ABSTRACT. Osmotic desiccation. by submergence in sucrose solutions of different concentrations. is normally used by industries in the production of candied dehydrated fruits. A refractometer is needed in order to read the concentration of the solution after each usage. By making this. the effectiveness of the sugar solutions will be maximized. However. several small-scale companies can non afford an expensive equipment such as the refractometer.
The research workers so decided to work on apple saving in order to come up with a tabular array of informations. This is to look into the alterations in the concentration of the 2. 5 M solution after each usage and to find if the said solution can efficaciously continue the apples. Every 12 hours. the immersed apples were replaced by a new batch of chopped fruit. But befor making so. the concentration of a sucrose solution was read utilizing the refractometer. The consequences were tabulated and after six readings. the alteration in the concentration with regard to the figure of readings were translated into a graph. This graph serves as a footing for finding the effectiveness of the sucrose solution.
Candied dehydrated fruits make good export points because of their desirable spirit. Due to the wider credence from consumers today. many little companies have started to bring forth them. Industries use osmotic desiccation by submergence on sucrose solution to continue fruits. The refractometer. an expensive equipment. is used to deter¬mine the concentration of sugar in the solution after its usage. With the absence of the refractometer. many of these endeavors do non do usage of sucrose solutions once more because they are non certain whether the solution is still effectual or non.
This research undertaking was hence designed to assist small-scale industries save clip. energy. and disbursals by accurately charting and mensurating the concentration of the sugar solutions used in desiccation and saving of six batches of apples without needfully obtaining an expensive refractometer.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
I. Fruit Preservation
Mailard Reaction. Sugar may interact with or-ganic components and it is known as mailard reaction. Conserves that are stored for unduly long periods darken and lose their fresh spirit as a consequence of chem¬ical spoilage.
Freezing and Thawing. The intent of stop deading storage is to retain to. as great grade as possible. the belongingss of the fresh fruits. vegetable. or other nutrient merchandises. However. during stop deading and dissolving. certain irreversible alterations occur that render the frozen and thawed merchandises rather different from the fresh 1s in texture and general visual aspect.
Sugar Preservation. Surveies on the industry of candied Mangifera indicas have been conducted by re¬search bureaus so as to standardise the process.
Local sugar saving of fruits merely require higher sum of sugar and pick fruits. The process fundamentally involves a two-step drying procedure: 1 ) osmotic desiccation by sugar or syrup solution ; and 2 ) conventional desiccation such as the air and Sun drying ( Ponting. 1973 ) . Osmosis. Osmosis is the diffusion or the move¬ment of a substance in a signifier of little atoms ( molecules or ions ) . under their ain kinetic energy. through a differentially permeable membrane. The look. differentially permeable. is more accu¬rate than the commonly used semipermeable. since no membrane is purely semipermeable. A differentially permeable membrane contains pores which are big plenty to let the transition of distilled H2O molecules. but excessively little to let the atoms of a solute in H2O to go through through in appreciable measure. Consequently. if two solutions of different concentrations are separated by such a membrane. unequal pressure—usually called osmotic pressure—is exerted upon its two sides ( Courchaine. 1950 ) .
Fruits contain from 70-90 % H2O. When they are cooked in sirup. the osmotic force per unit area of sugar draws out this H2O every bit good as that from the microbic cells to achieve a concentration of 40-65 % or to saturated sucrose sugar degree. A fruit may be whole. cut. or pureed. Acid and Pectin. In local sugar saving. acid does non look to have as an of import ingredient in the procedure. but if present in wise sum. it aids in the saving. Bacterias are by and large deterred from turning in an acerb medium. Desired ratios are attained by the add-on of maize sirup to the sucrose solution or by easing sucrose inversion by theaddition of an organic acid such as azotic acid ( Bernad. 1986 ) .
