1. 0INTRODUCTION 1. 1Background of Study Some forms of communication have been going on for quite a long time ever since the first transatlantic telegraph cable in the 1850s. The next milestone was 1901-Marconi’s first transatlantic radio transmission. The bandwidths of these systems were indeed very low, and information transmissions painfully slow (Kennedy and Davis, 2005).
The first major development in broadband (1 kHz – 500 MHz) communications came in 1915, when vacuum-tube repeaters were first used, together with carrier telephony, to provide a coast-to-coast telephone service in the United States, utilizing few channels.
Less than a century later, broadband wireless communication is widespread. Everyone can pick up a mobile phone and speak with a friend located in a different continent. However, voice calls are only one of the many options.
Latest cell phones can send faxes, exchange text messages, e-mails, send and receive pictures via Bluetooth or infrared, and even connect to the internet (Britannica, 2009). Modern electronics is about embedded electronics. This is the use of electronics for the purpose of controlling some devices (Mavino, 1997).
With the evolution of modern electronic systems, there is an increase in the level of automation that can be added to special places, homes, automobiles, consumer products etc. The capability of controlling home appliances in a wireless and remote fashion has provided a great convenience to many people in life.
Through a wireless remote controller, people can do a remote operation without directly accessing the host of home appliances like fan, lamp, television, washing machines, and security doors. The introduction of the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and particularly the use of hand-held mobile phones brought the innovation of distance communication at remote station (www. ijcsms. com). Nowadays, Short Message Service (SMS) is widely used as a form of data communication. SMS is a communication application in Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) system.
It allows interchange of short text messages between mobile telephone devices using standardized communication protocols. Based on this, this research utilizes this facility for remote control systems and appliances. For instance, a man on a journey suddenly remembers that he left the security door open when it was supposed to be closed. The normal condition is to drive back home to close the door, but with the GSM mobile phone in the hand, one looks on how the same could be used to effect control at any point and time (www. jcsms. com). Home appliance control system (HACS) is based on GSM network technology for transmission of SMS from sender to receiver. The system proposes two sub-systems. Appliance control sub-system enables the user to control home appliances remotely whereas the security alert sub-system provides the remote security monitoring. The system is capable enough to instruct user via SMS from a specific cell number to change the condition of the home appliance according to the user’s needs and requirements.
The second aspect is that of security alert which is achieved in a way that on the detection of intrusion the system allows automatic generation of SMS thus alerting the user (Raghavendran, 2011). Automated home devices work via fairly simple systems: PIC and SMS. Home devices such as lights, entertainment systems, heaters, air conditioners, computers, security systems and radios are equipped with receivers. This PIC detects a certain signal initiated by the code SMS and can be housed in a control device such a light switch or most commonly, a remote control (Hassan, 2011).
The Short Message Service (SMS) based remote control connects to the serial port featured on many mobile phones. The serial port provides input and output ports capable of being remotely controlled using another mobile phone. Control takes place by means of SMS. When the mobile phone receives a predetermined text message, the circuit automatically recognizes it as an instruction or command, and switches the output accordingly. HACS system has many advantages such as remote controlling of home appliances, availability and ease of users. The user can get alerts anywhere through the GSM technology thus making the system location independent.
The system contains low cost components easily available which cuts down the overall system cost. The ease of deployment is due to wireless mode of communication. GSM technology provides the benefit that the system is accessible in remote areas as well. However, the system functionality is based on GSM technology so the technological constraints must be kept in mind. The system is also vulnerable to power failure but this can be avoided by attaching the voltage source thus allowing users to avail the great advantage of this system (Raghavendran, 2011). 1. 2Statement of the Problem
Safeguarding our home appliances has become an issue when dealing with advancement and growth of an economy. Security has been a major issue where crime rate is increasing and everybody wants to take proper measures to prevent intrusion, so there is need to automate home and the user can take advantage of the technological advancement. The proposed project presents a model that will provide security to homes and offices via SMS using GSM technology. Thus a prototype based on a microcontroller device using SMS and GSM modem is developed. It can automatically control any electrical equipment at home remotely using mobile phone. . 3Aim The aim of this project is to design and develop a security system for house owners, that is capable of monitoring intruders by alarming the house owners via short message service (SMS). 1. 4Objectives The objectives to be met are to: i. Develop a microcontroller based system that will detect an intrusive action and communicate the action to a GSM phone. ii. Provide security to a restricted area from a remote place via SMS while breaking the distance barrier. iii. Provide a cheap and flexible way to determine an additional usage of the GSM phone. 1. 5Justification
Although much work has been done in the area of SMS-based remote control, the major importance of this project work is that it will help improve the quality of protection enjoyed, this work is unique in that when the device is incorporated to the door as an accessory, it will carry out the specified instructions sent to the onboard mobile phone, especially by sending a missed call or an SMS in case of intrusion as long as there is GSM network. 1. 6Scope of Project There are a few scopes and guidelines listed to ensure the project is conducted within its intended boundary.
