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Sorghum: Production, Processing, Marketing and Utilization

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    ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    The authors are very much indebted to the management of NAERLS, ABU Zaria providing support and the Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA) for their logistic support in the production of this bulletin. We also wish to acknowledge Dr. D. I. Agekpe, Head of Seed Unit, IAR for providing useful information in the production of the bulletin. Authors Y. A. Sani, M. M. jaliya, M. U. Makeri, S. I. Sunusi and A. A. Yari. 2

     INTRODUCTION

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolar (L. ) Moench) is one of the important cereal crops and major staple food in most part of the world with more than 40. 5 M hectares and production figures of 55. M tonnes, respectively with Asia as a leading continent, followed by Africa in which Nigeria cultivate 4. 7 million hectares. However, area cultivated in Africa was 24. 8 M hectares with the production quantity of 20. 9 M tonnes and average yield of 0. 8 M tonnes per hectare (FAO. 2010). The land area put into cultivation of sorghum in Nigeria was 4. 7 M hectares while the production figures were 4. 8 M tonnes, respectively. The average yield of the Nigerian farmers was 1. 0 tonnes per hectare (). The guinea sorghum is the most widely cultivated and adaptable race which are common in the savannas ecological zone.

    Sorghum is mainly used in the form of flour or paste processed into two main dishes. “Tuwo” a thick porridge and OGI or KAMU a thin diet or porridge. Other dishes that are sometimes made from sorghum include a number of deep fried snacks, steamed dumplings and other boiled or roasted snack foods. The production constraint of sorghum include farmers at the margin of subsistence level do not invest much in fertilizer and improve varieties, rising labour cost, consumer change in food preference due to income increase, birds attacks and parasitic weed such as striga.

    Grain moulds causes significant losses in both grain yield and quality, particularly in areas where improved cultivars have been adopted. Other important diseases include anthracnose, ergot and leaf blight. Insect pests constrain production in many areas. Stem borers, head bugs, midge and shoot fly are among the most important. Another major problem is that variable rainfall leads to large fluctuation in production. Price fall abruptly in good years, leaving traders reluctant to enter the market, especially since stockholding infrastructure is usually inadequate.

    This increases the price risk that sorghum producer’s face, and their unwillingness to invest in commercial sorghum production. This bulletin is aim at considering the complete value chain of sorghum (productions, processing, marketing, and utilization) in the light of relevant research findings applicable to savannah zones of Nigeria.

    INPUTS

    Production inputs Production inputs include seed, fertilizer, herbicides, insecticides and other chemicals used in sorghum production. Seed Seed is an important input in sorghum production; therefore farmers should carefully select seeds that are not damages to have good germination.

    Figure. 1: Sorghum seeds Vareity 5 Fertilizer Fertilizer can be divided into organic and inorganic which are both important for sorghum production. A detail of rates and application methods is presented under cultural practices. Herbicides Weed can be controlled in cropland through cultural, mechanical and chemical means. Wise use of these individual methods or a combination of them can manage weeds effectively without causing economic loss or harming the environment. Deciding which practice to use will depend largely on the weed(s) being controlled and the infestation level.

    Also, the crop being planted will play a major role in determining the timeliness of mechanical measures. Processing inputs The processing inputs are divided into traditional and modern. The traditional ones include machete, knives, ropes, empty sacks/tarpaulin, mortar and pestle, beating stick, winnower/calabashes/bowls and grinding stones while the modern ones are different type of threshers, dryers, dehuller, milling machines, etc. Figure. 2: IAR Prototype Sorghum threshers.

    Varieties The improve varieties and their characteristics released by Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR) were listed in Table 1: Many of the varieties developed by IAR, Samaru have short stalks, which make them amenable to mechanical harvesting. Short-season sorghum have been developed and released for production in the semi-arid areas and southern part of the Sudan, where the rainfall is less than 600 mm per annum. Figure. 3: Improved sorghum varieties In the Northern guinea savanna, medium maturing sorghum varieties have also been developed and released.

    Here the rainfall requirement ranges between 600-1800mm per annum, with about seven months of rain. 6 In the southern Guinea savanna where there is more rainfall, late-maturing sorghum varieties that are photoperiod-sensitive have also been developed and released. In the southern Guinea savanna, the growing period is very long (over 180 days) with very late-maturing sorghum adapted to the zone taking more than 6 months to mature. TABLE 1. Improved early and late maturing sorghum varieties released by IAR, Samaru at the Sudan savanna ecology. Release Name KSV4(BES) New Name SAMSORG-3

    Characteristics Shot season type, maturity period 95-105 days (early) semi-dwarf. Resistant/tolerant to striga. Seed colour cream. Potential yields 1. 52. 5 t ha-’. Shot season, maturity period 95-105 days (early) Tolerant to striga. dwarf type. Seed colour white. Potential yield,1. 5-2. 5 t ha-1 KSV 11 KSV 12 SAMSORG-5 SAMSORG-6 lCSV4000 SSV98001 SSV98002 SSV20042 Shot season, maturity period 95-105 days (early). Tolerant to striga. Semi-dwarf. Potential yield 1. 5-2. 5 t ha-1, Seed colour cream. Shot season, maturity period 95-100 days (early) SAMSORG -4O Tolerant to striga. Semi-dwarf. Potential yield 2. 5-3. t ha-1, Seed colour cream. Use for malt production and brewing. Tall 2-3 m, Open panicles, white seeded, Late maturing 105-120 SAMSORG 42 days, Potential yield 2. 5-3. 0 t ha-1, Tolerant to most leaf diseases, except Anthracnose Tall 2. 7-2. 8 m, Open panicles, Late maturing 105-120 days, SAMSORG 43 Potential yield 2. 5-3. 0 t ha-1, Tolerant to most leaf diseases. Tall 1. 9-2. 0 m, Compact panicles, White seeded, Early maturing SAMSORG 44 95-100 days, Potential yield 2. 0-2. 5 t ha-1, Tolerant to most leaf diseases. SAMSORG-17 KSV 3 (SK 5912) SSV2 (FBL) SAMSORG-16 Long season, Semi-tall. Tolerant to striga. Maturity period 165-175 days.

