It was written by Shakespeare in Elizabethan times. It is widely known around the world. Even though it is not an original, Shakespearean refreshing coat of paint on the subject of love and destiny is what gives him the respect of being a genius. ‘Romeo and Juliet’ was performed in the Globe Theatre. It was round with the stage on one side. The stage had a trap door and a balcony. People were seated on the floor in front of the stage or on the edges of the theatre were two floors for seating. On the ceiling of the theatre there were stars painted on.
This was to show they were always in presence of fate. Sonnets were usually used for love poetry, although this sonnet is used as a prologue. A prologue is very strange thing that Shakespeare has done. He has not done this on any other play that he has written. There are many reasons for this. One probably being to make sure that everyone in the audience knows what is going to happen. This leads me to the second point. Destiny. Many people in the audience believed that their lives were destined and written in stone. He wanted to show how God sees the world with the paths he has created.
And there is no control over what can happen as we are only viewers of our own lives. “A pair of star crossed lovers take their life” shows that Romeo and Juliet were made to fall in love. It was in the stars. But that same love would be destroyed by the hate between their families. This creates dramatic irony as throughout the performance as we always knew any happiness created will be destroyed. A modern audience is more believing in the control in their own life. So even through knowing what is going to happen they will think the decisions they made resulted in what happened. There are many types of love in act 1 scene 5.
This including parental love, brotherly love and courtly love. In the Bas Learns production of the piece it is filled with symbolic references to what is meant to be. The element Of rental love is very confusing from Shakespearean view as the reasoning for the ball is very simply to let Juliet decide whether or not she wants to marry Paris. The shear idea of this is crazy to an Elizabethan audience. This is because to them daughters were to be given as the fathers wished. But letting Juliet have that option shows that he loves her so much that he can go against society to make her happy.
A modern day audience would not be so shocked as arranged marriages in this period of time is incredibly low and if so the level of it is very loose. Many marriages are in complete control of the woman s her decision is final and the father’s opinion does not matter. The next love I will be talking about is that of Romeos infatuation. In the Shakespearean written play Romeo describes her as a goddess compared to earth “She doth teach a torch to burn bright”. Here he is saying that she is so beautiful that she stands out incredibly. Like a torch would in the dark. She stands out so much more that a torch could ever. She hangs upon the cheek of night like a rich jewel in an Ethiopia ear” It is so unlikely it is like seeing an expensive jewel on a black African. “So shows a snowy dove trooping with rows”. She does not deserve to be with them. Crows symbolizing anger, impurity and ugliness. The dove symbolizing purity, beauty and virginity. He is so in love with her that he is considering to do something thought outrageous back then. He was going to touch her hand “… Touching her make blessed my rude hand”. He also believes that he was never in love like this. Therefore he has forgotten his love of Rosalie. “Did my heart love like this? It is a rhetorical question to say that he did not. To his eyes she is so beautiful that he has never seen true beauty till that night. He cannot believe it. Forswear it sight, for never saw true beauty till this night” An Elizabethan audience would not be too shocked by that Romeo has said for it is only example of courtly language. This including using poetry to put women on pedestals. They would however be shocked by his intentions of touching her hand after the dance. This is because the main rule of courtly love was to look but not touch. A modern audience would be fairly shocked about the infatuation.
This is because he has fallen head over heels for her. Completely in love without knowing anything there is about her. She could have a horrible personality UT without knowing anything about her he is in love. They will probably not be so shocked about touching her hand as in modern society this does not mean anything. In the Bas Learns production Romeo sees Juliet first and the infatuation begins. He sees her through the glass fish tank. This represents the barrier between them. This barrier consists Of their families and societies as their families are in constant feud.
It represents society because even if they were to fall in love without the problem of their families then it is not usual for them to get married as in this time girls were possessions of their fathers to e given away. In the fish tank are fish. This represents them; they are trapped by an invisible wall. They are controlled and they do not know they The next love I will be talking about is Table’s love for his cousin sister, brotherly love. Hate is what we can see dominantly from his lines but is there a hidden agenda of his actions rather than the destruction we can predominantly see.
