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The Musculoskeletal System

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1. Disscuss the role of two electrolytes in musculoskeletal function (175 words) The two electrolytes we have chosen are Calcium and Phosphate. Calcium is the main ion contributing for muscle contraction, Calcium flood in and act as a trigger for contraction, because as calcium binds to the regulatory protein on act in filaments, they change their shape and position on the thin elements, (Marieb 2009), The phosphate ion, participates in acid base balance, strengthen bones Plasma level 2. 5-4. 5mEq/L. It makes muscle contract as well and important for maintenance of bone health.

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Calcium is necessary for bone and teeth formation, and also muscle contraction (Herlihy, 2009). Calcium and phosphate interact to create dense bone material. Both electrolytes should be in balance, and the calculated balance proportion of both electrolytes of calcium to phosphates is 2-1, which proportion makes human bones healthy strong and strength (National kidney Federation, 2010). These two electrolytes as calcium provide muscle contraction to give Shannon ability to move muscles to do the work and phosphate strengthens the bones making bones, thus preventing osteoporosis.

The deficiency of these ions is the reason why she may be suffering from muscle and joint aches. The balance of calcium and phosphate ions is essential for Nurse Shannon’s good health. Imbalance of phosphate ion can cause disorder such as hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia. Imbalance of calcium ion can cause disorder such as hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia. (Porth& Matfin 2009) 2. Choose 3 different cells of the musculoskeletal system and describe their structure and function, making links to the maintenance of healthy function in the above scenario. (300 words) 1. Osteogenic cells

Are un- specialised stem cells (undifferentiated cells that can divide produce new cells derived from mesentyme), the tissue from which all connective tissues are formed. They divide creating osteoblasts. Osteogenic Cells are responsible for trauma response. They are found in the bone tissue, which contracts endosteum and periosteum. These cells are also responsible for the healing process to start once trauma is experienced. Osteogenic cells heal by calling on other cells, such as osteoblasts or bone forming cells and osteoclasts or bone destroying cells. When they all work ogether they repair the damage done to the bones. If Nurse Shannon suffers a trauma related to the bone such as a fracture, osteogenic cells are the ones which provide the initial response. (Jenkins, Kemnitz, Tortora, 2010) 2. Osteoblasts Cells They are bone –building cells responsible for the formation of the bone matrix. Bone formation happens in two stages, ossification and calcification. Osteoblasts take the minerals from the blood deposit them on the bone. They synthesize and secrete collagen, fibres and other organic components needed to build extracellular matrix of osseous as they initiate calcification.

As osteoblasts surround themselves with extracellular matrix of osseous tissue, they become trapped in their secretions and become osteocytes. Osteoblasts are also responsible for mineralization of this matrix. Zinc, copper and sodium are some of the minerals required in this process (Porth & Matfin, 2009). 3. Osteocytes Mature bone cells, are found in tiny cavities called lacunae, which are interconnected by slender channels called canaliculi. Each osteocyte has delicate fingerlike cytoplasmic processes that reach into the canaliculi to contact the processes from neighbouring osteocytes.

They maintain the bone tissue. They have multiple functions; some reabsorb bone matrix other deposits it, so they contribute to both the bone density and blood concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions. They also maintain metabolism and they participate in nutrient and waste exchange through the blood (Saladin, 2007). 3. Select any specific muscle in Nurse Shannon’s body that she may use in carrying out her daily activities (175 words) i. Name the muscle ii. Identify where it is found in her body iii. Describe its structure and its function iv.

Discuss how it acts in maintaining healthy function in Nurse Shannon (i) Bicep brachii (ii) It is found in the hand at the upper part of the body. It starts by from the shoulder girdle and insert into radial tuderocity. It is the large located on the anterior of the arm; the muscle spans both the shoulder and the elbow joints. It is located across anterior surface of the humerous (Herlihy, 2011). (iii) It consists of a long head and a short head. It flexes forearm at elbow joint, supinates forearm at radiolnar joints, and flexes arm at shoulder joint (Tortora & Derrickson, 2009).

It is the most powerful flexor of forearm and elbow joint. For this is called the workhorse of the elbow flexors. (Jenkins, Keminatz & Tortora, 2010) (iv) Nurse Shannon uses this muscle quite often because it bulges when elbow is flexed (marieb 2009). It helps Nurse Shannon by giving her the power to do the manual handling and also she needs this muscle to lift the bed into sitting position and showering the resident, and to transfer resident off and on furniture, To do her every day job, she needs to use this muscle. 4.

Identify and describe the structure and action of 2 different types of joint Nurse Shannon would use when moving patients (175 words) (i)Synovial Hinge Joint of the knee and hip They are freely movable joints. Nurse Shannon uses this joint quite a lot, these are type of joints which are not directly joined but lubricated by solution called Synovial fluid. This fluid is produced by the synovial membranes. It is a lubricant rich in albumin and hyaluronic acid. The adjoining bone surfaces are covered with articular cartilage, a layer of hyaline cartilage about 2mm thick in young healthy joints.

