth the first oil well was drilled at Titusville in western

    Pennsylvania, giving rise to the crude oil industry. Cleveland shortly became a major

    polishing centre of the flourishing new industry, and in 1863 Rockefeller and Clark entered

    the oil concern as refiners. Together with a new spouse, Samuel Andrews, who had

    some refinement experience, they built and operated an oil refinery under the company

    name of Andrews, Clark & A ; Co. The house besides continued in the committee concern but in

    1865 the spouses, now five in figure, differ about the direction of their

    concern personal businesss and decided to sell the refinery to whoever amongst them offer the

    highest. Rockefeller bought it for $ 72,500, sold out his other involvements and, with

    Andrews, formed Rockefeller & A ; Andrews.


    Rockefeller? s interest in the oil industry increased as the industry itself expanded, spurred

    by the quickly distributing usage of kerosine for illuming. In 1870 he organized The

    Standard Oil Company along with his brother William, Andrews, Henry M. Flagler, S.V.

    Harkness, and others. It had a capital of $ 1 million.

    By 1872 Standard Oil had purchased and therefore controlled about all the refinement houses in

    Cleveland, plus two refineries in the New York City country. Before long the company was

    polishing 29,000 barrels of petroleum oil a twenty-four hours and had its ain Cooper store fabrication

    wooden barrels. The company besides had storage armored combat vehicles with a capacity of several

    hundred thousand barrels of oil, warehouses for refined oil, and workss for the

    industry of pigments and gum.

    Standard prospered and, in 1882, all its belongingss were merged in the Standard Oil

    Trust, which was in consequence one great company. It had an initial capital of $ 70 million.

    There were originally 42 certification holders, or proprietors, in the trust.

    After ten old ages the trust was dissolved by a tribunal determination in Ohio. The companies that

    had made up the trust subsequently joined in the formation of the Standard Oil Company ( New

    Jersey ) , since New Jersey had adopted a jurisprudence that permitted a parent company to have

    the stock of other companies. It is estimated that Standard Oil owned three-quarterss of

    the crude oil concern in the U.S. in the 1890s.

    In add-on to being the caput of Standard, Rockefeller owned Fe mines and forest

    and invested in legion companies in fabrication, transit, and other

    industries. Although he held the rubric of president of Standard Oil until 1911, Rockefeller

    retired from active leading of the company in 1896. In 1911 the U.S. Supreme Court

    found the Standard Oil trust to be in misdemeanor of the anti-trust Torahs and ordered the

    disintegration of the parent New Jersey corporation. The 38 companies which it

    so controlled were separated into single houses. In his life, Study in Power,

    John D. Rockefeller, Industrialist and Philanthropist, the historian Allan Nevins studies

    that Rockefeller at that clip owned 244,500 of the company? s sum of 983,383

    outstanding portions.


    Rockefeller was 57 old ages old in 1896 when he decided that others should take over the

    daily leading of Standard Oil. He now focused his attempts on philanthropic gift,

    giving away the majority of his luck in ways designed to make the most good as

    determined by careful survey, experience and the aid of adept advisors.

    From the clip he had begun gaining money as a male child, he had been giving a portion of his

    income to his church and charities. His philanthropic gift grew out of his early household

    preparation, spiritual strong beliefs, and fiscal wonts. “ I believe it is every adult male? s spiritual

    responsibility to acquire all he can candidly and to give all he can, ” he one time wrote. During the

    1850s, he made regular parts to the Baptist church, and by the clip he was 21,

    he was giving non merely to his ain but to other denominations, every bit good as to a foreign

    Sunday school and an Afro-american church. Support of spiritual establishments and

    Afro-american instruction remained among his foremost philanthropic involvements

    throughout his life.


    As his wealth grew in the 1870s and 1880s, Rockefeller came to prefer a co-op

    and conditional system of giving in which he would hold to provide portion of the amount

    needed for a peculiar undertaking if the others interested in it besides would supply

    significant fiscal support. It was on such a conditional footing that Rockefeller

    participated in the initiation of the University of Chicago. The American Baptist

    Education Society had resolved in 1889 to set up a “ well-equipped college ” in

    Chicago. At the goad of the society? s manager, the Rev. Frederick T. Gates,

    Rockefeller offered to give $ 600,000 of the first $ 1 million for gift, provided the

    staying $ 400,000 was pledged by others within 90 yearss. Thus begun, the University

    of Chicago was incorporated in 1890, and over the following 20 old ages Rockefeller

    contributed to assist construct up the establishment, ever on status tha

    T others should fall in

    in its support. In 1910 he made a farewell gift of $ 10 million, which brought his sum

    parts to the university to about $ 35 million. In retreating from farther activity

    at that place, he wrote: “ I am moving on an early and lasting strong belief that this great

    establishment, being the belongings of the people, should be controlled, conducted and

    supported by the people. ”

    Corporate Philanthropy

    Rockefeller recognized the troubles of sagely using great financess to human public assistance,

    and he helped to specify the method of scientific, efficient, corporate philanthropic gift. The

    method was this … To make charitable corporations and give them title to great financess,

    whose direction and usage would be governed by legal guardians and overseen by officers

    with, specialised preparation and experience. With both the legal guardians and officers being

    dedicated to uninterrupted survey of the chances for the best utilizations of the financess under

    their attention. To assist pull off his philanthropic gift, Rockefeller hired the Rev. Frederick T.