This hate is triggered when he sees that Romeo is talking about his sister and asks for his sword to battle him. “This by his voice be a Montague, Fetch me my rapier, boy”. Instantaneously he is angry about knowing he there and him being an enemy. What dares the slave, come hither, covered with an antic face to fleer and scorn at our solemnity” What he says next is what shows us that this is not actually hate but love in disguise. “Now by the stock and honor of my kin, to strike him dead I hold it not a sin”. Here he is stating for his family’s honor he will kill their enemy.
For it is from love Of his family and love Of his honor he believes that it is the right thing to do and it is not a sin. Shakespeare is saying is that many actions that we see, we see hate, anger, aggravation, though the thing we do not see is the motive for this. All things have a motive and would not guilt control our hearts if we did not believe it was not to be the right thing to do? Therefore the wrong thing we see is at many times controlled by love. Whether it is love for someone else, love for one’s family or friends. Any love can most of the time be the cause of anger we see.
An Elizabethan audience would not be too shocked or surprised because they understood his reasoning for respect of his family. Although probably they could not clearly see that his anger is fuelled by his love. A modern audience would also react the same way although some more may not understand his anger coming from love as of their own life experiences. Courtly love was the thing to do in the times when this was performed. It was the process to express love to women. It consisted of sonnets and poems, becoming a woman’s servant, putting her on a pedestal. Make the woman an unattainable heavenly angel.
But with this were rules. The main rule being, look but do not touch. As Romeo starts talking to Juliet in the courtly language he says “If I profane with my unworthiness hand this holy shrine. The gentle sin is this. ” Here he is saying that his hand is unworthy for hers. Her hand is a shrine which he couching is a sin though he does not mind. “My lips to blushing pilgrims ready stand to smooth that rough touch with a tender kiss”. There he states that his lips are like pilgrims that are ready to kiss her hand the shrine. This will fix the rough damage from them touching.
What is strange here that Juliet is continuing his sonnet from her point of view this was unheard of at this time. “Good pilgrim, woo do wrong your hand too much which mannerly devotion is this… ” Juliet here is stating that what he has done is very wrong. What well behaved manners is he showing? “For saints have hands that pilgrims hands o touch and palm to palm is holy palmers kiss”. Our hands touching is more suitable for a greeting not ever a kiss. To this Romeo replies “Have not saints lips and holy palmers too” He is saying that saints have lips as well why is kissing so wrong.
But Juliet comes back quickly replies “ay pilgrims do have lips though only for prayer. This is their only use”. Although Romeo chooses to reply by saying “0 then dear saint, let lips do what hands do. They pray, grant thou, last faith turn to despair. ” he says that let our lips tough as the saints hands do. They grant our wishes or we are left in despair. Let his request be given as she is the saint or just leave Romeo in despair. Juliet responds by saying “Saints do not move though grant for prayers sake. ” She believes that the statues do not move but prayers are still granted.
Romeo takes this as an accept by firstly saying “… Then move not, while my prayers affect take”. He is saying do not move saint and he Will let Juliet grant his prayer and make it true. There after he kisses her. For Shakespeare to do this is taking a bold leap into the future. He first shocks the audience by creating a sonnet that contains two people. This is unheard of. Though it is not as shocking as someone may think. This is because sonnets are ways to confess and show love. Even if it be from a woman instead of the usual man. When the audience see this they would be amazingly shocked, surprised and amazed.
They would be thinking firstly that what Romeo is doing. He should know the rules. Look but do not touch. To surprise them more Juliet lets him touch her. She should not have responded to begin with but to let him touch her is shocking. The sonnet carries on with religious language but at the end of the sonnet they kiss. An Elizabethan audience would be gasping for air as his was unheard of. A modern audience however would react very different to this. This is largely because we have developed as a society to have a larger range of acceptability.
Many people would also understand the Courtly language as it is still used today but in a modern English like on Valentine’s Day or special occasions. When this happens in the movie version by Bas Alarming it is very symbolic. Romeo is wearing knight’s armor. He therefore symbolizes the courage that knights have. It also shows bravery ability in swordsmanship and fighting skills. There is irony here because it is a masked ball; many people are retesting to be someone they are not. Although he is a knight as to be a knight they have not only be a good swordsman, as he is, but be born an aristocrat or of high class.