One other constituent which is non given much importance in local sugar saving of fruits is pectin. This substance ties up H2O when a jel signifiers in the presence of suited concentrations of sugar and acid. The H2O is. therefore. unavailable to the beings ( Guzman. 1977 ) . Invert Sugar. The sugar used for the sugar saving affects the quality of sugar-coated merchandise ( Cruess. 1958 ) . Unless glucose or invert sugar is used. the merchandise will dry excessively ‘completely and go difficult and farinaceous. Crystallization of the fruit surface may be prevented. Although there have been many proposed methods of fruits saving. add-on of sugar has been considered as one of the most acceptable agencies. It is observed that the add-on of saccharose to fruit merchandises enhances their natural fruit spirits beside moving as a preservative ( Gatchalian et Al. . 1978 ) . H. Re fractometer
The functional design of most refractometers are divided mostly as to its usage of graduated table. visible radiation. and measuring. Arrows on How to EfficaciouslyUse the Refractometer1. Check the graduated table. Prior to the practical measure-ment. the graduated table should be checked if it is right or non. If non. the graduated table should be adjusted by utilizing the accessoried driver to turn the scale accommodation prison guard. For this cheque. some different criterion specimens for each type of manus refractometer are used. These are distilled H2O. saturated salt solution. and test piece. 2. Light guide. Normally. daytime is good plenty for all types of refractometers. But the way of the light usher is different in conformity with the type of refractometer. In neglect of this way. sufficient measurement is rather hard. 3. Practical measuring. Wipe off the distilled wa-ter. saturated salt solution or others that were used to look into the graduated table. Then put a few beads of the specimen on the prism. Close the screen home base. You can see the per centum. which is the place of the cross of the horizontal limit and the perpendicular graduated table in the field of position.
MATERIALS AND METHODSHigh quality apples were brought from a fruit seller in Balintawak market. A kg of white sugar was bought from the same seller. Four-hundred 12 and a half gm of white sugar were placed in a 0. 5-L flask and distilled H2O was added halfway to do the sugar dissolved easy so distilled H2O was poured until the 0. 5-L grade was reached. The apples were washed with running H2O. They were peeled so sliced into little pieces. The shredded apples were placed in a clean jar. so weighed. utilizing a triple-beam balance. The combined mass of the container and apples was 300g. The 2. 5 M sucrose solution was poured into the container with the apples. Then stored in the icebox for 12 hours. After 12 hours. the apples were removed from the solution and the volume of the solution was measured utilizing the 500-mL calibrated cylinder. A refractometer was used to mensurate the concentration of the sucrose solution. A concentrated NaC1 solution was used to graduate the refractometer. A solution was checked following the remotion of the apples. The whole procedure was repeated 10 times. The informations were recorded.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The concentration of the sucrose solution de-creased after each batch of apples was preserved. The lower concentration of H2O outside the apple al¬lowed osmosis to happen. go forthing the apple pieces dehydrated. The juice drawn out from the apples through osmosis made the concentration of the sucrose solution lower.
We can see from table 1 that the alteration in the concentration after the first batch was preserved is 12. 06 % . but the succeeding alterations in concentration ranged from 3. 1-5. 7 % . It is evident that there is a lessening in the concentration of sugar in the solution. This is because the apples preserved in the solution is hypotonic to the solution so it draws in the sugar and gives out the H2O indoors. There is besides noticeable lessening in the rate of decreased sugar concentration. One ground for the lessening is the alteration in concentration may be because of the presence of micro-organisms that may hold fermented the solution. The length of clip between the remotion of apples and the reading of the concentration of the solution can besides be considered a beginning of mistake. because it might hold an consequence on the consequences. Other causes may be the improper handling of the refractometer and inaccurate measurings.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The group was able to bring forth the tabular array after six readings of the 2. 5 m sucrose solution used. The alteration in the concentration of the sugar was measured with the assistance of the refractometer. The tabular array is advantageous to people who want to continue apples but non have a refractometer which can assist to find whether a 2. 5 in solution can be reutilized or non.
Acu. V. S. 1984. Syrup Cellular Penetration and Histological StuoY – of Candied Dehydrated Mango ( Mangifera indica Unn. ) . Unpublished BSFT Thesis.Bemad. M. C. 1986. ProductOevelopmentand Accelerated Storage Studies of Dehydrated Pineapple ( Ananas comosus Unn. mem ) . Unpublished BSFT Thesis.Ponting. J. D. 1973. Osmotic Dehydration of Fruits: Recent Alterations and Applications. Unpublished BSFT Thesis.