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The Need For A Management Theory Commerce

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As there is a demand of each and every company to utilize the direction theory to prolong in this universe, so about all the companies are seeking to implement one or mixture of all theories in their organisation. There are chiefly four theories of direction viz. classical theory, behavioural theory, quantitative theory and modern-day theory. I have done research on classical theory, behavioural theory and quantitative theories. These all theories are described below in their several parts below. Let me foremost depict my selected media company BBC World services.

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BBC is a universe renowned media service. It has more than 14 Television channels viz. BBC World News BBC America, BBC Prime, BBC Canada, BBC Kids ( Canada ) , BBC Food, BBC Arabic, BBC Entertainment, Animal Planet, People Arts, UKTV Australia, BBC Knowledge, BBC Lifestyle.

Now let ‘s hold a speedy position on the services of BBC universe service. In web telecasting BBC one, BBC two, BBC Three, BBC Four, CBBC Channel, CBeebies, BBC HD and BBC ALBA are at that place.

In wireless Network BBC Radio 1, BBC Radio 2, BBC Radio 3, BBC Radio 4, BBC Radio 5 live, BBC Radio 5 Live Sports supernumerary, BBC 1Xtra, BBC 6 Music, BBC Radio 7 and BBC Asian Network.

The president of BBC is Sir Michael Lyons. The BBC News web site is the internet arm of the biggest airing news-gatherer in the universe. It launched in November 1997 and has since published nearing one and a half million full multi-media intelligence pages, all but a smattering of which are still available from the site ‘s hunt engine ( top right of about every page ) .

Each page is published by the squads of online journalists based in the chief newsroom in BBC Television Centre at White City, west London, at BBC World Service at Bush House in cardinal London, in national and regional newsrooms across England, in Glasgow, Belfast and Cardiff and in an increasing figure of the BBC ‘s many international agency worldwide.

This chart shows the divisions of the BBC which report straight to the Director-General. For each division there is a list of the most senior staff, with short occupation descriptions and inside informations of wages, disbursals and cardinal engagements.

BBC construction and senior staff

BBC Trust ‘s on six committednesss

The BBC ‘s relationship with license fee remunerators remainders on six clear committednesss:

Standards: to keep the really highest column criterions that reflects the wide positions of BBC audiences.

Serving all audiences: The BBC direction is interested in offering value to everyone in the UK. No affair whomever they are and wherever they live.

Content: to be a leader non a follower, offering content of the highest quality and of a sort that no-one else is making

Supporting public service broadcast medium: to the extent possible within the duties to licence fee remunerators, to back up the proviso of public service content by others and prolong part to the UK creative sector

Value: merely to pass every bit much money as the BBC needs to present the public mission set out in the Charter

Independence: ne’er to let external involvements to exert undue influence on the BBC ‘s column or operational independency

The BBC has large aspirations to function the public better, conveying them new engineerings and content without losing any of the really high criterions of news media and plans doing that are its foundations.

Classical Point of view

There are three well-established theories of classical direction:

Taylor ‘s Theory of Scientific Management,

Fayol ‘s Administrative Theory and

Weber ‘s Theory of Bureaucracy.

Although these theories came one by one but each old one co-exists in each other.

Taylor ‘s theory of scientific direction:

Frederick Taylor ( 1856-1915 ) is besides known as “ The Father of Scientific Management ” . Scientific Management theory arose from the demand to increase productiveness in the U.S.A. particularly, where skilled labour was in short supply at the beginning of the 20th century. The lone manner to spread out productiveness was to raise the efficiency of workers. This theory which focuses on a scientific analysis of all the undertakings to be done by workers to so plan occupations towards the riddance of wastes clip and gesture and in order to actuate workers, he favored inducement pay programs and besides separated managerial work from operative work. frederick-taylor.jpg

Restrictions of the Theory of Scientific Management:

Although it maximized efficiency and productiveness but its chief restriction was disregarding human facets of employment. This is manifested in the followers:

Some workers and brotherhoods opposed this theory because they feared that working harder or faster would wash up whatever work was available, doing layoffs, A Expostulation to the “ velocity up ” conditions that placed undue force per unit areas on the labours every bit good as machines.

