Introduction (what is Dalit? )  Social status of Dalits  History of Dalit Literature  Dalit Writers  About the Writer (Joseph Macwan)  Stepchild – As a First Gujarati Dalit novel  Conclusion  Bibliography  Webography  Introduction (What is Dalit? ):- Dalit means broken, oppressed, untouchable, downtrodden and exploited. They come from the poor communities which under the Indian caste system used to be known as untouchables. They constitute nearly 16% of the Indian population. Dalit is a designation for a group of people traditionally regarded as Untouchable.
Dalits are a mixed population consisting numerous castes from all over South Asia; they speak a variety of languages and practice a multitude of religions.
Dalit is not a new word. Apparently, it was used in the 1930 as a Hindi and Marathi translation of ‘depressed Classes’, a term the British used for what are now called the Schedules Castes. In 1970 the ‘Dalit Panthers’ revived the term and expanded its reference to include schedules tribes, poor peasants, women and all those being exploited politically, economically and in the name of religion.
So Dalit is not only a caste but it is a symbol of change and revolution. The word “Dalit” does not appear in any sacred scriptures or historical texts of India. It is actually a word based on 17th-century European notions about the Indian caste system. The word is derived from Sanskrit, and means “ground”, “suppressed”, “crushed”, or “broken to pieces”. It was first used by Jyotirao Phule in the nineteenth century, in the context of the oppression faced by the erstwhile “untouchable” castes of the twice-born Hindus. According to Victor Premasagar, the term expresses their Weakness, poverty and humiliation at the hands of the upper castes in the Indian society. ” Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi coined the word Harijan, translated roughly as “Children of God”, to identify the former Untouchables. The terms “Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes” (SC/ST) are the official terms used in Indian government documents to identify former “untouchables” and tribes. However, in 2008 the National Commission for Scheduled Castes, noticing that “Dalit” was used interchangeably with the official term “scheduled castes”, called the term “unconstitutional” and asked state governments to end its use.
After the order, the Chhattisgarh government ended the official use of the word “Dalit”. “Adi Dravida”, “Adi Karnataka”, “Adi Andhra” and “Adi-Dharmi” are words used in the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradeshand Punjab respectively, to identify people of former “untouchable” castes in official documents. These words, particularly the prefix of “Adi”, denote the aboriginal inhabitants of the land.  Social status of Dalits:- While discrimination based on caste has been prohibited and untouchability abolished under the India, discrimination and prejudice against Dalits in South Asia remains.
Since its independence in 1947, India has implemented an affirmative policy of reservation, the scope of which was further expanded in 1974, to set aside and provide jobs and education opportunities to Dalits. By 1995, of all jobs in India, 17. 2 percent of the jobs were held by Dalits, greater than their proportion in Indian population. In 1997, India democratically elected K. R. Narayanan, a Dalit, as the nation’s President. Many social organizations too have proactively promoted better conditions for Dalits through improved education, health and employment.
In the context of traditional Hindu society, Dalit status has often been historically associated with occupations regarded as ritually impure, such as any involving leatherwork, butchering, or removal of rubbish, animal carcasses, and waste. Dalits worked as manual laborers cleaning streets, latrines, and sewers. Engaging in these activities was considered to be polluting to the individual, and this pollution was considered contagious. As a result, Dalits were commonly segregated, and banned from full participation in Hindu social life.
For example, they could not enter a temple or a school, and were required to stay outside the village. Elaborate precautions were sometimes observed to prevent incidental contact between Dalits and other castes. Discrimination against Dalits still exists in rural areas in the private sphere, in everyday matters such as access to eating places, schools, temples and water sources. It has largely disappeared in urban areas and in the public sphere. Some Dalits have successfully integrated into urban Indian society, where caste origins are less obvious and less important in public life.
In rural India, however, caste origins are more readily apparent and Dalits often remain excluded from local religious life, though some qualitative evidence suggests that its severity is fast diminishing. * Historical context:- The term Chandala is used in the Manu Smriti (literally: The recollection of Manu or with more latitude, the laws according to Manu) in the Mahabharata. In later time it was synonymous with “Domba”, originally representing a specific ethnic or tribal group but which became a general pejorative.
In the early Vedic literature several of the names of castes that are referred to in the Smritis as Antyajas occur. The have Carmanna (a tanner of hides) in the Rig Veda (VIII. 8,38), the Chandala and Paulkasa occur in Vajasaneyi Samhita. Vepa or Vapta (barber) in the Rig Veda. Vidalakara or Bidalakar are present in the Vajasaneyi Samhita. Vasahpalpuli (washer woman) corresponding to the Rajakas of the Smritis in Vajasaneyi Samhita. Fa Xian, a Chinese Buddhist pilgrim who recorded his visit to India in the early 4th century, noted that Chandalas were segregated from the mainstream society as untouchables.
Traditionally, Dalits were considered to be beyond the pale of Varna or caste system. They were originally considered as Panchama or the fifth group beyond the fourfold division of Indian people. They were not allowed to let their shadows fall upon a non-Dalit caste member and they were required to sweep the ground where they walked to remove the ‘contamination’ of their footfalls. Dalits were forbidden to worship in temples or draw water from the same wells as caste Hindus, and they usually lived in segregated neighbourhoods outside the main village.