The cartilages’ and synovial fluid make joint movements almost friction free (Saladin, 2007). A joint capsule encloses the cavity and retains the fluid. The joints capsule consists of two layers, which is outer fibrous layer and an inner membrane, the synovium (Port and Matfin, 2009). Synovial joint are important for quality of life for all humans not only Nurse Shannon. Nurse Shannon uses many synovial joints such as knee, shoulders, elbow and hip joints to do her every day job such as manual handling tasks. Examples of manual handling tasks are bathing the patients, lifting, toileting, transferring the patients.

Ball and socket synovial joint of the hip and shoulders. The hip joint is a ball and socket joint formed by the head of the fumurs and acteabulum of the coxal bone. Its articular capsule is dense and strong and reinforced by several strong ligaments. A ball like surface of one bone fits into a cuplike depression of the other. Another example of a ball and socket joint is the shoulder joint where the head of the humerous fits into the glenoid cavity of the scapula. The functions it can perform multiaxial diarthrosis, flexion,extension, abduction, circumduction and rotation.

Examples of when Nurse Shannon uses the hip joint would be when lifting the patients and walking them (ii) Cartilaginous joints such as ribs and the spine. Cartilaginous joints which allow very little or no movement. The articulating bones are tightly connected by fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage. Cartilaginous joints are divided in to two types which are symphyses and synchondroses. Symphyses are Cartilaginous joints where two joints are joined by fibrocartilage. Synchondroses are cartilaginous joint where two joints are joined by hyaline cartilage.

Nurse Shannon uses the cartilaginous joint of the spine when bending down to lift something. It is what keeps the vertebrae together. The joints of the ribcage are in action when she is breathing in and out. She also uses it when stretching for something. 5. Describe how Nurse Shannon could advise a patient about the importance of Maintaining healthy bones to support the function of other systems in the body. (175 words) Nurse Shannon’s advice could go something like this: There are many different ways that good healthy bones are essential for other systems in the body. i)The bones support and protect the soft body organs (Marieb, 2009) (ii)Healthy bone is essential for the cardiovascular system.

Red bone marrow produces blood stem cells. (iii)Ones store important minerals needed for body e. g. calcium and phosphorus. Good healthy bones prevent Osteoporosis which is a decline in bone making activity that may lead to bone breaking. This may, if it is in the vertebrae may cause nerve pinching and severe pain. As bones change shape because of osteoporosis it may impair organs such as the lungs. iv)If the joints are not healthy it may impair activities such as walking which can have an effect on mental health. (v)If bone density is good then it helps people with certain neurological conditions to lead a better life than if their bone density was low (Howe, Davis, & Valentine, 2010). (vi)If bone density is low it will harm the intestinal absorption and renal reabsorption of calcium in premenopausal women (Bedford & Barr, 2009). (vii)Healthy ribcage protects lung by enclosure. (VIII)Healthy bones provide proper support for integumentary system.


1. Bedford, J. L., & Barr, S. I. (2009, 3 October). The Relationship Between 24-h Urinary Cortisol and Bone in Healthy Young Women. International Society of Behavioral Medicine. Retrieved from: http://web-l4.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=c0c79a80-bf3f-4661-bc6f-a26d93c452b8%40sessionmgr14&vid=1&hid=106 2. Herlihy, B. L. (2011). The Human Body in Health and illness. (4th ed.) St. Louis: Elsevier. 3. Howe, W., Davis, E., & Valentine, J. (2010). Pamidronate improves pain, wellbeing, fracture rate and bone density in 14 children and adolescents with chronic neurological conditions. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 13(1): 31-36 Retrieved from:

http://web-l4.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=8dec49d4-8b9f-4e72-a2d0-adf10c943ff4%40sessionmgr14&vid=1&hid=106 4. Jenkins, G.W., Kemnitz, C.P. & Tortora, G.J. (2010) Anatomy and physiology: From science to life (2nd ed.) New Jersey: Wiley 5. Marieb, E.N. (2009). Essential of Human anatomy and physiology. (9th ed.) San Francisco: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings. 6. Porth, C. M., & Matfin, G. (2009). Pathophysiology Concept of Altered Health States. (8th ed.) 7. Saladin, K. S. Anatomy and Physiology: The unity of form and function. (4 th ed., Pg 294-295). New York: McGraw-Hill. 8. Shier, R., Butler, J. & Lewis, R. (2009). Hole’s essentials of human anatomy and physiology. (10th ed.) Boston: McGraw-Hill. 9. Tortora, G.J. & Derrickson, B. (2009).

Cite this The Musculoskeletal System

The Musculoskeletal System. (2016, Nov 27). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/the-musculoskeletal-system/

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