    Potential yield 2. 5- 3. 5 t ha-1, Seed colour yellow. For Industrial use especially for brewing, Livestock, confectionery. Long season. Tall. Farafara, Maturity period 165-175 days. Potential yields 2. 5-3. 5 t ha’. Seed colour white. Use by Industries especially for brewing Seed Sources The Institute for Agricultural Research has the mandate for the genetic improvement of sorghum for the whole of Nigeria, covering the four main savanna ecological zones. It is therefore mandatory for the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR) to continuously maintain its breeder seed, and in some cases foundation Seed stock.

    The Institute can grow enough foundation seed of any of the varieties listed in Table 1 on request. 7 PRODUCTION Cultural Practices Site Selection Sorghum is a cereal crop that can grow in a wide variety of soils ranging from heavy clay in the Southern Guinea savanna to sandy loam in the Sudan /Sahel savanna ecologies. It does best in soils with high moisture retention capacity that is well drained and fertile clay loam in nature. It is fairly tolerant to alkalinity and salinity. It can tolerate some drought situations that is why It is described as a hardy crop. Land clearing Land clearing is usually done just before the on-set of the rains.

    Crop residue of the previous crop grown on the area including shrubs are cut and burnt, while bushy trees are pruned to reduce their shading effect on the crop. Land Preparation Sorghum is most important in the northern Guinea and the Sudan savanna ecologies where the soils are light and sandy; this is also similar in the Sahel savanna where minimum land preparation through tiling is required. The seeds are planted in old furrows by farmers in such areas. In heavier soils such as in the southern Guinea savanna ecology proper land preparation is necessary. Where a tractor is available the land should be ploughed and left for two weeks.

    It is then harrowed and ridged 75 to 90cm apart. Figure. 4: Sorghum land preparations With the ox-drawn mould board, bulls are trained to break or split old ridges to form new ones in the old furrows. After the land preparation the seed bed should be weed-free and the soil well pulverized. Choice of varieties: There are three main ecologies with seasonal variations, these include the Southern Guinea Savanna (SGS) with a long growing period of about seven to eight (7-8) months of rainfall, the varieties to grow here should be long duration or late maturing varieties (Table 1).

    In the Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS) the growing season is shorter than in the SGS but longer than in Sudan/Sahel savanna. Varieties of sorghum to be grown here are medium maturing. The rainfall here last between six and seven months (6-7 months). In the Sudan/Sahel savanna, the growing period is short with the rainfall lasting between four and five months (4-5 months) Varieties of sorghum grown here is short duration or early maturing in order to escape the drought that Is frequently experienced at the end of the growing season. 8 Seed rate To plant a sole crop of sorghum in one hectare of land, you need 10-15kg of seeds.

    Seeds are planted 3-5 seeds/hole and at 25-30cm between stands for good germination to occur. For intercropping Sorghum: 8kg of seed per hectare. Planted 3-5 seed/hole and thin to 2-3 plant per stand after 10 days of emergence. Millet: 3kg of seed per hectare plant 5-10 seed/hole and thin 2-3 plant per stand after 10 days of emergence Seed dressing Most soils are contaminated with soil borne diseases like bacteria and fungi. In some cases insect pests and soil pests such as root-knot nematode may be found. Before planting your seed, dress all seeds with seed dressing chemicals. Use one sachet of Aprons star or Apron plus 50 DS to dress 1. kg (1 mudu) of seeds. Planting Plant your sorghum seed as soon as the rains are established on well prepared seed bed to enhance good germination plant after a good rain. Poor seed germination, will eventually affect the yield. Thinning Thinning is done 2-3 weeks after planting. The seedlings are thinned to 2 plants per stand, where gaps exist you need to transplant when the soil is wet and preferably in the evening. The transplants should carry as much root as possible and the foliage should be slightly pruned to reduce evapo-transpiration and shock. The transplants are planted upright.

    In both the planting and the transplants the soil around crop should be firmed. Fertilizer application Nigerian soils are deficient in the major nutrient elements -nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and some essential micro-nutrients. Rate: For good sorghum growth and yield 64kg Nha-1 30 kg P205ha-1 and 30kg K2Oha-1 are required. While the phosphorus and potassium are applied during land preparations nitrogen is applied in split application. Half the nitrogen rate is either applied at planting or three weeks after sowing and the balance banded or spot applied 25cm from the plant at six weeks after sowing.

    Fertilizer rates can be satisfied using the following: a 4 bags of 15:15:15 NPK compound fertilizer during land preparation or at planting or at 3 weeks after sowing. This should be followed by 1. 5 bags Urea 6 weeks after sowing. 1. 5 bags of urea plus 3. 3 bags of SSP (18% P205) at planting followed by 1. 3 bags of urea 6 weeks after sowing. b Where the land is prepared with tractor the first dose of the fertilizer or combination of fertilizers should be applied after harrowing and before ridging.

    It is more economical to spot apply the first dose of fertilizer about 3 weeks after sowing. This increases the crop vigor and 9 controls weeds. There is need for molding up the ridges after the application of the second dose of nitrogen, this helps in covering the fertilizer up and weed control. Weed Control. Weed infestation can reduce crop yields by as much as 30-50% if not controlled for instance Striga, a parasitic weed had been found to cause total crop failure where susceptible sorghum varieties have been planted in highly infested fields (shebayan, 1992). Figure. : Striga as major weeds of sorghum To control the non-parasitic weeds, two weedings at 3 weeks and 6 weeks after sowing and ridge moulding (8 week after sowing) are required. Where parasitic weeds are a problem, apart from choosing a striga tolerant or resistant sorghum variety, all emerged striga plants should be hand pulled and burnt. Increasing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 64 kg N to 90kg N ha-1 will help the crop growth vigor to withstand the attack by striga. Recommended herbicides for weed control include Atrazine, premextragold pendimenthalin each at 4L/ha and also apply pre-emergence (0-1 DAS).

