The first to developed the idea of psychoanalysis. Many physicians at that time turned down Freud’s idea, that one could have mental and physical problems which dwelled from deep with in a person. However, Freud continued his studies, and has contributed a lot to the world of psychology. Freud has shown the world that the mind is a powerful tool, and he also proved that physical illness could be a link to mental thoughts. (Hacker) Since Freud’s success in psychology, psychoanalysis has become a an important topic to psychology. In the 1890’s, psychoanalysis developed from a Viennese physician named Sigmund Freud. (Grolier)Freud, along with his followers used psychoanalysis to branch off into the world of psychology. The definition of psychoanalysis can best be defined as “emphasizing the roles of unconscious mental forces and conflicts in determining behavior.”
The main branch of psychology is “normal thinking” of the mind. Freud thought that many of our problems lived inside of our unconsciousness and we where not aware of this. It is a body of knowledge which sets apart from the traditional psychology, psychotherapy, and also psychopathology. In psychology, these deal more with religion, education, mythology, and with life in general. Freud’s idea of psychoanalysis, deals more with the conflict that our minds encounter. Freud believed in three types of related activities they are; a method of research into the minds of humans, especially inner experiences which holds our dreams, fantasies, feelings, thoughts and emotions. Also, a great deal of knowledge of the mind, and its functions, and a system of treatment of emotional and psychological disorders. In Freud’s psychoanalysis, Freud believed that all humans were born with instincts which drives a person to act the way in which they do. There are two classifications for this they are: the libido, this is based on sexual pleasures, and the second type is called aggression this motivates the behavior.
This type of thinking happens from the time a person is born, according to Freud. When growing up, the child will go though three different libidinal stages. The first is called the oral stage, in this stage the infant takes his or her thumb and stimulates the mouth with it, we may know this act as the baby sucking his or her thumb. The second stage of libidinal is the anal stage. In this stage, pleasures like the ones in the oral stage are similar. These pleasures are repeated through pleasures to the anus. The bowel movements mark this pleasure. The final stage in the libidinal stages of a child is the phallic stage. This is done when the child manipulates their genitalia in order for gratification. (Grolier) Freud thought that a child in the phallic stage, had a strong attraction to the parent of the opposite sex. He called this Oedipus Complex. (Encarta) Most people throughout the world turned against this idea of Freuds. which was the attraction to the parent of the opposite sex.
According to Freud, the child is taught to turn against those feelings and desires which then fall into their unconscious minds. This leads to three defense mechanisms of the mind in the Freudian theory. The first one is the ID, this is “the unconscious system of the personality, which contains the life and death instincts and operates only on the pleasure principle.” The second is known as the Ego, “in Freudian theory, the rational, largely conscious system of personality, which operates according to the reality principle.” The last and final stage in the libido Freudian theory is the Superego. By definition the Superego can best be defined as “the moral system of the personality, which consists of the conscience and the ego ideal.” They according to Freud, all function together. When the Id, Ego, and Superego clash, a problem can occur. What can happen is a person can have nightmares or a slip of the tongue can happen. When a traumatic event takes place, the Id, Ego and Superego become significantly out of balance. If this should occur, then a psychological disorder is present. The psychological disorder includes: depression, anxiety, hysteria, and phobias.
This is known as psychoneurotic theory. Hysteria was called the first application of psychoanalytical treatment back then. Hysteria today is referred to as a conversion disorder. This sickness can intrude on a completely healthy person. The symptoms include numbness or paralysis of limbs, blindness or laryngitis. (Funk and Wagnall Encyclopedia) In Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis, he believes that this can be caused by fantasies produced by the unconscious mind. (Funk and Wagnall Encyclopedia) In the past, physicians tried different methods to reveal people’s hidden thoughts and fantasies. A M.D. who tried to reveal people’s thoughts was named Jean Martin Charcot he was a neurologist. (Funk and Wagnall Encyclopedia) He thought that he could come up with a cure through hypnosis. Although this was a failure, he helped another M.D., Joseph Breuer come up with the idea of free association.
This doctor was a Viennese physician who got his idea from Martin. (Grolier) Doctor Bruer’s first patient was a young women named Anna. (Grolier) Free association was done by letting Anna sit on a sofa and speaking of her mind. Breuer figured that if she were to do this, that this would allow her to get rid of her unwanted subconscious thoughts. After this method of treatment was discovered, Freud had found out about it. Freud had only added to this method treatment. Freud did the same thing as Bruer, but Freud changed the procedure a bit. Instead of Freud being judgmental about the patient’s thoughts, unlike Breuer was, this was in hopes that the patient would reveal their unconscious thoughts to him, without fear. Freud would then recognize these thoughts and try to ananlize what they ment, then he would report back to the patient what he thought. (Encarta Encyclopedia) Since Freud’s findings many histerias were cured. Many successes came out of this treatment, from Bruer’s discovery and Freud’s reinvention of the method.
The two had thought of publishing a book called Studies in Hysteria, and in 1895 that is just what they did. The success of Freud and Breuer’s theories on psychoanalysis had inspired many people around the world to expand on their findings, and start schools. (Hacker) The schools which were found are different from one another, but they all share the common ground of psychoanalysis as their concrete building block. (Hacker)A physician who started his own school was named Carl Gustav Jung. (Funk and Wagnell Encyclopedia)This man was a student studying under Freud. His school was based on the Freudian thought of psychoanalysis, but Jung modified it to his beliefs. (Funk and Jung, like Freud believed in the same ideas, for example Jung believed like Freud the role psychoanalysis plays in human behavior, but he believed that they were more complex then what Freud made them out to be. But Jung also had some of his own ideas and disagreed with some of Freud’s beliefs.
The ways in which Jung differed from Freud were theories about the unconscious and the conscious mind. Although Freud and Jung differed a bit, the basis in which they both agreed upon was that psychoanalysis was Another physician who differed from Freud and Jung was Alfred Alder. He too, like Freud and Jung had his own opinion about psychology and the psychoanalytic world. Alder’s studies was a branch off of Freud and Jung. (Funk and Wagnell Encyclopedia) Alder was a disciplined man who had committed to studying psychoanalysis. Alder had the theory that inferiority towards other people began as soon as they were an infant. Alder believed that this carried with a person throughout the rest of their lives. (Funk and Wagnell Encyclopedia) The three ways in which a person experienced inferiority was: at his or her work, his or her friends, and his loved ones. Alder soon developed his own ways of psychoanalysis. He put an emphasis on the fact that people grow in intellectual intelligence throughout their lives.
In the stages from complete dependence on the mother, to physical and intellectual development on society and the final stage was total intellectual independence. In order to become a psychoanalysis, one must first complete medical school and become a physician, then the person must be certified and trained as a psychiatrist, finally the person is sent off to an institution where they are then trained to become a psychoanalyst. (Grolier) The approximate amount of time for all this to take place is about anywhere from five to about seven years of school and training. Psychoanalysis has been around for many years, centuries in fact. (Encarta Encyclopedia) The ways of psychoanalysis are being challenged and shaped each day. Many theorists have taken or borrowed Freud’s psychoanalysis theory and have created many new and interesting ideas off of his theory about psychoanalysis. This is one branch of psychology which is always changing and will continue to change as long as there is