Steroid Use In Sport Essay, Research Paper
Does the End Justify the Means? :
A Critical Expression at the Ethical motives Involved with Drug Use in Sport
The ferocious competitory nature of the modern athleticss ’ universe, in combination with society ’ s demand for excellence, have caused jocks to seek alternate agencies to heighten their public presentation. Today ’ s athlete faces an progressively hard pick: to utilize drugs to heighten public presentation or to accept what could amount to a competitory disability. It is a pick which carries important ethical considerations.
Should jocks be permitted to do this pick, or should society, through the medium of athleticss ’ regulating organic structures purely enforce the prohibition on public presentation heightening drugs? Some argue that the pick should be left to the jocks in order to esteem their single pick above any ethical considerations. Others choose to censor performance-enhancing drugs with the purpose of protecting the jock against the potentially harmful effects of his or her ain actions.
Athletes who are caught utilizing illegal drugs are frequently exposed through the media and negatively discriminated against by the featuring community. The consequence is that the athlete faces a dual bind struggle: he or she is pressured to bring forth superhuman public presentation, yet must stay ethically human while fixing for them. The branchings of rip offing in athletics are legion and all negative in nature. Beyond the negative facet which rip offing in athleticss nowadayss, are unsafe physiological and psychological side effects which the jock faces when utilizing public presentation heightening drugs such as anabolic and androgenic steroids. At the bosom of many anti-drug usage in athletics arguments, lies the theory that drugs undermine the true purpose of athletics. This, among other factors, serves to explicate my thesis: the go oning saga of drug usage in athletics is non merely unethical but besides negatively impacts the jock, every bit good as the featuring community. In add-on, the sociocultural factors which contribute to the usage of steroids will besides be discussed.
Before seeking to turn out that drugs serve no positive function in athletics, it would be good to sketch the history of drug usage in athletics. In the early 1950 ’ s, jocks in the eastern European universe were already utilizing rough signifiers of testosterone injections to increase their strength.1 News of this new drug spread when Russian weightlifters shattered old weight lifting records with consistence. Dr. John Ziegler was able to corroborate this rumor, and upon return to the U.S. , promised to give American jocks the same border. In 1956, he developed Dianabol, the early derived function of testosterone. It ’ s use shortly spread among many states throughout the universe. Early users included chiefly muscle builders, weightlifters, football participants, and discus, shooting put, or javelin throwsters who relied to a great extent on majority and strength for increased public presentation. Scientists shortly discovered that by changing testosterone, the masculinizing side effects could be removed or significantly lessened. The consequence was the creative activity of anabolic steroids. By the late 1950 ’ s and early 1960 ’ s all of the current anabolic steroids had already been manufactured in research labs. By the 1980 ’ s non-athletes discovered the body-enhancing belongingss of steroids and the black market began to boom for the illegal production and distribution for nonmedical intents. Anabolic steroids were used lawfully to handle a limited figure of medical conditions that cause a devolution of musculus tissue such as AIDS and certain malignant neoplastic diseases. European attitudes continue to be rather broad in comparing to the rigorous prohibitions that are enforced in the U.S. and Canada. Today, recent statistics report that there are over three million American jocks, male and female, who are utilizing steroids to heighten public presentation in athleticss. 2 A recent article published by the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information ( N.C.A.D.I. ) has stated that 90 % of professional jocks have at one clip taken some signifier of illegal performance-enhancing drug. ( N.C.A.D.I. , 1998, p.2 )
Athletes who are caught utilizing steroids and other illegal performance-enhancing drugs face the shame which our civilization places upon them. Ben Johnson drew considerable negative attending to himself, every bit good as to Canada, as a athleticss rival when he admitted to utilizing anabolic steroids following a win in the 100 m race at the 1988 Olympics in Seoul. The decoration was revoked and Johnson ’ s repute destroyed. As a consequence, he received a lifetime prohibition from athletics.