Knights were the romantic type. This was because of their bravery and inert part of life to protect women. It caused a high level of interest in knights as they were protectors of the city. Juliet is dressed as an angel. This is fitting as it makes her look heavenly. The white wings and dress symbolizes her purity and virginity. The wings show that she IS an angel taken from heaven and something worthy to be worshiped. She is described as a dodoes throughout and that is why it is fitting. This raises a question. If Romeo is of earth and Juliet is from heaven, they are worlds apart.
He is only mortal yet she is a goddess. The question is what is it right to do. He loves her and she loves him but society is stopping them. Shakespeare is saying that love is to be cherished and cared for. Not only this, but nothing should get in your way not society, not families, not the gap between heaven and earth. What Shakespeare does next is amazing as he brings in the evil almost straight away after they kiss. Romeo finds out she is a Caplet “Is she Caplet? O dear account my life is my foes debt. ” After finishing out this he is shocked and says his life, his love, depends on the enemy.
Notice how even though he finds out she is the enemy he still loves her. As Juliet finds out she says in soliloquy “If he be married, my grave is to be my wedding bed”. Here she states that she love him so much that if he is married she would die unmarried. There is dramatic irony here as we know that happens and her grave becomes her wedding bed, even though he is not married. When she finds out that he is a Montague she says “My love sprung from my only hate, o early seen unknown, and known to late. Prodigious birth of love it is to me, that must love a loathed enemy. She here states that she has loved only one but it comes from her hate. She saw him too early and fell in love, before she knew who he is. Her destiny that she has to love her one and only enemy, she also still loves him despite their family feud. This is an example of dramatic irony as she says is it her destiny that she would love her enemy. We and the audience know that is. Think that this is one of Shakespearean high moments to show gods view of earth and lives. We all know what is going to append but all we can do is watch the events unfold. Act 2 scene 2 is very different to act 2 scene 5 in many ways.
One of which being that they are alone and in Act 1 scene 5 they were crowded with many people. Another being that now both Romeo and Juliet know the identities of each other and before they did not. From the beginning of the scene love IS present. This is because Romeo is in the Caplet’s orchard and if he is scene there he would be killed. This means he is willing to take the risk of death to see her and meet her. Romeo talking in soliloquy so he is thinking to himself about his love for Juliet. What light through yonder window breaks? It is the east, and Juliet is the sun. He knows that Juliet is in that room and compares her to the sun. The sun symbolizes the beauty and purity of her. The sun is so bright and so is she that he can tell it is her from any. N. ‘here. “Arise fair Juliet and kill the envious moon”. He wants to see Juliet. The night is dark and where the moon lies. Dark is evil and so if she kills the moon the night will be gone. The evil will be gone and replaced by the glowing happiness that Juliet creates. As Juliet appears at the window he loses all beautiful language and is amazed o see her. “Two of the fairest stares in all of heaven having some business, do entreat her eyes.
To twinkle in their spheres till they return. ” He is saying her eyes are like those stars in heaven and they could be replaced as she is so heavenly. “The brightness of her cheek would shame those stares as daylight doth a lamp… ” The beauty Of her face is the difference between a lamp and daylight. She is the most beautiful thing possible. .. Her eyes in heaven would through the airy region stream so bright that birds would sing and think it were not night. ” Her eyes are so radiant with beauty that if her eyes were tars she would make it seem as if it were morning. See how she leans her cheek upon that hand. O that I were that hand that I might touch that cheek”, this is the first time in this act that tactile language is used. He refers to her as a part of the heavens but we all know that the heavens are unreachable. How can he suggest the impossible! “Ay me! ” Juliet speaks to the first time. As she speaks Romeo is going crazy again. This is noticed every time he says Repeatedly through the text he is referring her to an angel “Bright angel”, “Winged messenger of heaven”. When Juliet first speaks she is speaking in soliloquy. This is her showing her thoughts. Romeo, Romeo, Wherefore art thou Romeo”. She is questioning the Gods on why he is called Romeo (him being a Montague). She believes him and his love. She says if his love is true then she will give up her name and marry him. “… Be but sworn my love, and ill no longer be a Caplet” Here Shakespeare is saying that love makes people do some very risky things. Many of these can result in death but while reaping the rewards it is all worth it. Is love is a real risk is it really worth it? Even though this love is destined to be destroyed, another affect that is laded is the feeling of destruction in the audience.
