Sustainable forest management

Table of Content

The Development of Local Community Institutions for Community-Based Forest Management


This thesis focuses on the execution of Community-Based Forest Management ( CBFM ) in Indonesia particularly on the issue of development of the local community establishments for implementing sustainable forest direction. Developing local establishments is considered to be an appropriate manner to work out the jobs on resources direction ( Agrawal 2001 ; Ostrom et Al. 1999 ) . Many bookmans argue that resources users who create institutional government can assist to re-allocate the resources and conserve them in a sustainable manner ( Agrawal 2005 ; Quinn et Al. 2007 ; Tachibana and Adhikari 2009 ) . Many groundss, the use of resources normally marginalises local communities and merely supports either the private or province demands ( FAO 2007 ; Suwarno et Al. 2009 ) . Consequently, for many states, how to pull off and promote local community to entree the natural resources is the most of import issue.

There are several informations associating the forest resources in the universe. Forestry contributes valuable resources into all parts of the universes but the advancement towards sustainable forest direction has been uneven. The wood has covered 30 per centum of the universe ‘s land which is equal 4 billion hectares ( FAO 2007 ) . From 1990 to 2005 the universe lost 3 per centum of the entire wood in the universe where the mean lessening of some 0.2 per centum per twelvemonth ( FAO 2007 ) . On the other manus, the forest industries contribute about US $ 4.8 Billion or merely 1 per centum of the Global gross value added whilst between 1990 and 2006 the portion forestry has declined continuously from 1.48 % to 1 % ( FAO 2007 ) . The same state of affairs besides has been occurred in Indonesia. The greatest wood lost compared with the other South East Asian, about 1.9 million hectare disappear per twelvemonth ( FAO 2007 )

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Besides many Asiatic states have got many obstructions on forest direction resources such as illegal logging, deforestation and forestry fires that happened because the formal authorities establishments in the wood sector are non strong to command the resources ( McAllister et al. 2007 ) . In Indonesia, the wood besides is significantly decline non merely in term of the coverage country but besides in term of the gross ( Casson and Obidzinski 2002 ; Suwarno et Al. 2009 ; Wollenberg et Al. 2006 ) . The jobs of development on forest direction in Indonesia are sophisticated and complex where there are tonss of grounds that lead to the forest development. First of wholly, an economic ground, increasing gross national merchandise leads to the Indonesian authorities to work the wood for deriving foreign exchange. The authorities gives tonss of chances to Multinational industries to utilize and busy the forest for several times. It is called Hak penguasaan Hutan ( HPH/Rights to work forest ) . An industry who receives a HPH rights has an authorization to fell the forest trees and utilize the land every bit long as the contract term ( Casson and Obidzinski 2002 ) . Second, societal and cultural grounds, wood has been utilised by either local community or any stakeholders for societal and cultural intent such as the phenomena of cut and burn husbandman where the husbandman burn the wood and the they live in the country for several old ages after that they will travel out to other country when the country is sterile ( Lawrence et al. 2010 ; Schulte and Sah 2000 ) . The last 1 is battle of life ground where the people exploit the wood merely because they want to last and supply their basic demands ( Lawrence et al. 2010 ; Schulte and Sah 2000 ) .

As a consequence, there are several jobs that occur on deforestation in Indonesia. In footings of economic issue, Human Rights Watch said that Indonesia authorities lost income about 2 billion dollars per twelvemonth in 2006 because of illegal logging activities ( 2010 ) while the deforestation occurred whole Indonesian country including Kalimantan and Java as a major island. The other illustration is the increasing of illegal logging in Indonesia that had damaged 1,6 million hour angle of wood from January to July 2000 ( Casson and Obidzinski 2002 ) . In footings of portion of benefit issue, the deforestation as the consequence of traditional manner of forest development tends to coerce out environing communities and gives rise to polemics for illustration, people who live near the forest province country are really hapless. They merely acquire income less than $ 1 a twenty-four hours ( Awang 2004 ) .The forest policies are merely sensitive to industry and less cognizant to local community. In decision, the forest operations in Indonesia marginalise the local community and extinguish local enterprise to use the forest resources ( Nevins et Al. 2008 ; Suwarno et Al. 2009 ) . Besides, in the last decennary the Indonesian authorities ‘s policies have supported merely to market demands ( Purnomo et al. 2005 ; Suwarno et Al. 2009 ; Yasmi et Al. 2009 ) . These fortunes need pressing response how to salvage the wood and the other side how to re-allocate and re-distribute the forest resources.