The Chinese swimming squad was banned from take parting in the Pan-Pacific swimming games of 1997 because of claims made by viing states that China was involved in drug usage. Baseball all-star, Mark Maguire, late broke Roger Maris ’ s record of 61 place tallies in a season by hitting 70 of his ain homeruns in the 1998 season. During an interview that he was giving following to his cabinet, a newsman noticed a bottle of androstenedione on the top shelf. Androstenedione is a legal dietetic addendum that is a testosterone- bring forthing drug which helps the organic structure repair itself between workouts.3 Maguire was instantly discriminated against by many members of the media and featuring community as being a drug user and non meriting of the record. Society ’ s favoritism against Maguire and ANDRO was significantly lessened when well-thought-of beginnings published anti-ANDRO articles which noted false claims and unwanted side effects of the drug. To day of the month, no surveies have shown ANDRO supplementation to hold a positive consequence on thin mass, strength, or performance.4 Androstenedione is banned by a figure of athleticss ’ organisations such as the N.F.L. , N.C.A.A. and the I.O.C. , but is legal in the M.L.B.A.. In connexion with the subject of this paper, a recent interview with Mark Maguire substantiated that he has officially stopped taking Androstenedione. He reports that he is tired of being a interpreter for the merchandise and does non back its usage. Maguire besides leads the conference in place tallies for the 1999 season.
Another construct to understand when covering with the usage of drugs in athletics is the nature of athleticss as an organisation. The common component in athleticss is the end of identifying and honoring certain signifiers of human excellence. This is expressed in the Olympic motto, “ higher, faster, stronger ” , merely every bit clearly as we view ways of achieving excellence as legitimate or bastard. Fierce competition, teamwork, attempt, ability, desire, scheme and excellence are the chief elements of athletics which are all positively regarded.5 Unfair advantages, undermining rivals and utilizing banned equipment and substances are all seen as negative patterns. Society invariably evaluates what are legitimate and illicit agencies of achieving the terminal. This can be seen in the debut of the comparatively new addendum discussed earlier: androstenedione. This drug was extremely discriminated against until it was discovered that the evident ‘ edge ’ it produced was so undistinguished that equity could be maintained.
Drugs and other public presentation foils do non reflect the signifiers of human excellence which athleticss are intended to honor. Using performance-enhancing drugs is correspondent to utilizing a corky or lead-weighted chiropteran in baseball. In either instance, the true accomplishment, difficult work and excellence of the jock are masked behind a signifier of cheating.
Cheating in athleticss consequences in several negative state of affairss. First, it breaks the regulations of the athletics and, hence, gives one rival an unjust advantage over others. Second, rip offing can seldom be accomplished without lying or immoral secretiveness, and so a individual who cheats besides normally must lie to get away sensing. Third, rip offing can poison relationships among rivals and functionaries, transforming what should be an honest and positive societal relationship into a fallacious and leery one. Last, since rip offing on any graduated table is normally discovered finally, the trust and regard by which jocks and sports, in general, are held is damaged. It is in this concluding point by which the image and unity of many athleticss organisations, including the Olympics, have been damaged by disclosures of the widespread usage of illegal drugs.
In add-on to the negative impact of rip offing in athleticss, the side effects of anabolic/androgenic steroids present another negative kingdom of drug usage in athletics. The side effects caused by steroid usage can be really serious and even fatal. In add-on to a long list of negative physiological side effects, psychological dependance is besides an issue. Compulsion becomes a factor when turn toing steroid usage among jocks. There is an evident psychological dependance on the physiological effects of the drug.6 Withdrawal symptoms are present when steroid usage is terminated. Decreased sex thrust, insomnia, concern, weariness, depression, anorexia and dissatisfaction with organic structure image are all common backdown symptoms. Some of the most common physiological side effects experienced by steroid users include: acne, gynecomastia ( formation of chest tissue ) , high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, bosom palpitations, powerlessness, icterus ( yellowing of eyes and tegument ) , H2O keeping, catamenial alterations, masculinization, malignant neoplastic disease, enlarged prostate, insomnia, asepsis, testicular wasting, premature hair loss, voice alterations and osteoporosis. 7
Although these hazards are really existent, many persons continue to take the way of drug usage to heighten public presentation. Men and adult females by nature tend to seek ways to exercise laterality over the members of their respected sex. This can be verbally, intellectually, physically or aesthetically. In our society we have ever praised the jocks who achieve the most astonishing physical efforts or who have achieved decorative flawlessness. Having big musculuss enhances assurance and strength, which in bend cause physical attractive force by the
