Mahatma is a Sanskrit term of reverence ‘mahatman’ meaning ‘one of great soul’. – Gandhi was recognized as India’s Father of the Nation” because he was one of the most charismatic leaders who fought for the freedom of the country with ahimsa (non-violence) and satyagraha (way of truth) as his only weapons.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born into the Hindu Modh family in Porbandar, Gujarat, India., in 1869. He was the son of Karamchand Gandhi, the diwan (Prime Minister) of Porbandar, and Putlibai, Karamchand’s fourth wife, a Hindu of the Pranami Vaishnava order; In May 1883, at the age of 13, Gandhi was married through his parents’ arrangements to Kasturba Makhanji (also spelled “Kasturbai” or known as “Ba”), who was his age. They had four sons: Harilal Gandhi, born in 1888; Manilal Gandhi, born in 1892; Ramdas Gandhi, born in 1897; and Devdas Gandhi, born in 1900
Gandhi showed no particular brilliance, played no games, and was quite an introvert. He read little beyond text books, but respected his teacher, and was determined not to copy from his neighbour’s answer sheets. – Gandhi was a mediocre student in his youth at Porbandar and later at Rajkot. – In 1887, he barely passed the matriculation exam for Samaldas College at Bhavanagar, Gujarat. He only remained for one term because he found it difficult. At age of 18, Gandhi went to University College London to train as barrister.
1888 – During his time in London, as a promise to his mother, he made a vow that he should observe abstinence from meat, alcohol and promiscuity. He was introduced to Bhagavat Gita. 1893-1914 – Gandhi defended Indians in South Africa because they didn’t have anypolitical rights.
That was where he first practiced his theory of non-violent resistance which is based on truth, love, celibacy and striving towards God. 1906 – Gandhi called on his fellow Indians to defy the new law and suffer the punishments for doing so, rather than resist through violent means. 1915 – India called it Satyagraha Ashram (Sabamati Ashram). It is a vow of truth celibacy, ahimsa (nonviolence, love), nonpossesion, control of the palate & service to Indian people.
1918 – Satyagraha means devotion to the truth 1930 – Broke salt law by picking salt up at seashore as whole world watched. It is a 400-km march from Ahmedabad to Dandi, Gujarat to make salt himself. This campaign was one of the most successful at upsetting the British rule who responded with the imprisonment of over 60,000 people. 1931 – The British government agreed to set all the political prisoners (from Salt March) free in return for the suspension of the civil disobedience movement.
1933 – Fast concluded after 21 days at Poona. 1942 – Gandhi continued to struggle through non-violent disobedience until he was arrested for the last time and was imprisoned for seven years. 1944 – After decline in health, was released unconditionally from detention (this was his last imprisonment; he had spent 2338 days in jail during his life time). 1947 – Fasted and prayed to combat riots in Calcutta as India was partitioned and granted independence.
1948 – Gandhi was assassinated on his way to evening prayers Nathuram Vinayak Godse Gandhi’s Principles Truth – Truth is God, thus “Satya” (truth) in Gandhi’s Philosophy is God. He tried to achieve this by learning from his own mistakes and conducting experiments on himself. Nonviolence – Satyagraha is itself a whole philosophy of nonviolence. As a technique, Satyagraha was developed by Gandhi in South Africa to give the Indian population there a weapon with which to resist the injustices being perpetrated upon it by the colonial government.
Brahmacharya – It is largely associated with celibacy and asceticism. Vegetarianism – He wrote the book “The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism”Simplicity – A person involved in social service should lead a simple life which Gandhi thought could lead to Brahmacharya. Faith – All religions should be equal and Gandhi rejected all efforts to convert him to a different faith.
STRUGGLE FOR INDIAN INDEPENDENCE
Mohandas Gandhi motivated others to join him in protest against the Government, who treated the population very badly. Many people joined the non-violent protest and bringing the dependence of India with the “Great March” to an end, in which thousands of people marched through the cities. The Government recognized that they had no chance against the protesters, so they declared India as an independent country
ASSASSINATION OF GANDHI
Bloodstains appeared over Gandhi’s white woolen shawl; his hands still folded in a greeting, Gandhi blessed his assassin: He Ram! He Ram!- As Gandhi fell, his faithful time-piece struck the ground, and the hands of the watch came to a standstill. They showed, as they had done before, the precise time: 5:12 P.M.
Gandhi’s birthday, 2 October is a national holiday in India, Gandhi Jayanti. Time Magazine named Gandhi the Man of the Year in 1930, the runner-up to Albert Einstein as “Person of the Century” at the end of 1999, and named The Dalai Lama, Lech Wa??sa, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Cesar Chavez, Aung San Suu Kyi, Benigno Aquino, Jr., Desmond Tutu, and Nelson Mandela as Children of Gandhi and his spiritual heirs to non-violence. The Government of India awards the annual Mahatma Gandhi Peace Prize to distinguished social workers, world leaders and citizens