Taylor devised four rules for scientific direction theory, which were:

1. the development of a true scientific discipline of direction, A

2. the scientific choice and preparation of workers, A

3. Proper wage for fast and high-quality work

4. Equal division of work and duty between worker and director

I.e. split the work and duty so that direction is responsible for be aftering work methods utilizing scientific rules and workers are responsible for put to deathing the work consequently.

Execution of scientific direction theory in BBC

For BBC to implement this theory in its organisation it is really easy because in media it is required that you should be able to travel manus in manus with the universe. Scientific direction theory tells us to believe scientifically and logically. By supplying the plants to the meriting people we can give the most end product from the least, and happen out the meriting qualities scientific theory is required. Like to look into the individual can work decently or non supply him some of the mystifiers to work out and this is a scientific manner to look into the mental ability of the individual. To acquire the best consequence we need to supply the employees their basic demands besides. Harmonizing to this theory if we provide proper wage to the employees so they will be able to make their work in a better mode.

If the direction of BBC implements this theory in their industry they can be able to give better intelligence consequence every bit good as other Television and cyberspace services as this theory is chiefly for those who are involved in new inventions. For mass communicating if you do non utilize new things as per the scenario so you will non be able to get the better of your contestants.

Weber ‘s Theory of Bureaucracy:

max-weber-1917.jpg

The bureaucratic signifier is the basic forming signifier for public sector organisations and for most private sector organisations as good. There are basic rules of the signifier and some advantages offered by the signifier.

Max Weber

The bureaucratic signifier has six major rules:

A formal hierarchal construction

Each degree controls the degree below and is controlled by the degree above. A formal hierarchy is the footing of cardinal planning and centralised determination devising.

Management by regulations

Controling by regulations allows determinations made at high degrees to be executed systematically by all lower degrees.

Organization by functional forte

Work is to be done by specializers, and people are organized into units based on the type of work they do or accomplishments they have.

An “ up-focused ” or “ in-focused ” mission

If the mission is described as “ up-focused, ” so the organisation ‘s intent is to function the shareholders, the board, or whatever bureau empowered it. If the mission is to function the organisation itself, and those within it, for example, to bring forth high net incomes, to derive market portion, or to bring forth a hard currency watercourse, so the mission is described as “ in- focussed. ”

Intentionally impersonal

The thought is to handle all employees every bit and clients every bit, and non be influenced by single differences.

Employment based on proficient makings

The employment is provided to those who technically qualified and who deserves the place.

Consequence of bureaucratism on the employees:

Inside the organisation, employees live with some really negative byproducts of the bureaucratic signifier. They are unable to make the work in their ain mode i.e. invention is non done much more which is the basic thing for this modern universe. They think that they are slave to the bureaucratic officers.

Execution of bureaucratic theory on BBC

Today ‘s human inclination is that cipher wants to make work under force per unit area or no 1s wants become the follower of others everyone wants to do their ain footprints.. So this theory will non work decently for those companies which have to cover the whole universe. BBC universe services are meant for mass communicating every bit good as for mass amusement. In this type of organisation it is really much required that the individuals involved in the system should hold no fright of their foreman because fright makes adult male little. There are lakhs of employees straight or indirectly involved in this organisation. As we all know that today is the universe of democracy. People thinks in their ain mode no 1 wants to be the junior of any persons so how can the people of BBC who are intelligent and who works for the freedom of imperativeness every bit good as humanity can work under the bureaucratic regulation. So this regulation will non be applied in this organisation. Although this regulation is a really good regulation for increasing productiveness this can non be applied to those establishments were the rational category is involved more. If there is a limitation on the employees of media sector that they have to convey or seek the intelligence about any affair than its non possible for that individual to be generated the intelligence by himself if he can non accomplish that intelligence from any beginning, than due to this theory, they largely creates bogus intelligence about anything after which the organisation becomes the worst sick person.