opposite sex, taking to positive popularity. A individual who is in form normally portrays a sense of control and enjoyment for his or her life that is envied by most. Our society seems to be programmed to have instant satisfaction. Steroids have been touted as the best and quickest manner to accomplish strength, power and an extraordinary build which frequently leads to personal satisfaction. Unfortunately, the musculus edifice, fat combustion and emotional lift of steroids on the head and organic structure can be highly powerful and psychologically habit-forming. It is these effects which lead to its usage and utmost maltreatment. Peoples are by and large ne’er wholly satisfied with the consequences that they achieve from utilizing steroids because they think that if they use merely a small spot more they will acquire merely a small spot bigger and stronger. This thought rhythm continues until the user is on a roller coaster of maltreatment that normally leads to an onslaught of physical and mental wellness jobs. For this ground, there may be a greater figure of instances of anabolic steroid-induced psychiatric unwellness than had one time been assumed. These effects pose a danger non merely to the steroid user but to the populace at large.8
Why do jocks utilize steroids? This inquiry has attracted much research into bring outing
a executable account. Many theories have emerged from assorted beginnings. The media frequently answers this inquiry by claiming the similarity between steroid usage and other illegal substances such as cocaine, diacetylmorphine or intoxicant. Using this reading, the steroid user efforts to get away world by transforming his/her physical visual aspect instead than his/her province of head. Another popular position is that steroid users are mentally unstable to get down with. This theory is based on the belief that steroids are deadly drugs, therefore the user must possess some kind of mental unwellness to prosecute in their usage. In general, society positions steroid users as deceivers and people who lack the thrust to make things ‘ the difficult manner ’ . In this manner, we tend to be really hypocritical in that we condemn people for non making things ‘ the difficult manner ’ , but we invariably practise the antonym in our day-to-day lives. We look for ways to acquire rich quick, we try speedy ‘ miracle diets ’ or we enrol in classs that promise a grade in half the clip. An of import theory that can ne’er be underestimated is that society defines an single ’ s demands. We learn that in order to derive credence within a group, we must make something extraordinary. Whether this translates to athletic triumphs or popularity, the credence and regard within society are desired chases in steroid users. The ‘ win at any cost ’ outlook is non specific to jocks. Often steroid users are seeking self-empowerment and personal growing. It is this group of people who are most likely to mistreat steroids. In this manner, steroid usage appears to be a normal behavior caused by an unnatural society.9 We subconsciously place demands on our jocks to systematically give outstanding public presentations. When an jock falls into a slack, the media frequently turns its dorsum on him or her, frequently ensuing in society ’ s disapproval of the jock. This desire to invariably be the centre of attending and the fright of falling behind, often leads to steroid usage in jocks. Posters, hoardings, magazines and films set the criterion for what is ‘ ideal ’ in footings of physical beauty and visual aspect in society. Not to state that we are dictated by the media, but it does present attractive ideals for society to emulate. When histrions such as Jean-Claude Van-Damme are caught utilizing anabolic steroids, the message sent to society is unsafe: steroids create musculus and a beautiful organic structure which, in bend, leads to fame and fortune.
Steroid usage continues to be a popular tendency within our society. No survey has been published that shows a lessening in the prevalent usage of anabolic steroid usage over time.10 A double-bind struggle exists in the effort to diminish steroid usage among young person. Scare tactics have proven to be uneffective as a hindrance to taking steroids. Unfortunately, greater cognition of the side effects does non change the attitudes of a possible steroid user. On the other manus, if the possible benefits of anabolic steroids are widely publicized, this could make a unsafe state of affairs which could take to a gateway to the maltreatment of steroids.
Drug testing is another uneffective agencies of hindrance for the usage of steroids. Testing for illegal substances in the blood and piss of jocks is debatable for a assortment of grounds. First, observing misdemeanors may be really hard technically. Many drugs are hard and some impossible to detect.11 Some drugs are unreal versions of of course happening endocrines or chemicals, hence to acknowledge the difference between the two is frequently hard. Second, some jocks have wellness conditions which require them to take certain drugs. Some of these drugs have performance-enhancing qualities in add-on to their intended medicative intents. Third, jocks who use drugs, frequently attempt techniques to dissemble the drug ’ s sensing. Such patterns include utilizing a ‘ dissembling ’ drug to skew sensing, replacing piss, or utilizing blood proving prior to the event to proctor degrees of illegal drugs present in their organic structures. Finally, there is the instance that an jock may unwittingly take a banned drug when a manager or other sure individual advises to take it. A instance survey of this point is the grounds of the adult females ’ s Chinese swimming squad, discussed earlier. Upon probe, they did non prosecute in illegal steroid usage, but instead engaged in an antediluvian Chinese pattern of digesting a dried cervid ’ s penis.12 The substance was reported to incorporate anabolic agents every bit good as a growing endocrine, which explained the masculine-like builds of the immature Chinese female swimmers. The U.S.O.C. has a “ rigorous liability ” policy which makes the jocks ’ urine and blood, his/her duty regardless of the alibi.