As a solution, the authorities, demanded by civil society, has created a wood policy which is the Community-based wood direction ( CBFM ) ( Suwarno et al. ) . The CBFM contexts are non merely to administer the resources but besides to portion of power between the province and local community ( Suwarno et al. 2009 ) . The plan has been implemented in Indonesia 2002. The plan has been implemented in the province forest country and local communities can utilize the land for long term contract such as 25 old ages. The community should set up a group and so the group direct a proposal to the local authorities that they want to utilize the province wood near their life. As an thought of the decentralization of resources, it could be better to administer the resources and supply local community gross ( Nygren 2005 ) . However, the engagement of local utilizations and establishments is more complicated than merely advancing decentralization of forest resources and besides the chief troubles is how to develop a system that is effectual, just and efficient ( Barrett et al. 2005 ; Hanna 2005 ; Nygren 2005 ) . For cases, if the community fail and they merely extract the tree, it can be destroy the forest sustainability. If the community does non hold adequate power to deal with purchasers, they will either sell or impart the forest resources to the purchasers. Therefore the thought that re-allocate the reseouces and give a opportunity for the community will neglect. Furthermore, it is suggested that development of sustainable local community establishments could reply the obstructions for keeping the resources on community ( Ostrom 2009 ) . This is an of import issue to look at the development of local community establishments on the CBF Indonesia.

For that ground, the chief thought of this research that focuses on CBFM in Indonesia describes the local establishments capacity and examines its public presentation on CBFM ‘s execution in Indonesia. The chief issue is the institutional agreements specifically how the community proctor and implement the regulations they set. The research conducted in the Gunung Kidul Region ( GKR ) and so there are some statements why this site is suited for this research. First of all and foremost is rationale ground. The Gunung Kidul Regency ( GKR ) has implemented the Community-Based Forest Management ( CBFM ) and established some local establishments. Second is Social entree ground. The research worker can derive the trust and the assurance of the local community. Third is ecosystem jobs ground. Dirts are extremely eroded, dry and hilly so there are several issues that arise such as, landslide and H2O scarceness. The last 1 is societal and political contexts ground, the land boundary between province and society is steadfast and interestingly it has cooperation on forest direction execution amongst them.

The focal point on the institutional agreements is relied on the common belongings government, so the theoretical model that has been used is the institutional attack. The institutional attack can be work out the common belongings rights jobs between private, community and province ( Agrawal 2005 ) . The 2nd attack is developing and apprehension of local community establishment with minimizing the local contexts can make a construct that difference institutional procedure can take the fluctuation how the local people use the natural resources ( Agrawal 2005 ; Ostrom et Al. 1999 ; Elinor Ostrom and National Research Council ( U.S. ) . Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change. 2002 ) . It seems that minimizing on local community establishment in GKR can assist to make its forest direction sustainable and besides it relates to the Foucaultian position that cognition and belief are discourses which are anti hegemonic and heterogenic position. It can be clear that even utilizing tonss of scientists sentiment, this thesis can be changed depends on the information and the contexts reached.

The Qualitative method is the chief umbrella of this research which uses several methods to transport out the informations such as descriptive anthropology and a participatory method. A combination between the descriptive anthropology and participatory attack is a good manner for understanding the societal contexts deeply. The descriptive anthropology can be used to transport out the societal and cultural contexts and the participatory can assist to happen the best individual or the cardinal histrions as research ‘s participants. Even supplying interview usher, it can be changed on the research ‘s field. Beside, the observation would be performed at the local community who implement CBFM, Local and territory authorities. The in-depth interviews could be conducted for some participants such as the local husbandman, local and territory authorities officer, NGO militant and university who involve in the CBFM in GKR. The purpose random sample has been chosen to happen the interviewees or the husbandmans. The husbandmans have been divided two classs between the husbandmans who involved in and the husbandmans who do non affect in the CBFM. And so they were classified by wealth ranking. The wealth ranking is hapless for those who has land less than 0.5 hour angle, center for those who has land from 3 to 5 hour angle and rich for those has land more than 5 hour angle ( Behera and Engel 2006 ) . In add-on, several informations could be found both secondary informations such as the books and diaries about establishment, local community and forest direction, the policy documents of the local and territory authorities about CBFM in both Indonesia and GKR.

In footings of the restriction of the research, there are several issues. First and first, generalization, the consequence can non do a generalization for the CBFM execution in Indonesia. Second, Objectivity, a participatory research has subjectivity issue. Because the research worker is involved in the community, they can be interfered by local belief or values. In footings of certifications, because the policy is vicinity and has been implemented a few old ages, it would be hard to happen out more information. However, even if it can raise our self-objectification and sometimes our engagement in the community can do our research biased, the research worker understands it and efforts to understate a struggle of involvement.

Overall, this thesis that aims to develop the theoretical model on the development of local community establishments sustainable on the execution CBFM in Indonesia, would be divided several parts, foremost is the debut portion that explain abut the research background, ends and inquiries. Second is the theoretical model that explains the thought of Institutional attacks on resources direction and besides illustrates the research method both to transport out the informations and reply the inquiry. Fourthly is anaylisi informations that describe the execution of CBFM in Indonesia and it has been looked with institutional attack. The last 1 is the decision and recommendation of the execution of local community establishment on the CBDM in Indonesia

The Aims and Aims

  1. To understand the local community establishments on the execution of CBFM.
  2. To look into the community ‘s execution of CBFM in the country of survey.
  3. To develop a theory about successful community establishment development on forest direction.
  4. To urge a policy for local and national authorities degrees which strengthens successful establishment schemes that have the potency to back up CBFM sustainability and joint local establishments schemes.

The Research Questions

  1. How make the local community establishments proctor and implement the regulations on the CBFM execution that they set?
  2. What do the local community establishments act to implement the CBFM?
  3. To what extent the local establishment supports for the forest resources sustainable?


Literature reappraisal

The chief thought of this essay that focuses on CBFM in Indonesia describes the local establishments capacity and examines its public presentation on CBFM ‘s execution in Indonesia. Therefore, this essay that aims to develop the theoretical model on a development of local community establishment sustainability, is divided several parts, foremost is the thought of Institutions on resources direction, and secondly is the root of parks belongings governments. And the last 1 is the development of forest resources direction attack.

Institutionalism attacks on Resources Management

The footings of establishments are widely definition and many attacks that can explicate it. Institution is a construct that arrange all the member behavior by regulations, norms, schemes ( Ostrom et al. 1999 ) . It can uncover both a formal establishment that is adopted by a authorities jurisprudence and implemented for control the society activities and an informal establishment that realises to maintain the society behavior such as codification of behaviors and norms ( Quinn et al. 2007 ; Smajgl and Larson 2007 ) . Besides, the human behaviors can be driven by formal institutional orders such as, fundamental law and legislative acts, and informal establishment orders such as relationships and societal outlook Figure 1.

In footings of institutionalism on resources direction, scientists argues that local establishments can efficaciously to command, keep and pull off the resources sustain ( Agrawal 2001 ; Behera and Engel 2006 ; Bischoff 2007 ; Futemma et Al. 2002 ; Smajgl and Larson 2007 ) . In other words, this statement has been supported by Ostrom ‘s sentiment that institutionalism attack can be a solution of the calamity of common where the group of users develops a ordinance how much, what mode and when the users can bring forth and utilize the resources. It means that stakeholders can be successful for utilizing and pull offing their resources if they can run into their establishments with its contexts. This solution besides could be created a better scene for utilizing parks ( E. Ostrom 2008a ) . In the other words, different contexts and civilizations can make different establishments because the same regulation can non be implemented in different societal context ( Agrawal 2001 ) so developing of effectual local establishments should trust on the local contexts and civilizations. A specific establishment with precise context is the best manner to cover with resources environmental issues.

There are several issues why the local establishments are required for developing resources sustainable. First, authorities policies are failure because they lack of resources such as money and human resources for back uping their ends money ( FAO 2007 ) .

Second, a local ego administration is more precise and conductive to work out the common resources quandary and make natural resources sustainable ( Agrawal 2001 ; Ostrom et Al. 1999 ) . Third, most of the policies are base on text edition and they do non down to earth so the best one to work out is understanding the local context ( Fairhead and Leach 1996 ) . Fourthly, Participation is the major issue that has been spread in the universe as a solution to re-distribute and re-allocate the resources ( McAllister et al. 2007 ; Nygren 2005 ) .

Bettering the local establishment that supports for decentralization and engagement on natural resource direction is the best manner to re-allocate the resources but it can non vouch the resources sustainable. It can non set up the community behaviour entirely and it needs several demands ( Barrett et al. 2005 ; Nygren 2005 ) . First of wholly, a legal mechanism that can set up regulation and jurisprudence enforcement. Second, capacity edifice that makes the local community can construct an equal relationship with other stakeholders. Third is the institutional transparence that supports an information equality system amongst stakeholders in the community. The last 1 is flexibleness and adaptative on concerted partnership.

In other words, natural resources direction should construct a good system that requires effectual, just and efficient direction ( S. Hanna and Munasinghe 1995 ) . Effective direction should cover with short-run involvement of single and long-run aims for sustainable resources. Equitable direction should run into the diverse of involvements and values of the stakeholders. And so, efficient direction should supply rational cost on garnering information, execution program, and monitoring and enforcement policy.

A good natural resources direction is a combination of several indexs and demands that each other are linkage and compliment. Therefore, the establishment on natural resources will be described by several standards and indexs.

Institutional attack index

Adopted from Agrawal ( Ostrom 2002 )

1. Resources system characteristic

  • Small size
  • Chiseled boundaries

2. Group characteristic

  • Small size member
  • Shared of norms
  • Participant, figure of participant, place and properties of the participant.
  • Social capital

3. Institution agreements

  • Rules are simple and easy to understand
  • Law enforcement ( inducements and deterrences )
  • Accountable and transparent
  • Benefit and cost, result and part.
  • Meeting ( formal and informal )
  • Communication flow ( downward and upward communicating theoretical account )
  • Bottom up policy

External environment

  • Technology, low cost exclusion engineering.
  • Adaptable establishment, unfastened and close administration
  • Government should non sabotage local community
  • Networking with other stakeholders

It seems that there are big Numberss of variables on sustainable establishments. Furthermore, each variable can associate with others and besides depend on the others as good. So, when the figure of variables is immense, and the absence of well-prepared research happen, it about impossible to be certain that the research consequence trades with the research hypothesis ( Ostrom 2002 ) . It is besides the restriction of the institutional attacks that we have to see. The research worker should number exactly the figure of variables and instances that relevant with their ends ( Ostrom 2002 ) . Because of an wrong accent of the of import variables, it can take unpredictable the research consequence itself.

The focal point of institutional agreements

Community-Based Forest Management

There are several issues that relate to community forest engagement and preservation of resources. One of the most issues is how to keep and better local community to entree natural resources because most of authorities policy marginalises the local community. Economic attacks drive to the authoritiess for seting the natural resources under increasing demand for market ( Tachibana and Adhikari 2009 ) . Besides, the thought of protected country for biodiversity preservation has pushed practicians and authorities for execution this thought ( Ellis and Porter-Bolland 2008 ) and harmonizing to this thought, protected countries will be successful if the local community does non affect in the natural resources. Furthermore, to understand the discourses on community based forest direction, it is utile if we understand the footings of common belongings governments and the theoretical reappraisal on forest direction.

Commons belongings governments

To work out these jobs, we have to understand the root of its job. The economic attacks rely on the paradigm of belongings rights. It considers to how the province and society expression for their belongings ownership ( picture 1 ) . As a consequence, apprehension of belongings rights leads to understand a construct of common belongings government and a government relates to a system of ordinance, regulations and jurisprudence for disposal ( APA ) . Therefore, common belongings government is a regulation or belief that arranges how to utilize the resources, what have the stakeholders do and who are the stakeholders or the proprietor of the resources ( Lu ; Elinor Ostrom ; Pavri and Deshmukh ; Quinn et al. ) . The first position is a province belongings government when a authorities as a representative of a whole society think that natural resources have to belonging them and they can pull off and utilize every bit much as they want. This premise is mono-interpretative and problematic but this premise has been used by most of the authorities ( Awang ) .

Furthermore, this premise has been supported by Hardin ‘s position when he looked at the Sherman phenomena in the field and this statement supports for province or authorities government on resources direction. There are some cardinal statements that Hardin proposes. First, he argues that jobs in the universe which occur can non be solved by proficient solutions ( Hardin 1968 ) . For case, the inquiry of population and a deficiency of nutrient can non be answered by bring forthing a new wale strain. Hardin besides emphasizes that merely a finite population can work out the job of a finite universe but it could non go on ( Hardin 1968 ) . Therefore, we have to bring forth cardinal action to work out the universe ‘s jobs. Second, everyone has a personal involvement that leads to them maximising their ain involvements. He explains that in the grazing land venue where the field is free and cipher is an proprietor, as a consequence every herder will maximize their advantage by adding more sheep into the land. If this has been done by each herder, the grazing land field will diminish and the resource will be eroded ( Hardin 1968 ) . Third, he states that freedom in parks leads to destroy for all. Hardin besides says that the herder as persons, they are individualistic, rational and merely utility-maximizing ( Hardin 1968 ) . Obviously, there are several solutions that Hardin suggested ( Hardin 1968 ) . First of all, ethical solution, which can help us to understand what we can make and can non make. In the name of scruples, people have self-eliminating control over their attitudes and activities. It can be used to extinguish human desire for working resources. However, Hardin says that people can non cut down their demands and no 1 can cover with this job and everyone ever fails to work out their jobs ( Hardin 1968 ) . Even in the community or groups, they are non able to pull off their demands. For illustration, if the legal system of private belongings is suggested as a solution, it can neglect once more. The private belongings is unjust and people who have freedom ever destroy the resources. Therefore, Hardin suggests a authorities jurisprudence could be a solution to this job ( Hardin 1968 ) .

Government ordinances could work out the calamity of common where authorities can be involved in the input and end product procedure to convey the land use in line with community and societal demands. Hardin suggest that authorities can move as a public representative to make effectual ordinance and besides revenue enhancement policy ( Hardin 1968 ) . This hypothesis assumes that the authorities is crystalline and effectual in apportioning resources where people can have inducement and disincentive depending on their part. Government should make incentive based-policy where this policy will actuate voluntary research, action and preservation to interest holders or landholders.

In other words, authorities policy has a societal map every bit good that can be used to administer the resources by equilibrating societal cost, optimal production and sustainability of resources. There are several features of Government policies, which are centralized-regulation, standardised and limited usage of engineering. The jurisprudence is formal and has a coercion component which can implement the regulation. However, the ideal status is rather far from the world, with some grounds that authoritiess are uneffective, inefficient and irresponsible because authorities policies normally are unvarying and centralized ( Benson 1988 ; Libecap 2009 ) . For case, maltreatment of power and less usage of discretion could be revealed in several ways such as corruptness. Corruptness makes the fortunes of both resources and the community worse. Benson, who has conducted research on the common pool public-service corporations, says that province setups are less commitment to apportioning resources and so they are on jurisprudence enforcement ( Benson 1988 ) .

In decision, authorities can make policy to work out and cut down the calamity of parks because the authorities has rights and powers to implement it. Hardin ‘s premise could be true if the authorities policies are crystalline, efficient, effectual and adaptative. Nevertheless, in world this is non ever existed and succeeded because many authoritiess fail to make and implement their policies.

In the other words, there are some unfavorable judgments on the Hardin ‘s position. In footings of individualistic and economic histrions, Angus suggests that Hardin ‘s statement started with the unproved statement which is that every herder ever wants to enlarge their herds, but even if the herder wanted to act like Hardin ‘s premise, he could non make it unless certain conditions existed ( Angus 2008 ) . Besides, Angus said that Hardin mistreated the term of self-regulation by the communities involved ( Angus 2008 ) . In add-on, self-regulation procedures such as those that occur in the community can cut down the overexploitation of land ( Angus 2008 ) . Besides, all interest holders can make an internal regulation which makes clear what, when and how to bring forth the best harvests. By collaborating with each other they can pull off to supply for the public good ( Libecap 2009 ) . It seems that even if people are rational and have an economic position, they have to see their belief and those of others.

In footings of cooperation, Barclay, who conducted an experiment where people played some games and theoretical accounts utilizing resources, argues that cooperation and alliance in mutual selflessness are integrated in human dealingss and it can take to immense benefit and cut down costs ( Barclay 2004 ) . In the other words, human behavior responds suitably to predominating conditions in the societal and environment. So, herder will utilize parks belongings in ways that lead either to overdrive or sustainability depending on the fortunes. Neither Hardin ‘s decisions nor direction is inevitable ( Berkes and International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 1989 ) . As world people depend on others and necessitate to collaborate with each other.

In term of communicating, a community who uses communicating efficaciously can make several conditions such as making higher benefits and developing their ends faster than communities which are less good at communicating ( Bischoff 2007 ) . It is clear that each people in the community who wants to utilize the parks belongings should inquire and pass on with each other. For illustration, in Indonesian society it is well-known a hak ulayat. The hak ulayat is a legislative act or local norms that every community member would follow the regulation if they want to works, seed or cultivate anything in some community country. Harmonizing to this term ( Hak ulayat ) , the land belongs to the community but every member can use every bit much as appropriate to the community ( Hak ulayat ) . As a consequence, the resources can be managed in sustainable ways and the community can use the field every bit good.

In footings of institutionalism, Hardin does non clear that either community or single can make administration and establishment where this modulate the person and community act and behavior. Scientist argues that a local establishment can efficaciously to command, keep and pull off the resources sustain ( Bischoff 2007 ) . In other words, this statement has been supported by Ostrom ‘s sentiment that institutionalism attack can be a solution of the calamity of common where the group of users make a ordinance how much, what mode and when the users can bring forth and utilize the resources. It besides could be created a better scene for utilizing parks ( Elinor Ostrom 2008b ) .

In decision, communities and single as a resources user have characteristic religions which create people and community more cognizant to keep resources with sustainable ways. Besides, corporate action can take to successful managing resources and apportioning of resources ( Mukhija 2005 ) . However, we should see that community rights will be managed decently that could understate anarchism on parks. It is clear that community can affect in the resources every bit much as they can pull off their establishment.

The development of Forest Resources Management ( FRM )

The development of forest resources direction ( FRM ) theory may be divided into two attacks which are the conversional theory and the modern theory or societal forestry attack ( Simon 1999 ) . On the other words, if it relates to those who are the chief histrions, it can be broken down between the state-based wood direction and the community-based wood direction ( Suwarno et al. 2009 ) . In footings of the conventional attack, there are several thoughts which are a timber extraction and timber direction attack. In footings of the societal forestry attack, there are several thoughts that are a forest resources direction attack ( FRM ) and sustainable wood direction attack ( SFM ) . All the attacks has been developing bit by bit and imitating ( image 2 ) .

The Timber extraction ( TE ) is the oldest attack on FRM and bases on an premise that forest expressions like a excavation so the wood can be exploited and all the trees can be felled. In add-on, this attack has been divided into two classs, foremost, 1-TE that is implemented in the wild wood and without any program or engineering or merely felled down the trees ( Simon 1999 ) . And so, the 2nd is 2-TE that is implemented on non merely the wild wood but besides the planted-forest and it uses a system civilization but less a planning and a engineering. Besides there are several features that lead to TE activities such as, the country of wild wood is so broad, the figure of wood ingestion is little and the figure of population or denseness is bantam every bit good ( Simon 1999 ) .

Timber direction ( TM ) is the 2nd measure of FRM development. It reveals with the premise that the wood is look like a farm so it need for care and a good planning. The development of TM is more complex and requires several indexs. First, it needs a robust system civilization and direction. Second, a good disposal of the merchandise is mandatory. Third, the forest merchandise orientation is wood ( Simon 1999 ) . Therefore, all resources on this industry merely pay attending for increasing wood production.

The Sustainable wood direction ( SFM ) or Forest resource direction ( FRM ) has been established when the figure of population the universe is immense and the figure of ingestion is so large but the resources is so rare particularly the forest resources. In the 4th universe forestry Congress in 1960 has a subject Multiple Use of Forest Land and so in the seven universe forestry Congress in Indonesia in 1978 has discussed some issues about agro forestry, societal forestry and tree agriculture ( Simon 1999 ) . And so this thought has been spread and implemented cross the universe. It has been discussed non merely as discourses in the academic field but besides in the authorities policy.

There are besides several phenomena that lead to the construct of SFM. First, the figure of debasement and deforestation is important improve for illustration, from 1990 to 97, 5.8 ± 1.4 million hour angle of humid tropical woods were lost each twelvemonth and 2.3 ± 0.7 million hour angle of woods degrade ( World-Bank 2003 ) . Second, distribution of resources is unequal as a consequence the figure of poorness in the universe rise dramatically for case, two hundred and 40 million people live in forested countries, stand foring 18.5 % of the 1.3 billion people populating on environmentally delicate country ( World-Bank 2003 ) . Third, distributing the thought of decentralization on common-pool resources that support for local community to entree the wood is so monolithic ( Agrawal 2001 ; Elinor Ostrom 1990 ) .

Therefore, implementing of SFM needs a extremist alteration of point of position from sate base to community base, from competition to cooperation, from top down policy to bottom up policy ( Gilmour and Fisher 1991 ) . The winnow of paradigm is necessary if the SFM will be implemented decently. The paradigm that the province is the chief histrion should be changed to the community paradigm that the community is the chief histrion. To implement this thought necessitate strong political will and commitment from all of the stakeholders. Furthermore, Campbell creates several indexs for developing SFM or CBFM sustainable ( Suharjito 2000 ) .

In add-on, in the first clip SFM and CMBM in Indonesia implemented in 1995 as a declaration on forest direction ( Sepsiaji and Fuadi 2004 ) . Ministry of Forestry ( MF ) wants to re-distribute forest resources and promote local engagement so they develop Hutan Kemasyarakatan ( Sepsiaji and Fuadi ) or Community based-forest direction ( CBFM ) . Fortunately, political changing happened in Indonesia during 1997-1998. Indonesian political system has been transformed from the autocratic province to democratic province when the Soeharto who led for 32 old ages stepped down. This state of affairs was a trigger for decentralization of power. The decentralization besides occurs on the resources direction particularly forestry. As a consequence, some of caputs of territory got an authorization from the cardinal authorities to allow small-forest transition licences and this licence can be used by local community and besides little industry ( Engel and Palmer 2006 ) . In 2000, this policy was prohibited by cardinal authorities but the local authorities and local community continued to busy the forest ( Engel and Palmer 2006 ) . Compromising has been dealt the cardinal authorities agree that territories authoritiess can give a license return advantage of the forest but this license merely for a local community when the local community has a group.

In decision, the CBFM policy has been implemented in the province wood and the local community in a group can busy for 25 old ages. The thought of CBFM for re-allocate resources, cut down poorness and promote community engagement could be a best manner to convey prosperity and sustainability every bit good. However, it can be unsafe non merely for the wood but besides the local community if they can non pull off decently. To pull off this chance needs a well establishment that able to back up and steer the community behavior.

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