    Harvesting Time of harvest varies with the duration of the crop variety. Early maturing varieties mature early and are ready for harvest in Oct/Nov. Sorghum that is mature and ready for harvest will be well filled and the grain will be hard. The leaves will turn yellow to brown with the lower leaves drying up completely. As soon as the crop is mature, harvest should commence immediately as some of the varieties tend to shatter and you will loose much seed (yield). For tall and Medium-dwarf varieties, the plant is cut down before the panicle(s) (head) is cut off.

    For dwarf varieties the panicles are cut off directly from the plant and are packed in a basket or bag. In both cases the heads are either allowed to further dry in the field or taken home straight. Figure 6: Harvesting of sorghum Post-harvest processing and storage Where the sorghum is to be stored in heads, the heads should be well dried for good keeping. If the grains are to be stored, the heads are dried thoroughly before they are threshed. The 10 panicles are pounded in a mortar or beaten with sticks on a smooth floor preferably cement floor to avoid sand particles.

    Figure. 7a: Winnowing of sorghum sorghum Figure. 7b: 100kg bag of winnowed Whether the heads or grains are to be stored, the store should be cleaned fumigated with phostoxin or actellic dust (11 mL/L of water and apply 1 L of diluted mixture for every 20 m2 of surface area) so that it will be insect-free. If the crop is to be stored in bags, the bags should be air tight and fumigated with phostoxin at the rate of two tablets per bags of 100 kg seed. Crop Protection Over 32 diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes have been reported. A few of these diseases are urrently of major importance, some have potential as emerging, while many are limited in occurrence. A large number of insect species have been reported on sorghum in Nigeria. However, only a few are of economic importance. MAJOR DISEASES Foliar Diseases Anthracnose Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum graminicola (C. sublineolum), is the most important foliar disease on both local and improved sorghum varieties. It is most prevalent and destructive in the northern guinea zones. Although three symptom types (foliar, panicle and stalk) are reported, recent reports suggest panicle anthracnose is now prevalent in farmer’s fields.

    It is reported to cause yield loss from foliar infection of up to 47 percent on susceptible varieties. Variation among foliar population of C. graminicola has been established in Nigeria. Current status establishes the existence of six physiological races in Nigeria. Figure. 8: Anthracnose Leaf Blight 11 Control Management of the disease is depended on fungicides and the sowing of resistant varieties. Varieties resistant to anthracnose include SAMSORG 42 SAMSORG 43 etc. Many resist lines have been identified in Nigeria and include: IS 5359. IS 5360, IS 20302, IS 24733, IS 24721. ICSV 901 NG, CSM 417.

    Malisor 84-5, Naga white Yar’ruruka, Gaya early. Lines with resistance to foliar panicle and grain anthracnose have also been identified. Grey Leaf Spot This disease caused by Cercospora sorghi is more prevalent on local varieties in the Guinea savanna zone. It is reported to cause yield losses attaining 3 in highly susceptible genotypes e. g. SAMSORG 17 (SK 5912). Mixed infections of this disease and zonate leaf spot (caused by Gloeocercospora sorghi) have been observed. Control Disease management is based on host plant resistance (where available). Genotypes such Naga white. ICSV 901 NG. Yar’ruruka.

    ICSV 902 NG Sariasso 3, Sariasso 10 and Gaya early have been identified to have resistance to grey leaf spot. Panicle diseases Grain mould Grain mould (GM) is one of the most important diseases limiting sorghum production within Nigeria although earlier surveys in the sixties and seventies had indicated that it was rare in farmer’s fields. It is more prevalent on early maturing local and improved varieties grown in the Sudano-Sahelian zones and also on medium maturing local and improved varieties introduced into the southern fringes of northern Guinea savanna and in the southern Guinea savanna.

    It is caused by a complex of fungi including: Fusarium moniliforme; F. pollidoroseum; Curvularia lunata; Phoma sorghina Aspergillus flavus; species of Acremonium, Bipolaris, Cercospora, Exserohilum, Nigrospora, Gleocercospora, Phomopsis, and Verticllium. Grain moulds degrade crop yield and quality by discoloration, smaller seed size and reduced feed processing quality. Further, mouldy grain has been reported to contain aflatoxins. Zearalenone and patulin. Figure. 9: Grain mould diseases in sorghum Control Management of grain mould in Nigeria has seen the use of several approaches that target both grain moulds and head bugs.

    These include the use of host plant resistance; cultural practices e. g. date of planting and integrated management options where high yielding local resistant varieties are planted at appropriate periods. 12 Smuts Smuts are the most widespread group of diseases of sorghum growing areas of Nigeria where they cause damage on both traditional and improved cultivar. There are four smuts on rain fed sorghum: grain or covered smut (Sporisorium sorghi loose smut (Sporisorium cruentum), head smut (Sporisorium reilianum and long smut (Sporisorruim ehrenbergii). Covered smut is the only post-rainy season smut sorghum grown in the Lake Chad area.

    The prevalence of smuts among the agro-ecological zones of Nigeria varies from one area to another. Covered smut prevalent in the Sahel, Sudan,Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS) and Southern Guinea Savanna (SGS) zones. Control Although covered smut was once endemic, was successfully controlled by use of seed dressing chemicals. Recent evidence, however, suggests the incidence has increased dramatically. Similar loose smut, which was once reported as light and sporadic in occurrence is now widespread with increasing Incidence around the Sudano-Sahelian zones. Figure. 0: Grain Smut of sorghum The Increased incidence of covered and loose smuts are attributable to many factors such as increased cost and erratic supply of agricultural inputs, lack of suitable seed treatment chemicals and the existence of an alternate host Cynodon dactylon for the covered smut pathogen in the region. Covered smut management continues to be based on seed dressing fungicides, host plant resistance. Resistant varieties identified include: ICSV 2: ICSV G49; ICSV 1002 and NSV 74. Long smut is predominantly a disease of the dry – Sahelian zones.