Detecting drug usage in jocks may look to be hard, but when an jock is apprehended, he or she is frequently open publically to direct a message to those who attempt the same act. Athletes who are caught utilizing drugs the first clip are banned for two old ages and for life if caught a 2nd clip.
The usage of steroids and other illegal public presentation heightening AIDSs raises a figure of hard ethical and policy inquiries. . Performance AIDSs that do non conform to society ’ s construct of what constitutes human excellence of course are discriminated against as unethical and cheating. The true purpose of athletics is to estimate the jock ’ s natural accomplishment, instead than a synthetically enhanced public presentation that masks any human potency within the jock. The branchings of rip offing in the sporting community, every bit good as in society, are ne’er regarded in a positive visible radiation. An jock who is caught rip offing is cast among the perverts of society. Health has been said by many to be the most of import facet of life and felicity. It is in the best involvement of jocks, particularly immature jocks, that steroids non be used in order to avoid complications in wellness later in life. The job with immature jocks is their limited short-run range of vision. If they refuse to see side effects which could show themselves subsequently in life, it should be at the discretion of the athleticss ’ regulating organic structures to detect agencies to diminish the usage of steroids in young person. The sociocultural factors such as credence within society, instant satisfaction, laterality, popularity, assurance and the ‘ win-at-any-cost ’ attitude explain why steroid usage is still prevailing despite its negative intensions in our society. Drug proving is non yet extended plenty to move as an effectual hindrance, but has enhanced just competition in certain athleticss. Without any testing, drug usage would be rampant. The hereafter of drug testing can function to be an effectual hindrance if money, research and cooperation contribute together with positive inducements for drug-free jocks. The terminal does non warrant the agencies. Modern athleticss competitions place small accent on the agencies when covering with the terminal consequences. This presents itself to be a unsafe state of affairs both for the jocks every bit good as for the unity of athletics.
Diaries / Scholarly Articles
American Academy of Pediatrics. ( 1997 ) . Adolescents and Anabolic Steroids: A Subject Review. Pediatrics. v. 99, 1-10.
Brown, W. ( 1980 ) . Ethical motives, Drugs and Sport. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport. v.2, 15-23.
Burke, M. ( 1997 ) . Drugs in Sport: An Issue of Morality or Sentimentality? . Journal of the Philosophy of Sport. v. 24, 99-113.
Gwartney, D. ( 1999 ) . Androstenedione: Physical and Ethical Considerations Relative to Its Use as an Ergogenic Aid. National Strength and Conditioning Journal. . v.21, 1, 65,66.
Meoreira de Araujo, M & A ; Facio, M. The Use of Anabolic/Androgenic Steroids by Athletes. Sports Medicine. p.1-6.
National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information. Anabolic Steroids: A Menace to Mind and Body. NIDA- Research Report Series. v.3, 1-5.
Olrich, T. Young Athletes and Steroids: An Opportunity for Moral Dialogue and Growth. Institute For The Study of Youth Sports. 1-5.
Phillips, N. ( 1991 ) . Anabolic Reference Guide ( 6th issue ) . Golden, Co: Mile High Publishing.
Taylor, W. ( 1991 ) . Butch Medicine: A History of the Anabolic Steroid Epidemic. North Carolina: McFarland & A ; Company, Inc. , Publishers.
Yesalis, C. ( 1993 ) . Anabolic Steroids in Sport and Exercise. Windsor: Human Kinetics Publishers.
hypertext transfer protocol: //mayohealth.org/mayo/9607/htm/olympics.htm
hypertext transfer protocol: //steroidtruth.com
hypertext transfer protocol: //pharmacology.miningco.com/library/98news/bln0929b.htm
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