This is to ensure the project is heading in the right direction to achieve its intended objectives. i. To design the smart home circuit by using Proteus. ii. Win PIC 800 studio is used to program the PIC by using assembly language. iii. To develop the program that can integrate and control the overall system. CHAPTER TWO 2. 0LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1Introduction Over the last two decades, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has taken the centre stage in every sphere of our daily lives, the last decade being the most strategic in this regard due to GSM services in the country (Osiname, 2007).
The mobile phone has truly taken hold of consumers in the past few years, and in the western world, the technology is virtually ubiquitous. Now, there are about a billion mobile phones in the world and the increase in users shows little sign of abating as the technology gathers pace in Nigeria too (Britannica, 2009). Nigeria now has about 99. 4 million mobile phone subscribers (Report of National Communications Commission, 2012). As mobile phones become more advanced, its uses exceed much more than mere phone calls. The simple usefulness of the mobile phone has been the secret of its success.
People are no longer tethered to fixed telephone lines. Being able to communicate with friends, family, or business colleagues at anytime from anywhere frees individuals to work or plan their social lives while on the move. Mobile phones can increase safety, as people monitor each other by staying in touch or phone for help from the scene of an accident. Emergency services can even use phones to trace the whereabouts of those calling for help. In the last decade and a half, the advancement of ICT has been commonplace. To harness its flexibility, its application in controlling a device from any part of the world was experimented.
Integrated systems controlled by microprocessors and microcontrollers are at the heart of this innovation. It started with Home Automation which became popular in the early 1980s just about the time that the ‘intelligent building’ concept was first used in the US. Also, domestic task automation became the goal of many developments in electromechanical products over the past century. But in the last three decades, an appreciable number of electronic products have been developed and added to the existing gadgets, appliances and consumer products.
The idea of using the short message service to establish routes in communication networks between receivers and transmitters for the purpose of safety and guaranty of service is not new, but the application, cost, design method and reliability of the system varies. Home automation systems as Multiple Agent Systems (MAS) were considered by Conte and Scaradozzi (2003), home automation system was proposed that included home appliances and devices that were controlled and maintained for home management. Their major contribution to knowledge was to improve home automation, but not minding the cost of the entire system.
Alkar and Buhur (2005) in their paper also proposed an Internet Based Wireless Home Automation System for Multifunctional Devices. They proposed a low cost and flexible web-based solution but this system had some limitations such as the range and power failure. Design and implementation of SMS based control for monitoring systems was presented by Ciubotaru-Petrescu et al. , (2006). The paper had three modules involving sensing unit for monitoring the complex applications, a processing unit that is the microcontroller and a communication module that uses General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) modem or cell phone via serial port RS-232.
The SMS was used for status reporting such as power failure. In a related work, Jawarkar et al. (2008) proposed remote monitoring through mobile phone involving the use of spoken commands. The spoken commands are generated and sent in the form of text SMS to the control system and then the microcontroller on the basis of SMS takes a decision of a particular task. But the drawback of all the related work is the cost of the design, the reliability, and the use of foreign materials. In this research, we will utilize locally available materials for design purpose, making it more reliable and portable with less cost. . 2 Existing System Overview Microcontroller, relays, a programmer for the microcontroller and a mobile phone will be employed. 2. 2. 1 Mobile Phone Based Device Monitoring and Control The purpose of this system is to Monitor and Control any digital or analog devices from your cell phone. This system can be used to control up to 16 electrical devices. With this circuit you can switch-ON, OFF or Restart some Linux servers, ASDL modems, printers, Doors with electric lock, irrigation pump, Garage door, house lights, water pumps, electric sunshade, block the engine of your car or your motorcycle and much more.
The purpose of this circuit is to make the human life better and easier. 2. 2. 2 GSM Based Automatic Irrigation Controller System The purpose of this project is to get SMS alert whenever the electrical power status changes to ON or OFF. Use your phone to switch on and off the water pump from any location in the world. 2. 2. 3 Automatic Power Meter Reading System using GSM Network This is useful for Electricity Department for remote meter reading. Also to disconnect a power supply consumer incase of non-payment of electric bills. This is also used to exchange messages like power cut timings with the consumers.
The system works by integrating the GSM modem that was embedded with digital kWh power meter. It utilizes the GSM network to send power usage reading using SMS to the authorized office. The authorized office collects and manages the received SMS message containing the meter reading to generate the billing cost and send back the cost to the respective consumer through SMS. 2. 2. 4 GSM Based Highway vehicle traffic monitoring System The purpose of this project is to monitor the vehicles moving on highways at the remote locations. This project uses infrared/laser sensor system to count the number of vehicles passing in both directions.