    Gates, whose work with the American Baptist Education Society and the University of

    Chicago inspired Rockefeller? s assurance. With the advice of Gates and, after 1897, his

    boy, John D. Rockefeller Jr. , Rockefeller established a series of establishments that are

    of import in the history of American philanthropic gift, scientific discipline, and medical specialty and public



    In 1901, he founded the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research ( now The Rockefeller

    University ) for the intent of detecting the causes, mode of bar, and the

    remedy of disease. From its research labs have come remedies for diseases, and new

    cognition and scientific techniques, which have helped to revolutionise medical specialty,

    biological science, biochemistry, biophysics, and other scientific subjects. A few of the celebrated

    accomplishments of its scientists are the serum intervention of spinal meningitis and of

    pneumonia ; cognition of the cause and mode of infection in childish palsy ; the

    nature of the virus doing epidemic grippe ; blood vas surgery ; a intervention for

    African kiping illness ; the first presentation of the saving of whole blood for

    subsequent transfusion ; the first presentation of how nerve cells flow from the encephalon

    to other countries of the organic structure ; the find that a virus can do malignant neoplastic disease in poultry ;

    peptide synthesis ; and designation of DNA as the important familial stuff.


    In 1902, Rockefeller established the General Education Board ( GEB ) for the “ publicity

    of instruction within the United States of America without the differentiation of race, sex or

    credo? . Between 1902 and its disintegration in 1965, the GEB distributed $ 325 million for

    the betterment of instruction at all degrees, with accent upon higher instruction,

    including medical schools. In the South, where there was particular demand, the GEB helped

    schools for both white and Afro-american pupils. In add-on, out of the Board? s

    work with kids? s nines in farm sphere grew the 4-H Club motion and the federal

    plans of farm and place extension.


    In Rockefeller combined his particular involvement in the South and his involvement in public wellness

    with the creative activity of the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission for the Eradication of

    Hookworm Disease. Its intent was “ to convey about a concerted motion of the

    medical profession, public wellness functionaries, boards of trade, churches, schools, the

    imperativeness, and other bureaus for the remedy and bar of hookworm disease, ” which

    was particularly lay waste toing in the South. From its central offices in Washington, D.C. ,

    the Sanitary Commission launched a monolithic run of public instruction and

    medicine in 11 Southern provinces. It paid the wages of field forces, who were

    appointed jointly by the provinces and the Commission, and sponsored public instruction

    runs and the intervention of septic individuals. As portion of this plan, more than

    25,000 public meetings were attended by more than 2 million people who were given

    the facts about hookworm and its bar. So successful was its work that a new

    bureau was created as portion of a new Rockefeller philanthropic gift to spread out the work to

    other states and to assail other diseases both in the South and abroad.


    In 1913, Rockefeller established The Rockefeller Foundation ( RF ) to “ advance the

    wellbeing of world throughout the universe? . In maintaining with this wide committedness,

    the Foundation through the old ages has given of import aid to public wellness,

    medical instruction, increasing nutrient production, scientific promotion, societal research,

    the humanistic disciplines, and other Fieldss all over the universe.

    The Foundation? s International Health Division expanded the work of the Sanitary

    Commission worldwide, working against assorted diseases in 52 states on six

    continents and 29 islands, conveying international acknowledgment of the demand for

    public wellness and environmental sanitation. Its early field research on hookworm,

    malaria, and xanthous febrility provided the basic techniques to command these diseases and

    established the form of modern public wellness services. Th RF built and endowed the

    universe ’ s first School of Hygiene and Public Health, at The Johns Hopkins University, and

    so spent over $ 25 million in developing public wellness schools in the U.S. and in

    21 foreign states. Its agricultural development plan in Mexico led to

    what has been called the Green Revolution in the promotion of nutrient production

    around the universe ; and the RF provided important support for the International Rice

    Research Institute in the Philippines. Thousands of scientists and bookmans from all over

    the universe have received RF families and scholarships for advanced survey. The

    foundation helped to establish the Social Science Research Council and has provided

    important support for such organisations as the National Bureau of Economic Research,

    the Brookings Institution, the Council on Foreign Relations, and Russian Institute at

    Columbia University. In the humanistic disciplines the RF has helped set up or back up the Stratford

    Shakespearian Festival in Ontario, Canada, and the American Shakespeare Festival in

    Stratford, Connecticut ; Arena Stage in Washington, D.C. ; Karamu House in Cleveland ;

    and Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York.


    In add-on to making these corporate philanthropic gifts, Rockefeller continued to do

    personal contributions. Among others whose activities received his fiscal support were

    assorted colleges and universities, including Yale, Harvard, Columbia, Brown, Spelman,

    Bryn Mawr, Wellesley, and Vassar ; theological schools ; the Palisades Interstate Park

    Commission ; San Francisco Earthquake victims ; the Anti-Saloon League ; Rockefeller

    Park and other Parkss in Cleveland ; Baptist missional organiz

    Rockefeller Research Paper John Davison Rockefeller. (2017, Jul 19). Retrieved from

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