They know she is taking this willing to take this risk. Although they also know that it will end in nothing but disaster and there is nothing they can do but watch the story unfold. Romeo is listening and does not know whether he wants to speak or listen to more. “[Aside] Shall I hear more or shall I speak at this? ” When Juliet speaks again she is in a stage of convincing herself that it is right to love him. “… What’s Montague? It is not hand not foot… What’s in a name? That which we call a rose by any other word would smell as sweet.
So Romeo would, ere he not Romeo called, Retain that dear perfection which he owes without that title” She is calling Romeo perfect and without errors. Though she does not know Romeo at all well enough. She is also saying that there is no point in a name. Even though he is a Montague she still loves him and she would if he were not. Romeo while hearing this is pleased that she loves him to. “l take thee at thy word. Call me but ‘love’, and I’ll be new baptized. Henceforth I will be never called Romeo”. He says that if she loves him then he will leave his house and everything he has to be with her.
Here Shakespeare is saying that eve gives much more happiness than any possessions can give. This is also another reason to take the risk. Juliet realizes someone is there and asks who it is. Romeo replies by expressing his feelings about his name “My name, dear saint, is hateful to myself. Because it is an enemy to thee. Had it written, I would tear the word. ” He hates his name because it is causing them to be apart. He also is saying that if he had the choice to his birth he would not be a Montague. She knows by his voice and by what he has said that he is Romeo. “… Art thou not Romeo, and a Montague. He says that he is neither if she goes not want him to be. She then questions how he got there. “How cam’s thou hither, tell me, and wherefore? The orchard walls are high, and hard to climb, and the place death, considering who thou art, if any of my kinsmen find thee here. ” She states that the walls are high to climb and there is a risk of death, knowing that he IS an enemy of their family, if any of her guards find him. He replies by saying the following “With love’s light wings did I reproach these walls, for stony limits cannot hold love out, and what love can do, that dares love attempt.
Therefore thy kinsmen are no stop for me. He is saying love has given him unbelievable powers. That high wall is nothing for him now. And he dare to do what he had never have done because of this love. Caplet’s guards cannot harm him for their love makes him strong. Here Shakespeare is mentioning that that love creates a feeling of invincibility and to some state makes the person in love better and more willing to take risks. She is still afraid and says “If they do see thee, they will murder thee. ” Even knowing that Romeo is stronger makes her still worried that he will get hurt or even worse die.
Romeo replies by saying “Alack there lies more peril in whine eve than twenty of their swords; look thou but sweet, and I am proof against their enmity. ” Here he is saying that there is more in seeing her, than there is in 20 guards hunting him down. She only needs to look favorably on him and he will not lose. He later describes her love so important that he would be happier if he died because of someone’s hate rather than not receiving her love. “My life were better ending but their hate, than death prorogued, wanting of thy love. Shakespeare is stating that love is great.
Love makes people mighty, fulfilled and unbelievably happy. Although without love everyone is doomed to a life with unhappiness and dissatisfaction. This makes it very hard to be happy even if someone has everything like Romeo does. Gullet’s love is making her consider marrying Romeo. This moment is a very shocking one. This is very risky not only because of the fact that he is Montague and she is Caplet. It is also dangerous because it is risking her honor and pride. “… Fain would I dwell on form, fain, fain deny what I have spoke’ but farewell compliment… Here Juliet is saying that she would rather behave in a correct formal manner but goodbye to all that. This is symbolizing hat love is a connection that makes the person in love willing to get through all society gives them. “If thou dost love, pronounce it faithfully, or if thou thinnest am too quickly won, I’ll frown and be perverse, and say thee nay, so thou wilt woo’ but else not for the world. ” Juliet is saying to Romeo if he loves her then tell it to her clearly but if he thinks she is being too forward then she will be difficult but she would not behave in such a way for anything in the world.