    Management of the disease is use of resistant varieties where available and by late planting. Resistant varieties identified include ICSV XL Naga white, Yar’ruruka (Jollofl. 90 SN 7 and ICSV 901 NG). Head smut Head smut is most prevalent in the SGS zone of West a Central Africa (WCA) with sporadic occurrence in NGS and the Sudano-Sahelian zones. It occurs primary on late maturing cultivars and management is through sowing of resistant varieties. Parasitic Weeds Striga hermonthica is a major biotic constraint to Sorghum production in Nigeria where many local and improved varieties are susceptible to the parasite.

    Yield losses particularly under drought conditions, may be high (90-100%). 13 Figure. 11: Striga infested field Host plant resistance can be a major component of integrated striga management when it occurs in adapted, productive cultivars. The variety SAMSORG 41 (ICSV Ill) has been identified while SAMSORG 17 (KSV 8) has also been identified to be tolerant to S. hermonthica in Nigeria. Control The approaches include cultural and mechanical activities such as pulling, crop rotation, trap cropping, catch cropping, mixed cropping; chemical and integrated control. Biological control of Striga spp. s a research area which has shown recent promise. Minor Diseases Sooty stripe, caused by Ramulispora sorghi ergot caused by Claviceps africana has been observed on seed production plots. Head blight, caused by F. moniliforme, is prevalent in the Northern Guinea and Sudan zones where it occasionally causes significant yield loss. High incidence of oval leaf spot (Rainulispora sorghicola), zonate leaf spot and leaf blight (Exserohium turcicum. ) occur, but at low levels, in many farmers fields in the northern Guinea and Sudan zones while rough leaf spot (Ascvchyta sorghina is predominant in the southern Guinea savanna.

    A high incidence of ladder leaf spot (Cercospora fuscimaculans occurs in the southern Guinea savanna. Figure. 12: Leaf blight of sorghum A relationship between sorghum yellow leaf blotch caused by Xanthomonas sp. and spittle bugs (Locris ruberns; Poophilus costalis) has been reported in Nigeria where the feeding bugs transmit the bacterium Xanthomonas sp. Maize Streak virus (MSV) and Maize mosaic virus (MMV) are reported on Sorghum in Nigeria. Eighteen genera of plant parasitic nematodes have been reported to be associated with sorghum another cereals in the Nigerian savanna.

    Sped belonging to five genera: 14 Pratylenchus; Aphelenchoides; Helicotylenchus; Tylenchus; and Ditylenchus occurred in more than 50% of the surveyed fields. Pratylenchus and Heticotylenchus species had the highest Incidence occurring in 90% of sorghum fields surveyed. This study established a correlation between incidence Pokkah boeng (induced by F. moniliforme) and the incidence of nematode symptoms across all fields surveyed. Storage fungi especially Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, Penicillium, Penicillium spp. have been reported to be associated with stored sorghum grain in Nigeria.

    Sorghum grain stored with moisture content higher than 12% are highly predisposed to infection. Major insect pests Nearly 15 insect species have been reported as pests of sorghum in Nigeria. However the major pests include: Foliage feeders Spittle bug The spittle bug, Poophilus costalis Walker is a serious pest of late planted sorghum crop in the northern Guinea and Sudan savanna zones. The bug causes considerable damage by feeding on sorghum leaves and within leaf whorls, resulting in chlorotic spots and botches on the leaves. In very severe cases of infestation, the plants become stunted in growth, producing smaller panicles.

    The pest can attain high densities in late or phased planting. The adult bugs are usually small brown or grey jumping insects usually 11mm long. The nymphs always remain inside a foamy spittle mass resting head downward on the plant. Control Early plantings escape spittle bug infestation as chemical control Is not usually necessary. However in seed production plots sown late, application of Furadan 3G into the whorls control the insect. African Army worm The army worm Spodoptera exempta Walker) is an occasional pest of sorghum in Nigeria. It occurs periodically in major outbreaks resulting in extensive loss of crops.

    It is a general grass feeder, attacking pasture grasses and other cereal crops. The damage is caused by the larvae. They are gregarious and move through the vegetation at very high infestation rates. Solitary larvae are green, but the gregarious forms are black with green undersides. Pupation occurs in soil and the adults emerge in about 1 week. Moths migrate long distances, giving rise to outbreaks away from the site of Infestation. Outbreaks are usually associated with rain. Control Control of major outbreaks can be satisfactorily effected only if national or state organizations apply insecticides in outbreak areas.

    It is very important to detect infestation at an early stage. Small infestations can be controlled by using insecticides such as malathion, endosulfan and trichlorphon. Grasshoppers Grasshoppers (Oedalus senegalensis, Krauss) are a major pest especially in the Sahel zone of Nigeria. It attacks all stages of the plant, but most crop loss occurs when the crop is attacked at the seedling stage or at the ripening of panicles. Both nymphs and adults feed on sorghum as well as other cereals and wild grasses. 15 Control It can be control by using insecticides. Malathion and diazlnon are particularly effective.

    Sorghum shoot fly The shoot fly Anrherigona soccata (Rondani) is a widespread and damaging pest in all sorghum growing areas of Nigeria. The damage is as a result of larval feeding on the central leaf which wilts and later dries up, giving the characteristic dead heart symptom. The dead heart can be easily pulled out and, at the base, emits a bad smell. The young whitish yellow maggot feeds only on the decaying tissue. Normally, the damage occurs from 1 week to about 1 month after emergence. If the attack occurs a little later, plants produce side tillers that may also be attacked.

    Late sowing during the rainy season increases the likelihood of attack. Control The more promising control measures are the adjustment of sowing dates, high seeding rate, use of higher yielding shoot fly resistant cultivars (ICSV 700, ICSV 7 0 5 , ICSV 717, etc) and the use of systemic insecticides (e. g. carbofuran). Stem Feeders The stalk borer Busseola fusca (Fuller) is a very important pest of sorghum in Nigeria especially in the northern Guinea and southern Sudan savanna zones. Young larvae feed on leaves, while more mature larvae bore into the stems and produce dead hearts.