Fayol Theory of Administrative Management

Fayol was a qualified applied scientist and besides held a high place industry: pull offing manager of a big Gallic company. A twelvemonth after the decease of Taylor, he published his most celebrated book entitled: General and Industrial Management.Jules Henri Fayol – 1.jpg

He emphasized the function of administrative direction and concluded that all activities that occur in concern organisations could be divided into six chief groups.

Technical ( production, fabrication ) ;

Commercial ( purchasing, selling, exchange ) ;

Financial ( obtaining and utilizing capital ) ;

Security ( protection of belongings and individuals ) ;

AccountingA ( balance sheet, stocktaking, statistics, bing ) ;

Managerial ( planning, forming, commanding, organizing, commanding ) .

He concluded that the six groups of activities are mutualist and that it is the function of direction to guarantee all six activitiesA workA swimmingly to accomplish the ends of an endeavor

Fayol ‘s 14 rules of direction

Division ofA labour: work must be subdivided to ease specialisation ;

Authority: authorization and duty should travel manus in manus ;

Discipline: subject is of import to develop obeisance, diligence, energy and regard ;

Integrity of bid: subsidiaries must describe to one higher-up ;

Integrity of way: all operations with the same aim must hold one director and one program ;

Subordination of single involvement to general involvement: the involvement of one person or group should non rule the involvement of the endeavor as a whole ;

Wage: wage and all other methods of payment should be just ;

Centralization: directors ever hold concluding duty but should depute certain authorization to subsidiaries ;

Scalar concatenation: a clear line of authorization or concatenation of bid should widen from the highest to the lowest degree of an endeavor. This helps to guarantee an orderly flow of information and complements the rule of integrity of bid ;

Order: there is a topographic point for everything and everything in its topographic point. Proper programming of work and timetables to finish work is of import. This can ease the channeling of stuffs to the right topographic point at the right clip ;

Equity: A employeesA should be treated with kindness and justness ;

Stability of term of office of forces: direction should work towards obtaining long-run committednesss from staff and avoid unneeded turnover of staff which is dearly-won and works against overall end achievement ;

Enterprise: workers should experience like an active portion of the organisation through conceiving and put to deathing programs in order to develop their capacity to the fullest ;

Esprit de corps: A harmoniousness and brotherhood aid to construct the strength of an endeavor. It is an extension of the rule of integrity of bid, stressing the demand for teamwork and the importance of communicating.

Execution of Administrative theory on BBC

Fayol ‘s theory is a really good theory which can be implemented in the media industries. As this theory divides the work to those individuals who are specialized in their ain field.

Like if any wireless jockey is asked to make the proficient plants so how can he make? But when he gives the plans on the wireless no 1 challenges him/her. Authority and duties are given in manus to manus in this theory and this can be implemented in media industry because the function provided to the persons is more of import. The 14 rules provided in this theory trades all the plants of the media industry. If we implement all these rules to the BBC universe services so BBC can go the figure one wireless channel. In the rule Initiative i.e. workers should experience like an active portion of the organisation through conceiving and put to deathing programs in order to develop their capacity to the fullest, defines about all the norms of the media industry like BBC. In this manner we can state BBC can utilize this theory in their industry for proper growing and its development.

Behavioral point of view on direction theory

Behavioral theories of leading do non seek congenital traits or capablenesss. Rather, they look at what leaders really do.

Behavioral is a large spring from Trait Theory ( i.e. Peoples are born with familial traits. Some traits are peculiarly suited to leading. Peoples who make good leaders have the right ( or sufficient ) combination of traits. ) , in that it assumes that leading capableness can be learned, instead than being built-in. A behavioural theory is comparatively easy to develop, as you merely measure both leading success and the actions of leaders. With a big plenty survey, you can so correlate statistically important behaviours with success. You can besides place behaviours which contribute to failure, therefore adding a 2nd bed of apprehension.