Romeo confesses his love for her in a courtly way like usual by swearing on the moon. “Lady, by yonder blessed moon vow… ” Juliet wants a draught answer and asks him not to swear on anything. Although if he had to swear on something let it be him as he is a god to her. “0 swear not by the moon… Do not swear at all; or if thou wilt, swear by thy gracious self, which is god of my idolatry. ” Juliet very quickly changes her mind noticing that she is being to rash “It is too rash, too unadvised, too sudden; too like the lightning, which doth cease to be ere one can say, ‘It lightness’ ” she decides to leave.
Romeo Stops her while asking her why she leaves him so unsatisfied. He wants to exchange vows of love with her. Juliet is sad that she has to leave but he must. She expresses her love in the following way: “My bounty is as boundless as the sea, my love as deep; the more I give to thee the more I have, for both are infinite. ” She is stating that her love is limitless like the oceans. Shakespeare is showing that love makes people crazy but unlike the common saying you have control of more that you may think, Juliet thinking it is too rash.
She has her mind intact while being in love. When Juliet comes back she is willing to be married. Romeo agrees and they are both ecstatic. “A thousand times good night. “(Juliet) “A thousand times the worse, to want thy light. “(Romeo). This is a very symbolic way to show that they are not able to wait. This is because saying good night a thousand times will make it so they are together for longer and time till tomorrow will shorten. They are in such a rush they forget to set a time for Romeo to see the messenger. They fix a date and Romeo leaves. Love goes to love as school boys from their books, but love from love towards school with heavy looks”. Shakespeare is saying that the love people are learnt to do is from society it is not real, people have learnt how to love. Although when falling in love and it is when it is true, society looks at them as f they have done something wrong when they know what they have done is right. An Elizabethan audience would be appalled by this because it is unnatural for this to happen and is incredibly fast. They would think that what Juliet is doing is not normal and in the rules of the convention of courtly love.
She could only see him if she was with an escort. This is only if he was acceptable and he is not because he is a Montague. What Romeo was doing is also unacceptable because of many reasons. The first being he was in her garden. The second being he was seeing Juliet. The last being that he accepted to array her knowing that everything between them is wrong. A modern audience would not much be appalled but more shocked. This is because their choice to get married so fast is not only irrational it is a bad idea. One reason for this is because they barely know about each other.
They may be in love but it is more likely to be infatuation rather than “real” love. They would understand to some extent as it is the only thing they can do without real danger. They will also understand their feeling about love giving them immense power as this is usual in modern society. In the Bas Alarming production there is a lot of symbolism like there was in he previous scene. Romeo attempts to climb to her window. This symbolizes that he is trying to reach the heavens. Love is like this climb it is difficult, they Start from the bottom and reach for the top.
When and only if they get there do they know what they wanted was where they started. This is shown when Romeo was climbing up to the window to get to Juliet but she is at the ground near the pool, coming out of the lift where he started. When Romeo shows his presence to Juliet they both fall into the pool. This symbolizes the jump they are going to make into the cold wet unpleasant lifestyle with each other. Though it is unpleasant they are always together in the water even as they are moving through the problems they are together as they will be forever.
This is showing that with each other they are happy and if they were alone they would hate the water. When Romeo is hiding from the guard he is submerged without ability to breath this is what he is willing to face. Being suffocated, a very painful experience is completely acceptable if he is with her. When Juliet accepts the idea marriage they fall again into the pool. This shows that in knowing that when Juliet knew it was unacceptable or it was rash and unadvised she was out of the unpleasantness of the water.
Although once she knows that he wanted to marry her as well she lost all sense of reality and willingly jumped with him back into the pool of despair. Throughout these scenes love is a dominant theme. Though the play has all aspects that any play would want, action, parties, fighting, death but it is love which feeds the things that happens. This story was well known before but it did not stop Shakespeare to put his own touch on it. His expression on society is great. He is willing to fight for what he believes in and tries to make there think and see differently through his plays.