When sociologists speak of stratification. they are mentioning to societal inequality and societal ranking. therefore. stresses the differences among people. Is an institutionalised form of inequality in which societal classs ranked on the footing of their entree to scarce resources. Is the hierarchy agreement and constitution of societal classs that evolve into societal group together with positions and their corresponding functions. Is a system whereby people rank and evaluate each other as superior or inferior and. on the footing of such ratings. unevenly rewarded one another with wealth. authorization. power and prestigiousness. One consequence of each distinction is the creative activity of a figure of degrees within society.
Social Stratification may be viewed may be viewed as a societal construction. a societal procedure. or a societal job. As a societal construction. it may be as the distinction of positions and societal functions into graded orders or a system of superimposed hierarchy of societal relationship. As a societal procedure. it can be thought of as a division of a society into societal classs that develop into societal groups. which are collaborating. viing and/ or conflicting with one another for a societal alteration.
As a societal job. it involves acrimonious feelings of discontent and of strong demands for equality or societal justness. Inequality- refers to the unequal distribution of scarce resources such as wealth. authorization. power. and prestigiousness.
Basic Principles of Stratification1. It is cosmopolitan in nature. Some signifier of stratification system is found within every human society. 2. The being of societal stratification system has many effects for single and groups. 3. Social stratification is a characteristic of society. It is non merely a map of single differences. 4. Social stratification persists over coevals. It transcend from one coevals to another. 5. Social stratification is supported by forms of belief.
Major types of Stratification systemCaste system-fixed and lasting. assigned to it at birth. without any opportunity of acquiring out. Class system- system of stratification based on economic place in which people are ranked based on achieve position. Estate system- the ownership of belongings and the exercising of power is monopolized by an elite who have entire control over society resources. Importance of stratification
1. Through societal stratification. work forces all over. dispel favoritism. stereotyping and bias. 2. Man will be exert great attempt in viing with others to be able to achieve a position that commands more power. more privileges and more chances. 3. Knowledge of societal stratification may enable adult male to accommodate to his societal environment. 4. Improvement of man’s criterion of life.
5. Effect economic development in a society.6. Attainment of a harmonious and stable society.
Theoretical Analysis of stratification1. The Structural Functional Analysis-the structural- functional attack recognizes that all societies maintain some signifier of societal stratification. and hence societal stratification must hold of import functional effects.
Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore ( 1945 ) – proposed a theory of societal stratification that remains influential and controversial up to this twenty-four hours. The Davis- Moore thesis asserts that some grade of societal stratification really serves society.
Inequality of members in a society based on their societal categories is functional. necessary. and constructive. Functional- it serves an of import map in society.Necessary- it meets certain social demandsConstructive- it is utile to all members of society.
Davis and Moore maintain that societies become more productive as they approach “meritocracy. ” a system associating wagess to personal virtue.
2. The Conflict Perspective View- this theory views inequality as neither of import nor advantageous to the public assistance of most members of society. There is a crisp division between categories. which are in changeless battle and resistance. Conflict theorists position stratification as an unfair system inflicted on society by people with a monopoly of power and wealth to safeguard their ain involvements. advantages. and power.
Social Class as viewed by Karl Marx1. The Bourgeoisie ( Capitalist ) -these are people who owned productive belongings such as lands. mills. and machinery. Marx regarded them parasites because they gained wealth. power. and net income through the labour of others and non through their ain labour. 2. The labor ( worker ) – this category did non hold anything except their labour. Thay sell their labour to the middle class in return for a meagre income. -creates much excess value for the middle class.
In Marx position. category is determined wholly by one’s relationship to the agencies of production. He believes that through category consciousness- an consciousness of their true category place a radical motion would probably emerge to extinguish category differences. In other words. the labor will form against the middle class to achieve equality.
Marx Weber’s Analysis of Social Class
Advantages of societal stratificationGreater position and economical/political retention and clout for the elect Simple society with no lip service or confusions as to people’s sentiments of others’ “places”Disadvantages of societal stratificationInfringement upon civil rights. including even basic 1sFrequently inappropriate to some spiritual religions and beliefsUnfair division. particularly that most common of footing on birth Causes apprehensible tenseness and by and large leads to frequently violent rebellion Morally unacceptable
Meaning of Social ClassRefers to a group of people holding a similar societal rank. Stark define societal category as a group of people who portion a similar place or position. Is a class of people who portion approximately the same category. position. and power. and who have a sense of designation with one another. Social category or stratum refers to a set of households that portion equal or about equal prestigiousness harmonizing to the standards of rating in the system of stratification.
As evident in the foregoing constructs of societal category. it implies a hierarchal agreement of societal place of people. which literally means. “layered” . Hence. it denotes division of society into beds or strata or merely the societal category. This gives the thought of unequal distribution of wagess or things perceived as valuable among members in a given society.
Social categories in the Philippines1. ) Upper category. These households occupy a high stable place. There are approx. 3 % of entire populations who belong to this category. They enjoy high personal income. inherited wealth and economic power. They exercise considerable control over corporations and authorities. The power of this category stems from its great wealth. 2. ) Middle category. It comprises about 25 % of the entire population. They are autochthonal physical types with Chinese blends composed of extremely nomadic intellectuals. technocrats. civil retainers. instructors. merchandisers. bargainers and little concerns. Peoples within this category receive modest income. They are the people who belong to the in-between degree professionals and semi-professionals. 3. ) Lower category. This is a largest of the societal category consisting about 72 % of the public.
Determinants of Social Classes1. Education- one of the most of import factors in finding one’s societal category. An person who has attained a grade may enable him to travel to a higher stratum. 2. Income- a family’s income determines the life style of its members. The higher the income. the higher the category strata. 3. Intelligence- bright people normally gain acknowledgment in our society. 4. Occupation- the quality of instruction. preparation. and work experience are the finding factor in one’s societal category based on business.
Meaning of Social MobilityIs the motion of an single or group from one societal category or stratum to another. Defined merely as a alteration in one’s societal category or position. It is besides referred to as the procedure of altering one’s societal category.
In general footings. societal mobility can be discussed with mention to the type of stratification system of a peculiar society.
Types of mobility1. Vertical mobility- the motion upward or downward from one category degree to another. The office worker who finally becomes a manager exemplifies perpendicular mobility. 2. Horizontal Mobility- this refers to a alteration of place that does non affect any existent alteration of category rank. Therefore. the tooth doctor who becomes a physician or doctor is horizontally nomadic.
Consequences of upward mobility1. Peoples tend to interrupt under force per unit areas of endeavoring for success. which normally result to loneliness. anxiousness. defeat and assorted types of disorganisation. 2. It involves loosening of household ties and old friendly relationship.