Problem Statement: In Trinidad and Tobago there has been a reported increase in the number of Cardiac disease related deaths. Design an experiment to investigate the relationship between a particular lifestyle choice and the health of an individual’s heart. Hypothesis: The more cigarettes villagers living within Philadelphia Trace smoke the higher the blood pressure of those villagers. Aim: To plan and Design an experiment to investigate whether or not the number of cigarettes a person smokes affects the person’s blood pressure.
Materials/Apparatus: 20 villagers who smoke cigarettes, 8 villagers who do not smoke cigarettes, blood pressure monitors, cigarettes, pens, cards, papers and rulers. Variables: Manipulated-: • The number of cigarettes given to the villagers in the various groups. Control-: •Villagers that do not smoke blood pressure should be obtain to be used as a reference. •The Smokers blood pressure should be taken no more than 1 minutes after having finish smoking the required amount of cigarettes. •The number of villagers assigned per group. Respond-: The blood pressure reading obtained from the villagers. Method: 1. Screen villagers to ensure that other health factors other than smoking do not affect the blood pressure results obtained. 2. Categorize the villagers into smokers and non-smokers by giving the villagers who smoke red card and the villagers who do not smoke blue cards. 3. Divide the non smokers into groups of two. Number these groups One-Four 4. Test villagers that are non smokers blood pressure and record the values obtain. 5. Separate the 20 smoking villagers into groups of two.
Number these groups Five-Fourteen. 6. Give the villagers in group five, two cigarettes each to smoke. 7. As soon as the villagers have finish smoking the cigarettes test and record the villagers respective blood pressure. 8. Repeat procedures 5-6 giving the villagers in group six- 3 cigarettes, group seven- 4 cigarettes, group eight- 5 cigarettes, group nine- 6 cigarettes, group ten- 7 cigarettes, group eleven- 8 cigarettes, group twelve- 9 cigarettes, group thirteen- 10 cigarettes and group fourteen- 11 cigarettes respectively. 9.
Tabulate blood pressures obtain from the villagers. 10. Analyze the results obtain to state whether or not the number of cigarette a villager smoke affects the villager’s blood pressure. Expected Results: TABLES SHOWING EXPECTED RESULTS OBTAINED FROM THE EXPERIMENT Blood pressure should be normal. And less than that of the pressure obtained for the smoker. Blood pressure should be very high compared to the non-smoker blood pressure. Interpretation of Results: Long term smoking of cigarettes causes high blood pressure which in turn increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes.
Thus from the expected results it can be seen that the villager who smoke had a higher blood pressure than the villager who do not smoke who had healthy, acceptable blood pressure. In fact, it was noted that as the number of cigarette the villagers smoke increase the so those the blood pressure of the villagers. Since, Cigarette smoking causes harm to nearly every organ in the body, including the heart, blood vessels, lungs, eyes, mouth, reproductive organs, bones, bladder, and digestive organs.
For, the chemicals in tobacco smoke harm the blood cells. Thus, the smoking of cigarette also can damage the function of one’s heart and the structure and function of one’s blood vessels. Hence the reason why the villagers who smoke had higher blood pressures that the non-smoking villagers. For most of the smokers are already developing atherosclerosis, a disease in which a waxy substance called plaque builds up in the arteries. Over time, this plaque hardens and narrows smoker’s arteries. Thus, limiting the flow of oxygen-rich blood to he organs and other parts of the body and increases the pressure at which the heart would have to pump the blood at. For if the arteries are blocked it results in a smaller passage for the blood to flow thus more pumps as well as more pressure would have to be done to achieve the same effect. Hence, the reason why the villagers who smoke had higher blood pressures. This disease can then result in Coronary heart disease (CHD) and over time can lead to chest pain, heart attack, heart failure, arrhythmias or even death.
Even person who do not smoke and experiences second hand smoking are at risk to succumbing to these very illnesses. Thus, some non smokers may develop smoker’s disease and related illnesses without even actually smoking a cigarette a day in life. Expected Limitations: 1. It would be very time consuming to test a minimum of 20 persons blood pressure after they had finish smoking. 2. Even though the 8 person who are tested as non smokers may not smoke they may be affected by second hand smoking. 3. The person carrying out the experiment would be affected by second hand smoking.