    In severe cases of infestation, plant growth is retarded and flowering and grain production are seriously reduced. Adults normally exhibit a wide variation in colour and usually, three generations are produced per year. The third generation larvae enter into diapauses with the onset of the dry season and complete their development 5-7months. Control Management or control is achieved by the destruction of dry stalks and stubble by burning or ploughing reduces borer density. Early sowing reduces infestation. Insecticides such as carbofuran and carbaryl are known to be effective.

    Head Feeders Sorghum midge The sorghum midge (Contarina sorghicotci) is probably the most widely distributed in the Sudan savanna zone of Nigeria. Damage to sorghum is caused by larvae feeding on the ovary, preventing normal grain development and resulting in a blasted panicle. The pupal stage in a generation lasts for only 3 days. Because of this rapid developmental cycle, 9 to 12 generations could occur during one cropping season, thus resulting in the buildup of high populations and infestations when sorghum flowering times are extended by a wide range of planting dates or maturities. Figure. 13: Sorghum midge 16

    Control Control is achieved by early and uniform planting of sorghum over large areas is the most widely accepted to bi method of reducing midge damage. Multiple insecticide applications directed at adults are used primarily to reduce losses in late plantings. The resistant variety ICSV 197 has been identified. The Head bugs The head bug, Eurystylus oldi is a serious pest of sorghum in Nigeria. The nymphs and adults suck the nuts sap from developing grain. Damage starts as soon as the panicle emerges from the boot leaf But damaged dust grain shows distinct red to brown feeding punctures which create quantitative and qualitative losses.

    Head damage spoils the grain quality, and renders the tan unfit for human consumption. Such grain also show poor germination. Bug damage also increases the severity of grain moulds. Figure. 14: Leaf footed bug on sorghum panicle Control Host plant resistance remains the major control measure. The use of open panicle sorghums variety such as SAMSORG 42 and SAMSORG 43 reduces incidence of head bugs. Insect pests of stored sorghum Maize weevil The weevil (Sitophilus zeamnis) and related species such as rice weevil (S. oryzzae) are the most destructive insect pest-s of d stored sorghum grain in Nigeria.

    They infest a very large variety of stored grains and are cosmopolitan distribution but are much more damaging in warm humid conditions. Both adults and larvae feed on grain, which may often be damaged beyond use. Control Control can be achieved by storing grain in a dry, clean condition, in insect proof containers. If the grain moisture content is less than 9% the insect is unable to feed. If keeping the grain dry is not practicable, fumigation may be the only feasible protection. Flour beetles The confused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum) and the flour beetle (T. astenum) are generally widely distributed. They are found infesting stored sorghum grain and other grains, seeds, flour, dried fruits and the granaries, mills and warehouses. The larvae of T. confusum feed on flour or other materials such as grain dust and broken surfaces of grain kernels. They 17 are primarily secondary feeders. Adult beetles of T. castenum can readily be observed by the tunnels the construct when they move through flour or other granular products. When attack is severe, contaminated grain or flour turn grayish yellow and become mouldy, with a pungent smell.

    Control Exclusion of insects by storing products in sealed containers provides effective control. Fumigants are also effective. Angoumois grain moth The grain moth Sitotroga cereoldilu (Oliver) is a cosmopolitan storage pest of sorghum in Nigeria. It is also know-n to attack maize, rice and wheat. Infestation can begin in the field. In storage, the infestation is confined to the upper layer of grain. The larvae bore into the grain and remain there until they emerge as adults from round emergence holes. The infested grain is completely hollowed out and filled with larval excreta or webbing.

    Control Control is easily achieved by keeping grain moisture content below 12%. Fumigation is also very effective. Insect Pests of Minor Importance Other insect pests of sorghum reported in Nigeria include the shoot fly (Antherigorza soccata), bollworm (Heliothis armigera) and the blister beetle Mylabris pustulata). Storage pests of minor importance include lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dorninica) and the flat grain beetle (Crptolestes pusillus). Economy of sorghum production Table 2: Cost and returns in sorghum productions per hectare in 2007 Item I. Labour (man days) II. Seeds III. ertilizers IV. Misc. expenses Total variable cost (TVC) Average total output Unit price of output Gross returns/ha (N) Gross margin/ha (N) Average rate of return/TVC Source : I. A. R, A. B. U Zaria. Processing and utilization of sorghum Sorghum Processing Technology Processing of sorghum entails applying suitable grain, milling and malting procedures, which will not only maintain nutritional value, but also lead to minimal grain losses with improved marketability of the end products. The process goes through primary processing which 18 Unit cost (N) 300 70/kg 3200 N40/kg – Quantity/ha

    Value (N/ha) 25 750 10 kg 700 Four 50kg NPK and one 50kg 16000 Urea 2400 26600 1300kg 60000 33400 1. 25 involves cleaning, dehulling (decorticating), pounding and milling. Then comes the secondary processing, which involves turning material into food, i. e. cooking, blending, fermentation and roasting. Both traditional and industrial processing methods are employed, which may involve the partial or complete separation and/or modification of the three major constituents of the cereal grain – i. e. the germ, the starchcontaining endosperm and the protective pericarp (or testa).

    Industrial methods of processing sorghum though not well developed as that of other cereals have had significant impact on the food security of the country. Industrial processing is in most cases, geared towards production of grit, malt, meal/flour and sometimes germ, with bran and germ-cake as by-product for feeding animals. Two main methods usually employed in sorghum processing are dry-milling and wet-milling. Small Scale Dry milling of Sorghum The production of virtually all sorghum foods first comprise of two major operations: 1) Debranning (dehulling)- removal of the unpalatable, sometimes tannin-rich and highly igmented bran and the rancidity causing fat-rich germ; 2) Size reduction (grinding)converting the endosperm into meal or flour. Traditionally in Africa, sorghum milling has been done using a pestle and mortar for dehulling and saddle quern for grinding or size reducing the grain, methods still used in many African communities (Fig. 15). Today, mechanised milling is becoming the norm, creating a milling industry and the opportunity for manufacture of more versatile sorghum food products to meet growing world food demands.