The vehicle count is logged by the microcontroller. This vehicles information can be sent to the user over GSM modem. The information can be sent to the user periodically or can be sent on demand by sending a missed call or SMS. 2. 2. 5 Home Security with Messaging System, Security & Control System and Remote and Security Control via SMS Several smart home projects such as Home Security with Messaging System, Security & Control System, and Remote and Security Control via SMS were the three alarm system that were designed using SMS application to securely monitor the home condition when the owners are away or at night.
A system triggered by SMS to the home owner to notify the owner of any incidents around the house such as robbery or fire. The security system uses mobile phone with a combination of microcontroller circuit PIC16F877A which interfaced with the computer. 2. 2. 6 Ezy Switch It is used to remotely control and monitor heating, security systems and domestic or commercial appliances. Ezy switch is a simple control design that connects to electrical devices. If the appliance or equipment can be switched on or off, it can be controlled remotely from a mobile phone with Ezy switch.
The Ezy switch employs the SMS network and comes with easy programming steps. Simple text messaging instructions are used for operation, such as “turn on heat pump” and “turn off heat pump”. Multiple devices such as the security lights and smoke alarms can be monitored on one Ezy switch and at the same time control the power on/off on the heat pump and hot cylinder. It works on all mobile networks that use a globally compliant cellular module. 2. 3The Use of Remote Control System SMS Remote Controller is an electronic device that enables the user to control appliances remotely from a mobile phone from any part of the world.
The microcontroller pulls the SMS received by phone, decodes it, recognizes the Mobile number, and then switches on the relays attached to its port to control the appliances. After successful operation, controller sends back the acknowledgement to the user’s mobile through SMS. Its applications are numerous and more discoveries, innovations and inventions are expected in this new world of electronics and software engineering. The strong desire for research, innovations and inventions led man to discover another means for wireless remote control using Short Message Service (SMS) (Lanconelli, 2007; Krishna, 2006) other than the IR technology.
Many research works have been carried out on the usage of remote controls generally. These include the incorporation of wired or wireless systems to control a device. The first remote control called ‘lazy bones’ was developed in 1950 by Zenith Electronic Corporations (known as zenith radio corporations) (Parker and Sybol, 1982). In wireless systems, Infrared detection or Bluetooth technology (a recent innovation) may be used. Over the years, mostly infrared detection has been used in central-lock systems, keyless entry and keyless ignition systems (Wiley, 2003).
More recently, bluetooth technology has been in use in playing audio files and also in the area of making or receiving calls while driving, with distance being a key factor (Britannica, 2009). The first SMS remote control was designed by Serasidis in 2001. In 2007, a Nigerian named Yakubu Mohammed redesigned the SMS remote control by Serasidis and he renamed the device as Mobile Phone / Personal Computer Remote Controlling (MPRC) Device (Zungeru et al, 2012). An SMS-based car starting and control system was developed in 2006 simultaneously in the US and Greece (Serasidis, 2006).
This system utilized an 8-bit AVR microcontroller and a level converter chip (MAX 232) rather than a PIC. MAX 232 monitors communication between the phone and the AVR. CHAPTER THREE 3. 0DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY In the design for the SMS-based door control system, the major requirement is a PIC18F452 that will read the message sent to the on-board mobile phone before the specified instruction can be carried out. The operation of the circuit follows a sequence of steps which collectively ensure the effective working performance of the circuit. SWITCHING CIRCUIT GSM MODEM PIC MCU POWER SUPPLY
Fig. 3. 1: Block Diagram of the SMS-Based Remote Control System The circuit design will be done in two modules: 3. 1 Hardware Module The hardware module comprises the visible subunits that function together to make the circuit work. The hardware components are: a. The power supply unit * Transformation stage * Rectification stage * Filtering stage * Regulation stage * Output stage b. The PIC Section * PIC18F452 c. The GSM modem * Nokia mobile phone d. The Switching Circuit * Relays * The Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) e. The Door Circuit Model 3. 1. 1 The Power Supply Unit
A regulated power supply is required for the system to function properly. Two dc voltages are required namely +5v and +12v. The +5v is used to power the PIC while the +12v is used to power the switching circuit. The circuit diagram of the power supply unit is shown in Fig. 3. 1 below. Fig. 3. 1 Power supply circuit diagram Five major stages are involved in the power supply unit, namely: 1. Transformation stage The transformation stage comprises 2 step-down transformers. A 220-240/24, dc 12v X2, 300mA transformer which powers the switching circuit and 220-240/24, dc 12v X1 to power the PIC was used.