Hawthorne surveies

The Hawthorne surveies, ab initio undertaken to look into the relationship between work-place conditions and worker productiveness, introduced a broad scope of subjects to the field of direction survey. Research workers found no strong relationship between workplace conditions and productiveness but reached several decisions like single work behaviour is driven by a complex set of factors such as

Work groups develop norms which mediate between the demands of the person and establishment

Employees should non be considered extremities of machinery

Awareness of employee sentiments and engagement can cut down opposition to alter

the workplace is an meshing societal system, non merely a production system

Social construction maintained through symbols of prestigiousness and power.

These findings opened the door to the survey of client-centered therapy, little group behaviour, and organisation theory and research methodological analysis.

Human relation motion

It originated in the 1930s ‘ after the Hawthorne surveies, which examined the effects of societal dealingss, motive and employee satisfaction on mill productiveness. The motion viewed workers in footings of their psychological science and tantrum with companies, instead than as interchangeable parts.

“ The trademark of human-relation theories is the primacy given to organisations as human concerted systems instead than mechanical appliances. ”

myao.jpg

George Elton John Mayo ( 26 December 1880 – 7 September 1949 )

Mayo is known as the laminitis of the Human Relations Movement, and is known for his research including the Hawthorne Studies, and his book The Human Problems of an Industrialized Civilization ( 1933 ) . The research he conducted under the Hawthorne Studies of the 1930s showed the importance of groups in impacting the behaviour of persons at work. Mayo ‘s employees, Roethlisberger and Dickinson, conducted the practical experiments. This enabled him to do certain tax write-offs about how directors should act. He carried out a figure of probes to look at ways of bettering productiveness, for illustration altering illuming conditions in the workplace. What he found nevertheless was that work satisfaction depended to a big extent on the informal societal form of the work group.

George Elton Mayo stressed the followers:

Natural groups, in which societal facets take precedency over functional organisational constructions

Upwards communicating, by which communicating is two manner, from worker to main executive, every bit good as frailty versa.

Cohesive and good leading is needed to pass on ends and to guarantee effectual and consistent determination devising

Execution of Human relation motion on BBC

This theory works on the behaviour of the persons instead than the makings. If a individual is good qualified so it is non certain that he/she will be a good director or leader. The behaviour of the persons besides play an of import function in the consistent determination doing procedure of any organisations. Harmonizing to this theory there should be a two manner communicating system between the workers and main executives and frailty versa. If it is implemented on BBC World services so the new inventions every bit good as new thoughts will be generated and organisation will travel in the forward way. This theory emphasized on the satisfaction of employee ‘s basic needs as satisfaction of persons is one of the key to increase the productiveness. If the persons are satisfied so the plans given through the wireless will be more efficient and worthy like when the intelligence is being developed so it is really much require that the newsmans must be happy. This theory besides involves esteeming and refering with workers every bit good as to understand and fulfill the employees demands and wants. The senior direction should work together and promote and actuate workers. The employees should non be felt that their occupation is tiring or palling. The direction have to actuate their employees in such a manner that persons have a deep psychological demand to believe that their organisation attentions about them, is unfastened, concern and willing to listen to them. The director should place and work out the jobs in company in clip. It is besides of import to maintain relationship between direction & A ; workers in the right way. This theory can be easy implemented in BBC as this industry is such industry where persons do the occupations unusually. If the employees are satisfied so the work will be better than the unsated workers.

Behavioral Science Approach

Behaviorism is “ the survey in worlds and animate beings of externally discernible behavioural responses as maps of environmental stimuli.A The mental province is either by and large ignored or redefined in stimulus/response footings. ” ( Macquarie Dictionary, 3rd Ed ) A Behaviorism in direction has been extended to really much include the mental state.A This can be demonstrated in an scrutiny of the work of the important participants in the development of behavioural science.A They include Burrhus F. Skinner, Abraham H. Maslow and Douglas McGregor.A Other subscribers in the field include ; F. Fiedler, V. Vroom, F. Hertzberg, E. Locke, D. McClelland, R. Hackman, J. Pfeffer, K. Thomas and C. Perrow.

Execution of Behavioral Science Approach on BBC

This theory lays accent on the behaviour of the employees as the name itself suggests. It stresses on the demand for scientific surveies of the human behaviour of the organisation. In BBC, it is a truly fact that this type of industry requires a batch of will power and advanced head because without a originative head and different sentiments, you can non accomplish anything. BBC direction can analyze the public presentation and behaviour of its members and harmonizing to their behaviour the plants will be sub-divided to the employees. Like the individual who is fond of making originative things can be provided the key to R & A ; D cells. He who is chatty can be made the wireless jockey. He who is fond of rolling can be provided the plants of newsman etc. i.e. the plants will be divided harmonizing to the behaviour of that individual. It is besides really much required for any organisation to hold the basic thoughts of the employee ‘s behaviour. If this is non done so their will be deficiency of symmetricalness in the organisation. BBC can besides utilize this theory in its organisation to avoid incompatibility in there media sector as behavior dramas an of import function in any organisation.

Quantitative point of view

It is besides called operations research or direction scientific discipline. It is evolved from mathematical and statistical methods developed to work out WWII military logistics and quality control jobs. Focuss on bettering managerial determination devising by using:

Statisticss

optimisation theoretical accounts

information theoretical accounts

computing machine simulations

It means this theory chiefly uses the quantitative analysis of anything. This is subdivided into three parts as follow:

Quantitative Point of view

3. Management Information System

2. Operationss Management

1. Management Science

Management Science

Management scientific discipline practicians employ a figure of statistical/mathematical techniques to assist work out concern jobs and assistance with determination devising ; made easier by the fact that the sum of available informations is detonating, the quality of informations is bettering, and the computational power required to rapidly do usage of the information is readily available. Development of advanced statistical/mathematical methods developed within the field of direction scientific discipline or adapted from other subjects is besides enabling concerns to understand and turn to jobs more efficaciously. For case, how to foretell the demand for new merchandises, whether certain client sections are more profitable than others, and which gross revenues compensation strategies are effectual.

Executions of direction scientific discipline

This theory chiefly works on the statically arranged informations and the consequences of the yesteryear. BBC universe services can utilize this theory in its organisation easy as there are many plans delivered on the Radio twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours every bit good as in the telecasting. They have to cognize which plan should be farther continued and which should be removed taking in the consideration of people involvements, like if the TRP of plan like Animal find increases so it will be continued farther and frailty versa. The coders will be asked to make the certain occupation in a fixed clip. If they are able to make the work in clip so they will be awarded otherwise some rigorous actions can be taken against them.

Operational direction

It is an country of concern concerned with the production of goods and services, and involves the duty of guaranting thatA concern operationsA areA efficientA in footings of utilizing as small resource as needed, andA effectiveA in footings of meeting client demands. It is concerned with pull offing the procedure that converts inputs ( in the signifiers of stuffs, labour and energy ) into end products ( in the signifier of goods and services ) .This Management purposes to increase the content of value-added activities in any given procedure. Basically, these value-adding originative activities should be aligned with market chance ( seeA Marketing ) for optimum endeavor public presentation.

Operations Management plans typically include direction in rules of general direction, fabrication and production systems, works direction etc.