    Probably the most common method of mechanised sorghum milling in Africa is by abrasive debranning (also known as decortication or dehulling), followed by hammer milling of the endosperm material. Figure. 15: Ancient method of milling sorghum into flour (a) Dehulling using pestle and mortar (b) Grinding using saddle quern 19 Figure. 16: Sorghum grinding Machines Large scale Milling The sequence of operations in sorghum dry milling is as follows: ? Cleaning: the sorghum is weighted and conveyed to a separator consisting of two sets of sieves equipped with an air aspirator.

    Stones, sticks and other coarse and fine materials are removed. Conditioning: The sorghum grain is passed into bins and at the same time conditioned by the addition of water (cold ot hot) or steam so that the moisture content is raised to 19-22%, at which condition it is best suited for miling. The conditioned grain rests for about 24 hours before milling. De-germing and miling: When optimum conditioning has been achieved, the sorghum is passed through a worm-conveyor from where it is dropped into a degerming machine consisting of a conical rotor revolving inside a conical stator.

    Both parts are fitted with studs which break up the grain. The grains then passed through successive fluted-rollers with decreasing fineness where they are reduced to grits, coarse, middlings, flour and bran. Separation of the milling components (sifting): The milled grain is then passed through a rotary drier to reduce its moisture content to about 15%. It is then passed through a cooling worm into two rotating cylidrical sieves which removes the sorghum meal from the grits, germ and bran. Packaging: The milled products are packaged in bags of 10, 25 and 50 g weights for distribution to market outlets. In most cases however, the grits are bulk transported to secondary production plants for use in infant foods and confectioneries.  Wet-Milling Like other cereals, sorghum is wet-milled to obtain starch, oil, animal feeds (gluten feed, gluten meal, germ cake) and the hydrolysis products of starch (i. e. liquid and solid glucose syrup). Dark-coloured sorghum varieties are not suitable for wet-milling as the colours leaches out in to the steep unless a means for removing the colours is employed.

    The process which can also be carried at cottage level yield products like starch, germ, fibre and sorghum gluten. The steps involved in sorghum wet-milling are basically the same at both the small and large scale levels. 20 a. Steeping. The sorghum is cleaned and steeped for about 24-72 hours at room temperature [or 24 – 48 hours in warm water (about 50 oC)] containing sulphur dioxide (0. 03%). b. De-germing. The steep water is drained off and the soaked grain is run through attrition mills to break it and free the germs.

    The slurry of ground sorghum is allowed to stand: the germ floats and is skimmed off for use in oil extraction and animal feeds. c. Milling. The de-germed slurry after straining is finely ground using attrition mill, and the hulls and fibre which are not finely ground are separated from the protein and starch using fine mesh screens. d. Separation of starch from protein. By subjecting the slurry in a high speed centrifuge, the starch which is heavier is separated at the outer region of the centrifuge while the lighter protein fractions migrate to the centre.

    The fractions of starch and protein are then dried to safe moisture levels. e. Oil extraction (at large scale only). Oil can also be extracted from the germ by either hyraulic press, screw press or solvent extraction using normal hexane Main products obtained form sorghum wet-milling inclcude: 1. Starch 2. Gluten (protein) 3. Germ (for oil)

    MARKETING OF SORGHUM

    Sorghum is found in all Nigerian markets. Sorghum, it is widely consumed by most households, but especially in the north, and it is used by breweries for producing beverages.

    Sorghum is important for households in the north, particularly the border markets where it is heavily traded with Niger. Below are the various market outlets which farmers can explore. Table 2: Key Sorghum markets in Nigeria Makets Dawanau Kaura namoda Illela Maiaduwa Giwa Dandume Saminaka Bodija Mile 12 Minna Mai gatari Lafiya location Dawakin tofa Kaura namoda Illela Daura Giwa Dandume Lere Ibadan Epe Minna Mai gatari Lafiya 21 state Kano Zamfara Sokoto Katsina Kaduna Katsina Kaduna Oyo Lagos Niger Jigawa Nassarawa Buying and selling of sorghum The marketing of sorghum start with the farmers.

    They sell trough the rural assemblers, wholesalers, retailers and consumers as well as local processor. These assemblers, who often handle relatively smaller volumes, may include some local farmers who have accumulated a little capital. The assemblers visit farmers often at harvest time and buy sorghum often in cash although they may get it on credit whenever adequate trust has been built between the buyer and the seller. The points of sale are usually farm, home, village, and village and rural markets. The unit of measurement is not standard, as the grain is sold in bags, mudu or tiya.

    Prices are negotiate between the buyers and the sellers. Once buy the produce is transported to wholesalers in the urban centres using bicycle, lorry, pick-up van, trucks or buses depending on the quantity and accessibility of the road. Cleaning In traditional systems, grain cleaning is achieved by winnowing, while washing in water will remove most dust and stones. In mechanised systems, forced air (aspiration) is used to remove lighter materials, while most stones, dust and other material are removed as the grain passes over a series of screens. Ferrous metal are emoved by a permanent magnet placed in the flow path of the grain. Quality criteria for Sorghum ? ? ? ? Traders and stockists want dry, clean grain, neither infested nor damaged. Millers want clean grain in homogeneous batches, not too hard for grinding and giving a high yield of milling products. Processors want hulled or broken products of homogeneous size, free of sand or other impurities and without parasitic odours or infestation. Consumers are sensitive to the colour, the texture, the aroma and the taste of the product after final cooking.

    These quality criteria, reflected in the price, are always present even if the current quality standards are not always respected. General standard for export 1. The standard applies to sorghum for direct human consumption. 2. Grains shall not have abnormal odour or taste. 3. Grains may be white, pink, red, brown orange or yellow or may be a mixture of grains. 4. Grains must be sound, clean and free from living insects. 5. Moisture content will not exceed 14. 5 percent; ash not more than 1. 5 percent on dry matter; protein not less than 7 percent on dry matter basis. 22 . Tannins: For whole grains – not to exceed 0. 5 percent on dry matter. For polished grains – not to exceed 0. 3 percent on dry matter basis. Packaging: Threshed sorghum is packaged in sacks of 100, 200, 300, 500 and 750kg weights for distribution to market outlets, warehouse, and stores. The sacks are often re-used and in case of re-using, care should be taken to prevent re-infestation of clean grain by boiling sacks in water and thorough drying. Storage The goal of good storage is to be able to deliver grain from store in good quality and with no loss in quantity.