This converts a 220 or 240v ac supply to two-phase 12v ac output supply which is passed to the next stage. 2. Rectification Stage This comprises a full wave bridge rectifier which converts the 12v ac to dc. This chip comprises four diodes connected in a bridge mode giving full wave rectification. 3. Filtering Stage This involves the smoothening of the ripple which the rectified dc waveform still contains in order to obtain a genuine dc. This is done using a capacitor; the higher the value the better filtered or smoothened the output waveform. A 1000µF, 50v electrolytic capacitor will be used. . Regulation Stage This stabilizes the output from the filtering stage so that it does not vary as any variation may damage the PIC microcontroller and other components in the circuit. This is done using a 7805 voltage regulator chip to obtain +5 volts dc as required by the PIC; and 7812 voltage regulator chip to obtain +12v dc for the switching circuits. 5. Output Stage This stage comprises a limiting resistor and a light emitting diode (LED). It confirms the fact that the power supply unit actually provides an output voltage which powers the circuit. Fig 3. Block diagram of power supply unit 3. 1. 2 The PIC Unit PIC is an acronym which stands for Programmable Integrated Circuit. It is a microcontroller that stores programs separately. This chip is the chief executor of this project work in that it is the link between the SMS instruction on the phone and the switching circuit. Its features are discussed below. 3. 1. 2. 1Program Memory The Flash memory is addressed using 16-bit word sizes. Program instructions are stored in non-volatile Flash memory with each instruction being either 16 or 32 bits in length. 3. 1. 2. 2EEPROM
This acronym stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory and is used for semi-permanent data storage as against Flash memory which is used for semi-permanent program storage. However, these two memory types can maintain their contents when electrical power is removed. The internal EEPROM memory is not mapped into the PIC’s addressable memory space but can be accessed the same way an external peripheral device can. In this way, special registers and read/write instructions are used which makes EEPROM access much slower than other internal RAM. 3. 1. 2. 3 Program Execution
Microchip’s PICs have a single level pipeline design. They are designed for the efficient execution of compiled MikroBasic code. The next machine instruction is fetched as the current one is executing, taking merely one or two clock cycles. 3. 1. 2. 4 Speed PICs can support clock speeds from 0-20 MHz. PICs do not feature an on-chip oscillator. Therefore, there is the need for an external clock or resonator circuitry. They can achieve up to 1 MIPS per MHz in speed as their operations are single cycle. PICs enable designers to write programs onto the chip to perform any operation.
The schematic of the PIC18F452 microcontroller is shown below in Fig. 3. 3. Fig. 3. 3 PIC 18F452 Schematics 3. 1. 3 The GSM Modem A Nokia 1200 mobile phone will be used in this section as the on-board phone which receives text messages from another phone. The key idea of this work is to control a door via SMS while breaking the distance barrier. The phone receives the SMS code sent to it, sends it across to the PIC which interprets it and then sends a message to delete the SMS instantly. In using this mobile modem a sound knowledge of the pin out of the phone is required. It has 6 pins in all. Only 3 are needed in this project work.
Pin 5 is used for transmitting (TX), pin 2 is for receiving (RX) while pin 6 is the ground (GND). The format of the message must be only “*c#” to enable or “*o#” to disable the door. 3. 2 Software Module This dwells in details on how the program is developed to carry out the specific control functions which is eventually written (burnt) on the microcontroller. For the development of the code, the programs and applications that will be used include Win PIC 800 and Proteus. Win PIC 800 studio will be used to upload the code to the microcontroller and will also be used to test if the code was correctly “burnt” into it.
HyperTerminal will be used as interface software between the computer and the phone to test if the terminals of the phone are ok while Proteus will be used in simulating the working of the microcontroller. In programming the PIC, Flash PIC programmer will be used. Fig. 3. 4 Circuit diagram CONCLUSION In the paper low cost, secure, ubiquitously accessible, auto-configurable, remotely controlled solution for automation of homes has been introduced. The approach discussed in the paper is novel and has achieved the target to control home appliances remotely using the SMS-based ystem satisfying user needs and requirements. GSM technology capable solution has proved to be controlled remotely, provide home security and is cost-effective as compared to the previously existing systems. Hence we can conclude that the required goals and objectives of HACS have been achieved. The basic level of home appliance control and remote monitoring has been implemented. The system is extensible and more levels can be further developed using automatic motion/glass breaking detectors so the solution can be integrated with these and other detection systems.
In case of remote monitoring other appliances can also be monitored such that if the level of temperature rises above certain level then it should generate SMS or sensors can also be applied that can detect gas, smoke or fire in case of emergency the system will automatically generate SMS. In future the system will be small box combining the PC and GSM modem. This hardware can be imported from Taiwan and Singapore. The hardware will be self contained and cannot be prone to electric failure. This appliance will have its own encapsulated UPS and charging system.
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