In the Indian countryside, the Dalit villages are usually a separate enclave a kilometre or so outside the main village where the other Hindu castes reside. Some upper-caste Hindus did warm to Dalits like Ramanuja. Such Hindu priests were demoted to low-caste ranks, an example of the latter was Dnyaneshwar, who was excommunicated into Dalit status in the 13th century but continued to compose the Dnyaneshwari, a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita. Eknath, another excommunicated Brahmin, fought for the rights of untouchables during the Bhakti period. Historical xamples of Dalit priests include Chokhamela in the 14th century, who was India’s first recorded Dalit poet and Raidas, born into a family of cobblers. The 15th-century saint Sri Ramananda Raya also accepted all castes, including untouchables, into his fold. Most of these saints subscribed to the Bhakti movements in Hinduism during the medieval period that rejected casteism. The story of Nandanar, is popular wherein a low-caste Hindu devotee, who was rejected by the priests but accepted by God. Due to isolation from the rest of the Hindu society, many Dalits continue to debate whether they are ‘Hindu’ or ‘non-Hindu’.
Traditionally, Hindu Dalits have been barred from many activities that were seen as central to Vedic religion and Hindu practices of orthodox sects. Among Hindus each community has followed its own variation of Hinduism, and the wide variety of practices and beliefs observed in Hinduism makes any clear assessment difficult. * Status of Dalits in Modern India Since 1950, India has enacted and implemented many laws and social initiatives to protect and improve the socio-economic conditions of its Dalit population. By 1995, of all jobs in India, 17. 2 percent of the jobs were held by Dalits, greater than their proportion in Indian population.
Of the highest paying, senior most jobs in government agencies and government controlled enterprises, over 10 percent of all highest paying jobs were held by members of the Dalit community, a tenfold increase in 40 years. In 1997, India democratically elected K. R. Narayanan, a Dalit, as the nation’s President. In last 15 years, Indians born in historically discriminated minority castes have been elected to its highest judicial and political offices. The quality of life of Dalit population in India, in 2001, in terms of metrics such as access to health care, life expectancy, education attainability, access to drinking water, housing, etc. as statistically similar to overall population of modern India. In 2010, international attention was drawn to the Dalits by an exhibition featuring portraits depicting the lives of Dalits by Marcus Perkins. In India’s most populous state, Uttar Pradesh, Dalits have revolutionized politics and have elected named Mayawati. a popular Dalit chief minister Many Hindu spiritual leaders assert that though the caste system is present in some Hindu Texts, it was meant to serve only as a division of labour and not meant to stratify or discriminate social groups based on caste.
There are no verses present in any Hindu text that support caste based discrimination, though the Manu Smriti, a text written several years later after the various Hindu texts, contains verses that assert superiority of certain castes over the other. In the Bhagvad Gita, Lord Krishna asserts that an individual’s caste is determined by his duty and not his birth. Even in Vedas,the Holiest Texts of Hinduism there are verses which strongly call for Equality like the verse no. (10:191:4) of Rig Veda reads “Samaani va akuthi,samanaa hrudyani va,samaana vastu vo mano,yatha va sahsuhasti” i. , Oh Humans! Let your Pledges be one, Let your Hearts be one, Let your Thoughts be one so that you are always united. Thus, Hindu texts do not mention the presence or discrimination of a Dalit caste, indicating that Dalit discrimination arose in society due to the corruption of religious practices by social hierarchy.  History of Dalit Literature:- One of the foremost and earliest Dalit scholars is Shri Valmiki, author of the famous epic poem Ramayana. Shri Valmiki is considered to be oldest and greatest poet in Indian History. He is called Maha Kavi or Adi kavi in Sanskrit.
Dalit literature forms an important and distinct part of Indian literature. One of the first Dalit writers was Madara Chennaiah, an 11th-century cobbler-saint who lived in the reign of Western Chalukyas and who is also regarded by some scholars as the “father of Vachana poetry”. Another early Dalit poet is Dohara Kakkaiah, a Dalit by birth, six of whose confessional poems survive. * Modern Dalit literature Dalit Literature, literature about the Dalits, the oppressed class under Indian caste system forms an important and distinct part ofIndian literature.
Though Dalit narratives have been a part of the Indian social narratives since 11th century onwards, with works like Sekkizhar’s Periya Puranam portraying Dalit women like half-naked and sexually exploitable and praising the killing of thousands of Dalits on “Kazhumaram” in the hands of Gnanasambandan, Dalit literature emerged into prominence and as a collective voice after 1960, starting with Marathi,and soon appeared in Hindi, Kannada, Telugu and Tamil languages, through self-narratives, like poems, short stories and most importantly autobiographies known for their realism, and for its contribution to Dalit politics.
It denounced as petty and false the then prevailing romanticism with the bourgeois Sadashiv pethi literature treated the whole Dalit issue, ignoring the social reality of appalling poverty and oppression of caste Hindus which was the result of the bourgeois character of this culture. It is often compared with the African-American literature especially in its depiction of issues of racial segregation and injustice, as seen in Slave narratives In the modern era, Dalit literature was energised by the advent of leaders like Mahatma Phule and Dr.
Ambedkar in Maharashtra, who focused on the issues of Dalits through their works and writings; this started a new trend in Dalit writing, and inspired many Dalits to come forth with writings in Marathi, Hindi, Tamil and Punjabi. By the 1960s, