Kathmandu, the capital metropolis of Nepal is overcrowded. Large inflow of people, migrating to metropolis can be seen, mundane. Reason might be different, but all want to settle at that place, doing force per unit area on the vale ‘s already weakened substructure and to run into their demand the haphazardly reinforced metropolis is even spread outing in the same manner, bespeaking towards the much helter-skelter state of affairs in future. Colonies built without proper entree of transit is one of the obstructions in waste aggregation. Waste can be seen everyplace, roads and even in the rivers. The state is hapless and to a great extent indebted and is unable to write off adequate budgets for it. Poor institutional experience, deficiency of strong statute law and enforcement, weak fiscal position of cardinal and local authorities are the major causes for the hapless solid waste direction in Kathmandu. Political volatility is seen as a major job in the state in the current decennary. Harmonizing to Thapa ( 1998 ) political instability in the state after the Restoration of democracy in 1990 contributed in some step to the hapless environmental direction of solid waste. The consecutive authoritiess after Restoration of democracy engaged in the intra and excess political differences, paying less attending to substructure development and environmental direction. Lack of proficient experts and encephalon drain of few staying is emerging as a job in the state.
Prior to 1980, about all the organic waste was used as organic manure in the fertile land of Kathmandu valley ( Thapa, 1998 ) . Harmonizing survey done about 40 old ages ago, human waste generated by Kathmandu occupants at that clip were sold for NRs. 0.50 per Sn. Furthermore, several family used to portion a & A ; lsquo ; sagaa ‘ to pull off their waste ( & A ; lsquo ; Sa ‘ agencies compost and & A ; lsquo ; gaa ‘ agencies pit ) ( Tuladhar,2003 ) .
These yearss, the vale ‘s fertile land is altering into colonies and the volume of waste is increasing every twenty-four hours. The population of the vale has increased by 66 % from 1991 to 2001 ( CBS, 2003, B ) , where as the volume of the waste from 1991 to 2003 was increased from 69,596 ton to 106215 dozenss ( Thapa, 1998 ) . Different surveies have estimated different volume, but all are consentaneous about the increasing tendency sing waste. Harmonizing to Pokharel, 2005, Joshi ( 2003 ) estimated the entire sum of solid waste of Kathmandu Valley to be about 291 tons/day, whereas SWMRMC, 2000, estimated it to be 356 tons/day by the twelvemonth 2002. Study carried out by IUCN in 1997, estimated the per capita waste coevals to be 0.565 kg/cap/day.
Assorted surveies on the composing of the waste of Kathmandu valley show the predomination of organic fraction. It shows the per centum of organic part increased from 65.5 % in 1997 to 70 % in the twelvemonth 2003 ( UNDP, 2001, Jindal et. Al, 1997, joshi, 2003 ) . Organic fraction claims 70 % of the entire waste volume ( Thapa, 2003 ) . This immense sum of organic waste shows the possibility of composting. If it can be done, it non merely helps to work out the solid waste job but besides replaces the imported agricultural fertiliser and encourages organic agriculture. It can be established as an industry, which keeps possible to supply employment to 1000s of people. Harmonizing to Thapa, 1998, 20.5 % of the waste is reclaimable. If composting and recycling can be used as an instrument, most of the solid waste job can be solved. Upgrading the degree of consciousness and rigorous execution of ordinance further helps in it and really small waste merely will be destined to the landfill.
As the surveies show the organic fraction domination, assorted attacks can be applied to pull off this waste. Composting could go a sustainable solution for its direction, beside this anaerobiotic digestion, biogas production, and recycling to some extent may assist. But every solution comes along with its ain job, so it is really indispensable to choose the appropriate one, which creates fewer jobs but solves many and major one.
Low degree of consciousness, deficiency of engineering, and City ‘s inability to afford the cost to put on substructure, public and political resistance, and most significantly, the deficiency of enthusiasm to work out the job are major restraints.
The purpose of this essay is to research out the major proficient and societal job associated with waste direction, particularly the organic fraction, of Kathmandu Metropolitan City and to offer some solution.
The most well-liked solutions of organic waste direction in the universe are composting, followed by bio gas production through anaerobiotic digestion and recycling of some waste. But all of them have their ain benefits and drawbacks and besides affected by the restriction of the full waste direction system.
The waste aggregation system of Kathmandu is non efficient, but the engagement of private sector has improved it to some extent. Harmonizing to KMC ( 2003 ) , NGO ‘s and Private sector collect 25 % and Kathmandu metropolitan 69 % of waste. But, around 13.5 dozenss of community waste generated by metropolis remains ungathered. Survey by Alam, R. , et. Al ( 2007 ) , found 70 % – 90 % of the entire waste collected. The chief job of waste direction in Kathmandu arises at beginning. Most of the people do non segregate the waste, they store the carbon monoxide mingled waste and give it to blow aggregators, increasing the hazard of blending organic and toxic waste. 84 % of the dwellers store waste in carbon monoxide mingled signifier, nevertheless 89 % of the dweller showed their involvement to segregate it ( Alam, R. , et. al.,2007 ) . Though the information show the high per centum of aggregation, most of the topographic points and river still seems contaminated, so it is indispensable to supervise the private waste aggregator to forestall rivers from illegal dumping.
Collection from doors to door and community bins are in pattern, but the aggregation, storage, transit and transportation of waste all are non merely improperly handled, they besides pose significant menace to environment and to the public wellness. The waste vehicles are found transporting the waste uncovered. These vehicles drop some of the waste on its manner, raising the opportunity of distributing diseases.
The unattended wastes are frequently emptied on the rivers, fouling river and destructing the fresh H2O. The impact of it can be seen clearly during summer, when it decomposes and bad odour spreads around the locality of rivers. Study done by Alam, R, 2007, found transportation station at the bank of Bagmati River technically unsuitable and non decently lined, due to that decomposition of organic waste and leachate had turned the river has turned blackish and doing foul odor in the local country
All the waste including pathology, kitchen, diagnostic research lab and infirmary are dumped into KMC bins. These bins are exposed to waste aggregators and pose danger of distributing diseases. Harmonizing to Alam, 2007, attempts to effectual disposal of waste hindered due to fiscal restraints. ( Rashid, 1996 ) .
Hand cart, trike, tractor, unfastened tractor, container bearer are used for the intent of waste aggregation, transportation and disposal. Most of the vehicles are old. All types of waste goes to set down fill. ( Alam, R. , 2007 )
The organic waste can be separated to do compost or for anaerobiotic digestion. These techniques can unusually cut down the volume of organic waste in one manus and could assist to better the quality of Kathmandu ‘s agricultural land on other manus. The entire organic waste of Kathmandu and Lalitpur can be recycled by puting up a 300 tons/day organic fertiliser works, by making this waste disposal job can be reduced by 80 % with minimum environmental impact and coevals of high quality ( Tuladhar,2008 ) .
Braber, K, 1995, suggests to handle different types of organic waste otherwise. If the waste is preponderantly from kitchen or contains high sum of wet, the anaerobiotic digestion could be appropriate. For the waste incorporating more yard waste and other dry or less moisture waste aerophilic composting is suited. Kathmandu receive immense sum of nutrient waste every bit good as other non nutrient and less wet incorporating points, it is indispensable to streamline these waste at beginning and dainty it otherwise to accomplish high degree of efficiency.
Though in little graduated table, composting is practiced in different degrees at different topographic points of Kathmandu. Household and community degree are practiced in different locations. Vermi composting is besides promoted particularly to pull off organic waste at family degree. Household composting was promoted by Kathmandu Metropolitan City, administering 100 litre compost bin ( ICIMOD, 2007 ) .
There is merely one big graduated table composting works in Bhaktapur, which receives about 3 dozenss of organic waste/day. This installation is operated manually. The composting installation at Teku has been closed since 1990, which had capacity of 15 tons/day ( ICIMOD,2007 ) . So it is indispensable to mechanize the manual machine to increase its capacity and efficiency and to re-start the closed 1s.
In my sentiment, alternate direction of organic waste of Kathmandu is pressing, in order to happen long term and sustainable solution. But the obstructions appear at every phase of planning and direction. Technology is indispensable to better the present status and fiscal facet is important for it. Constitution of more composting works could assist to cut down the important degree of waste volume. Beside this bio gas can be produced from the family organic waste, this engineering can be introduced in Kathmandu excessively, as Indian metropoliss are practising it successfully ( ARTI, 2009 ) . This engineering could be appropriate for state like Nepal which does non hold any beginning of natural gases and is unable to bring forth adequate electricity.
Kathmandu needs big graduated table installation for composting, and that needs to be economically feasible. Windrow composting could be appropriate for it, which uses sunshine for decomposition of the organic waste and do non necessitate skilled work force, which is cheaper than in vas composting ( Madina, M, 2001 ) .
As most of the waste is collected in the carbon monoxide mingled signifier and Kathmandu do non hold installation to divide it, scavenging activities can ease the composting of organic waste as they take away the recyclables one and sublimate the organic waste in one manner ( Madina, 2001 ) .
The compost green goods in Kathmandu vale can be sold outside the vale where agricultural land is abundant, on which Kathmandu depends for nutrient. If this interchange can be established both the metropolis and husbandmans can acquire benefit. But for successful composting and cut down hazard of blending toxic stuff it is indispensable to advance segregation at beginning. Urban waste direction, 2009, emphases on the rural urban confederation for sustainable direction of urban organic waste.
Much of the waste in Kathmandu remains ungathered for yearss on the side of roads due to assorted grounds such as work stoppage or resistance from people nearby landfill site. Particularly during the rainy season, roads get flooded and due to the wet and warm clime there is danger of spreading of diseases due to decomposition of organic waste.
Furthermore, advanced thermic engineerings like Gassification and pyrolysis are besides available option for the direction of organic waste. But, the immense installing cost, sophisticated engineering and demand of skilled human resource makes it less executable in the context of Nepal.
Rigorous execution of waste hierarchy is most of import to cut down the waste, separation at beginning, betterment in aggregation and transportation system, debut of composting at assorted degrees and capacity can good pull off the organic waste.
Society produces the waste, so it is society ‘s duty to pull off it. But there are many hindrances. Economic and political are other job after proficient. The programs to do better waste direction system are frequently hindered by political instability. Public engagement in waste direction is cardinal to accomplish success in this respect.
Community occupants can play critical function to divide waste at family degree, their active engagement in composting at family and community degree could alter the scenario better.
It is indispensable to educate people about the difference between bio degradable and non bio degradable waste in society every bit good as childs at schools. Furthermore, since adult females are engaged in family activities, it is besides indispensable to educate and promote them to pattern it. Though public private partnership is presently in pattern for waste direction, it is indispensable to make it in big and broader graduated table. Public Private Partnership for Urban Environment, in association with Nepal Government and UNDP has started composting of Kalimati fruit and vegetable market. The NGO involved in it is practising Windrow composting ( PPPUE,2008 ) . But it is indispensable to broaden its market in order to do it successful in big graduated table.
Handiness of land for big graduated table operation could be hard to happen within metropolis due to scarceness of land and public resistance as people oppose to do such workss near to their country. Often waste becomes resort area for politician in Nepal, the program to do big graduated table composting works of capacity 300 tons/day, in joint venture of Nepal and India could non be materialised because of politicians ‘ personal involvement. ( Bhusan Tuladhar, 2008 ) . Peoples out of sight, out of head ‘ doctrine and Not in My Backyard construct, makes it further hard.
Kathmandu has recognised private sector engagement in waste direction as an instrument for alleviating fiscal load and effectual aggregation, transportation and recovery/recycling/composting of gathered waste.
Peoples may waver to utilize the compost made from municipal waste, so public credence of compost as a dirt humanitarian is indispensable ( K, Braber, 1995 ) . Policies to heighten composting is necessary, to do it successful. Expansion of market can be another challenge. Kathmandu is losing its fertile land which used to devour the organic waste in past but produces organic waste in immense graduated table ; so it is important to seek for its consumer. The huge agricultural land adjacent to Kathmandu could be a possible consumer. If this can be done, Kathmandu metropolis and husbandmans both could acquire profit from it.
In past, cultural groups “ Pode ” and “ Chyame ” , a marginalised caste responsible for cleansing and managing waste, were involved in waste direction activities in Kathmandu. They were the Masterss of organic waste and used techniques passed by their ascendants to change over waste into fertilisers. They individual handedly managed Kathmandu ‘s waste in past and accepted their function as a profession. These people are economically weak and do non hold much option for their profession because really few of them are educated.So in my sentiment, authorities should give precedence and inducement to these people to re-establish concern in this sector to better their fiscal position.
Now a yearss, important figure of poorness afflicted immigrants from South India and Nepalese homeless kids are engaged in scavenging operation for aggregation of reclaimable stuff. Though they are making this to do life, they are dividing the organic waste from other solid waste such as metals, plastics and documents indirectly and this makes the composting procedure easier. Since most of these people collect waste with au naturel manus, it is indispensable to alarm them about the possible infection and taint and if possible supply safety stuff in subsidized rate to these people.
Like the hapless vicinities of some metropoliss, in the outskirts and hapless country of Kathmandu, people raise hogs for ingestion and trade. But the of all time lifting cost of commercial feedstock makes them hard to rise up this animate being. In the outskirts of Manila metro, Philipino people collect organic waste from eating house and feed the hogs. This pattern can be replicated here in Kathmandu, where, harmonizing to a survey, net income was doubled even after the veterinary, transit and fuel cost. ( Practical Action, 2009 ) . This pattern can assist to work out the job of waste direction and saves husbandmans money to some extent. However, due consideration should be given to the quality of that provender and hygiene of the animate being and people.
Enterprises from Kathmandu metropolitan metropolis
Kathmandu Metropolitan metropolis is seeking to get the better of the job of waste direction. It has identified private sector as an of import ally in this work. To promote private sector engagement, it has adopted scheme, to be after the procedure but non to wait for perfect program. A twelvemonth after the engagement of private sectors, it was found that they were doing good money and willing to go on and spread out the work. ( KMC,2002 )
In focal point to the organic waste direction. Harmonizing to IGES ( 2008 ) , it has planned to better the state of affairs by the twelvemonth 2010 by making the undermentioned activities:
It has planned to utilize media for run in encouraging waste segregation at beginning. Lobbying on revenue enhancement exclusion of recycled merchandise, publicity of composting at family degree by supplying compost bin at 45 % subsidy are other step planned by it. Expansion of community based recycling Centre and medium graduated table vermicomposting, and aid in selling of those recycled merchandise are in the pipe line.
Beside these Kathmandu Metropolitan metropolis has set up its guidelines on Public Private Partnership Programme to rush up this procedure in big graduated table.
Technically, transition of Kathmandu ‘s land into colony has reduced the vale ‘s absorbing capacity to absorb its waste. Financial inability of local and cardinal authorities to put on substructure to travel along with increasing population and of all time spread outing town is another hurdle on its manner, added by political instability. Lack of proper engineering, substructure and human resource, low degree of public consciousness and deficiency of public and political enthusiasm are farther deteriorating the metropolis ‘s environment.
Organic waste can be managed with the simple steps along with fiscal benefits and employment chance. Improvement in bing storage, aggregation, transportation and disposal system is important in this facet. Need of big composting works can be helpful to undertake this job. Furthermore, separate storage, aggregation and disposal of medical and non medical waste can perceptibly cut down the opportunities of spreading of diseasing.
There is demand to set up a good working link between metropolis ‘s waste direction authorization and husbandmans near Kathmandu to advance composting successfully. Technology transportation is cardinal to acquire benefit at optimal degree. Simple method like Windrow Composting could be utile as it does non necessitate high degree of accomplishment and energy. Using these methods at family and community degree would elate the economic system of people engaged on it.
Provision of some inducements and if possible the fiscal aid to the people who are dependent on waste direction for their support, to do compost works or to make some concern related to waste could give constructive result for this intent. I believe if we improve the proficient capacity and could alter societal attitude towards organic waste that can assist a batch in retrieving the organic fraction of the Kathmandu ‘s municipal waste.
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