    This is achieved by preventing the deterioration caused by: Adverse climatic conditions (temperature, relative humidity, etc), Contamination by extraneous material; Grain germination; and Pest infestation. Traditionally, unthreshed heads are store in a solid walled container called a rumbu, bins, silos, warehouse etc. For short-term storage, bundles of sorghum heads are arranged in layers in the rumbu. For long-term storage of three to six years, the heads are laid out individually rather than in bundles. While threshed grains are stored in ags in small quantities for immediate consumptions or for seed are store in clay pots, tins, or calabash. In large farms and markets grains are stored in warehouse or in large silos. Ensuring that the storage environment is clean and tidy and in a good state of repair, makes a major contribution to the quality control during storage, but it is insufficient to prevent losses by pests. Transportation In rural area donkeys, pick-up vans and trucks are mainly used to transport sorghum from the point of production to home or rural markets, urban area and mill plant.

    In general Nigerian agricultural value chains suffer greatly from high transportation costs. Limited rail service, poor road conditions, “go-slow” bottlenecks, and rampant checkpoints contribute in the reduction the competitiveness of agricultural goods produced in Nigeria. This is particularly true of product that are transported over long distances, such as sorghum. Figure. 17: Means of transportation of sorghum Wholesaling Sorghum wholesalers can be defined as traders who buy and sell in large volume.

    They operate at several levels of the value chain; at the rural assembling level; regional level (long distance assembler/wholesaler) and at consumer level. 23 Utilization of Sorghum and Sorghum Grain Products Nutritive value of sorghum Sorghum constitutes substantial amounts of energy and protein in the diet of the majority of people in the sub-Saharan regions. It’s contribution in terms of digestible protein and energy available to the body are higher quality than those obtained from root and tuber crops (Table 3). Table 3. hows that sorghum is a good source of other nutrients such as calcium, iron, thiamine, riboflavin and macin. These nutrients, though needed in small quantities are very Important for growth and development, especially for children, pregnant and lactating mothers. Sorghum can be utilized to the advantage of the majority of those who consume the crop in their daily meals. Table3 Composition of sorghum in comparison with other staple crops. Crop Protei n (%) 9. 5 1. 2 1. 9 1. 2 Energy Kcal 353* 128 111 128 Calcium (mg) 28 68 52 8 Iron (mg) 10. 0 1. 0 0. 8 1. 3 Vit.

    A (mg) 20 45 25 170 Thiamine (mg) 28 0. 04 0. 11 0. 08 Riboflavi n (mg) 0. 9 0. 05 0. 02 0. 04 Niacin (mg) 3. 4 0. 6 0. 3 0. 6 Vit. C (mg) 0 31 6 20 Sorghum flour Cassava (fresh) Yam (fresh) Plantain (raw) Small-scale Utilisation of sorghum Sorghum and sorghum products can be employed in a variety of food applications at both the local and industrial levels. At the local level, indigenous/traditional products made from sorghum includes: tuwo, burabusko, ogi (akamu), masa, sinasin, kunu gyada, kunu zaki (nonalcoholic beverage), burukutu (alcoholic beverage) and many others. . Grits Masa: Masa is a traditional fermented batter made from sorghum, maize, rice, millet or a combination of the cereals. Masa is usually served as a breakfast cereal with vegetable soup, spices or stews. Figure. 18: Masa BURABUSKO (steam-cooked product): Burabusko is a common name for all steam-cooked coarse flour products (like grits) produced from cereals including sorghum PATE: This type of porridge is prepared from coarsely milled sorghum. It is very popular household food. 24 COUSCOUS: This is a steam steam-cooked substance that is coarse and uniformly gelatinised.

    Sorghum with a pigmented testa produces reddish-brown couscous with an astringent taste. It is popular in many West African countries. FLOUR TUWON DAWA: Tuwo is a thick porridge prepared from sorghum flour which is popular in northen Nigeria. FURA: Fura is an unfermented, steam-cooked dough primarily made from sorghum, millet or a combination of the two. Fura is usually taken with milk, yoghurt or nono (kindirmo). DAKUWA: Dakuwa is a snack food prepared from a blend of roasted sorghum and rosted groundnut in a ratio of 1:1. The blend is mixed and a sugar solution added.

    The mixture is then pounded and moulded into balls before serving. MPURSA (meaning flour for drinking): Mpursa is prepared from roasted sorghum and roasted groundnut in a ratio of 1:1 after dehulling and removing the skin respectively. (a) (b) (c) Figure. 19: (a) Tuwo (b) Dan-wake(c) Akamu 2. Germ. At the large scale, the germ is used for oil extracrion while it is is used principally in feeding animals at the small scale and cottage levels Large scale (Agro-industial) Utilization of sorghum and sorghum products The main components recovered in the dry-milling of sorghum comprised of: a.

    Grits: The pricipal use of sorghum grits is in the brewery as adjunts (up to 40%) to barley base (mash) for making both alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. It is also used in making breakfast cereal (flakes), bakery products and snack foods. Non-food industrial use include aluminium-ore refining, animal feeds, building materials and in foundry binders. b. Flour: Sorgum flour is a main ingredient in the manufacture of confectioneries such as bread, biscuits, crackers, cakes, couscous, infant foods and cookies. It is also used in pies and as thickeners in some foods. Non-food use include applications as thickening agent.

    The fine fraction produced by the mill can be sold as gluten-free flour, and turned into special bread, biscuits and cakes for people who suffer from Celiac disease. The flour itself is very high in protein and typically constitutes 18-22% of the output. 25 c. Germ: Oil is recovered from the germ by either solvent extraction or hydraulic press and use as cooking fat, for making margarine, shortenings, soaps, salad oil, etc. The meal remaining after oil extraction is a main ingredient in making animal feeds. d. Malt: This is a non-alcoholic drink prepared from malted sorghum.