Transformation Procedure

Resource Inputs

-Material

-Capital

-People

-Information

Create finished goods and services

Allocate and agenda people and equipment

Obtain and shop natural stuffs and resources

Merchandise End products

-Goods

-Services

Planing Feedback Controling

Operationss Management

Managerial determination devising and job resolution

Operationss Management: Pull offing the transmutation of resource inputs into merchandise into end products ( Beginning: Schermerhorn, 1989, P482 )

Execution of operational direction theory on BBC

This theory is chiefly meant for the production of goods and services. BBC introduces the new plans really normally so this theory is really utile for it. As we know this theory aims to increase the content of value-added services in the organisation, so it is required for BBC besides to increase the value added services in its organisation. This theory includes instructions in the rules of general direction so it is really much required to implement this theory in the BBC as now a twenty-four hours ‘s general direction is considered really much. BBC can implement this theory in its organisation really easy, as this theory says utilizing a small resource as needed but giving the most end product from the least input is the chief slogan for any organisations. For BBC besides the chief thing is its TRP in telecasting and addition of audience in the wireless. Today about all directors use this theory in their organisation.

Management Information Systems

It has been described as, “ MIS ‘lives ‘ in the infinite that intersects engineering and concern. MIS combines tech with concern to acquire people the information they need to make their occupations better/faster/smarter. Information is the lifeblood of all organisations – now more than of all time. MIS professionals work as systems analysts, undertaking directors, systems decision makers, etc. , pass oning straight with staff and direction across the organisation. ”

Management Information Systems are of import instruments in corporate houses, fiscal establishments and big organisations to back up decision-making procedure. In this sense they are a category of information establishments along with libraries and KMS ( knowledge direction system ) .A These systems use the natural ( normally historical ) informations from information processing systems to fix direction sum-ups, to chart information on tendencies and rhythms and to supervise existent public presentation against programs or budget.

Executions of Management information system in BBC

This theory is a span between the engineering and concern both. BBC requires the engineering and the concern for its generalisation and for its income. BBC can buy new engineerings and implement it in its organisation. For concern to be more comprehensive and cohesive it is really much required for any organisation to utilize new engineerings and inventions. If BBC do non utilize this theory in its organisation so it is certain it will non be in the fast and ferocious universe of competitory race.

Decision

The media is a topographic point of informational country in which it envelops the positive, negative and the enormous other accomplishments. The BBC universe services is popular in the whole universe for it coincident and cohesive NEWS. The BBC should follow the regulations and ordinances under the jurisprudence issued by the UK authorities. Every organisation requires a top degree of direction so is the BBC besides. As we all know that BBC is a universe celebrated media industry in this universe. So it requires the direction besides to be more precise and cohesive determination shapers. So we can state Management theories are really much required for each and every organisation which requires farther development. The three theories discussed by me above dramas an of import function in BBC harmonizing to me. For the media direction the theories discussed above are suited to its working system through which the organisation gets success. It is decided by the people who vote or gives feedback on the information given by the organisation in every field which is related to media. So the growing and the autumn of any organisation depends on their directors accomplishments. If the direction is good so the functionality of that organisation will be besides good. In this manner we can state that for proper growing of any organisation choice procedure of the directors every bit good as the employees should be in a proper mode. This besides depends upon the HR section of that company.

REFRENCES

hypertext transfer protocol: //bizcovering.com/management/fayol-theory-of-administrative-management/

hypertext transfer protocol: //changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/behavioral_theory.htm

hypertext transfer protocol: //changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/trait_theory.htm

hypertext transfer protocol: //news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/help/3281815.stm ( last accessed on 24-02-2010 )

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.asundaram.netfirms.com/academicwork/beh_approach.htm

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AGRAWAL RD_5TH Edition 2000, ( Organization & A ; Management ) , New Delhi, 1-10, 303-321

CHARY SN_ 2nd Edition 1988, ( Production & A ; Operations Management ) , New Delhi, 1-10

Coulter Marry, P. Robbins Stephen_9th Edition 2008 ( Management ) , New Delhi, pg. 2-28

( No. of words 4208 )

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