    It is produce industrially and commonly sold at both rural and urban community. Pasta and noodles Pasta products (noodles) such as spaghetti and macaroni are usually made from semolina or from flour of durum wheat or common wheat or a mixture of both. Wheat has a unique property of forming an extensible, elastic and cohesive mass when mixed with water. Sorghum and millet flours lack these properties when used alone. Sorghum is inferior to wheat for making pasta, both because it contains no gluten and because its gelatinization temperature is higher than that of wheat. Miche et al. (1977) made pasta from mixtures of sorghum with wheat.

    They found that to obtain products of good cooking quality it is necessary to add some gelatinized starch to the sorghum flour before extrusion. The pasta quality is influenced by the quality of both the sorghum flour and the starch. White sorghum is preferable for pasta products as its colour is similar to that of wheat flour. A composite flour consisting of 70 percent wheat and 30 percent sorghum produced acceptable pasta. Composite flours Composite flour technology initially referred to the process of mixing wheat flour with cereal and legume flours for making bread and biscuits. Diluting wheat flour with locally available cereals (e. g.

    Sorghum) and root crops was found to be desirable to encourage the agricultural sector and reduce wheat imports in many developing countries including Nigeria. When sorghum is used for bread-making, addition of bread improvers or modification of the bread-making process is needed. A higher level of substitution is possible with hard than with soft wheat. For the production of biscuits from composite flours, the fat content of the nonwheat flour should be kept as low as possible to promote a longer shelf-life. Sorghum flour milled at 80 percent extraction rate could be blended with white wheat flour for breadmaking without any adverse effect.

    Milling at 72 to 75 percent extraction rate yielded fine sorghum flour that is more suitable for bread-making. Consumer acceptance trials in Nigeria indicated that breads made with 30 percent sorghum flour were comparable to 100 percent wheat bread. 55 percent sorghum could be used for biscuits without adversely affecting biscuit quality. Figure. 20: Sorghum confectioneries (a) breakfast cereal (b) biscuits 26 (c) Cakes (d) cookies Use of Sorghum as Composite Flour in Baking Blends of wheat, sorghum, and soybean flours in the ratio of 65:30:5 was used to make bread, and 40:55:5 to make biscuits.

    Replacement of wheat up to a level of 20% with sorghum flour produced acceptable bread, while further substitution up to 55% sorghum flour could give acceptable biscuits. It was also found that a blend of 70% sorghum flour and 30% detoxified cassava starch could produce acceptable bread and cakes. Figure. 21: Some bread made from sorghum composite flour Uses of Wet-milled sorghum products The products obtained from wet-milling of sorghum include starch, glutein, germ (for oil) and fibre. At the small scale level, sorghum is wet-milled to obtain starch, glutein and germ.

    Depending on the desired finished products, different wet-milling yield different kinds of products. Kunu (or kunun-zaki), sinasin, akamu (or ogi), etc. are produced by wet-milling sorghum. KUNU. Kunu or kunun-zaki (non-alcoholic beverage) is a very thin porridge prepared from sorghum (millet, maize, rice) flour or a mixture of these cereals. Spices are added before serving the slurry now called kunun-zaki. AKAMU (ogi): Like kunu, akamu (ogi) can be made from any of the cereals. The product is consumed warm or cooled along with bean-ball (akara) to obtain protein enriched diet.

    Ogi (or akamu) is ideal as an infants food when complemented with a rich protein source because of its ease of digetibility. NDALEYI: Ndaleyi is an important food indigenous to north-east Nigeria that is produced from sorghum or millet. Industrial Utilization of Wet-Milled Sorghum Products a. Sorghum starch. The starch obtained in wet-milling of sorghum is used directly in paper manufacture, textiles, adhesives, confectioneries and beverages, or is further hydrolysed further to yield dextrose sugars and syrup.

    Dextrose sugar is employed in making jam & jellies, canned fruits, soft drinks, confections and pharmaceuticals; Syrup is used in making soft driks, ice-creams, caramel colour, mayonnaise, salad dressings, candy pharmaceuticals, packaged foods, syrups and dextrose sugars. Glucose and dextrose. These are used in soft drinks, additives, pharmaceuticals, confectioneries, baking and jams. 27 b. Sorghum gluten. Used as animal feeds, binding agent, additives in printing dyes and in pharmaceuticals. c. Germ. Oil is recovered from the germ for used in home cooking, making soaps, margarine shortenings, etc.

    Potential Food Application of Sorghum and Sorghum Products is in the area of: a. Weaning or complementary foods production b. Breakfast cereals (sorghum flakes) similar to corn-flakes c. Popping of cereal grains to prepare ready-to-eat products would be very useful to diversify their utilization in the value added foods, especially in supplementary feeding programmes. Popped grains can be used as snack food also. Popped products are stable for longer period compared to many other products from these germs.

    Popping, being a simple dry heat processing technique, can be adopted at the house hold to industrial level conveniently. d. Refined flours suitable for special foods/ bakery; shelf stable flours for conventional and composite flour based foods. With increasing awareness, the potentialities of sorghum as a food security crop can be exploited for improved nutrition and income generation. PRODUCTS PROMOTION STRATEGY Despite the relative importance of sorghum in the food system of this country, little of these grains are commercially processed or marketed.

    As the countries become more urbanized and disposable incomes increases, commercial agro-processing is bound to be stimulated. The actual level of utilisation of any grain will depend on its relative competitiveness as food and an industrial input. Industry will use only those grains obtained with lowest cost and are consistently available throughout the year. The grain should also be amenable to processing with the readily available technologies and meet consumer preferences.

    Creating linkages between key sorghum value chain players coupled with industrialization and commercialization of indigenous products will add value, improve their competitiveness, and increase the demand for sorghum. Understanding consumer needs through consumer research, nutritional profiling of different cultivars and developed products, and developing and transferring of processing equipment Promotion strategy include but not limited to the following:  Establishment and revival of food plants utilizing sorghum as raw material in malt, malt drinks and beverages Establishment of both cottage and medium scale facilities.

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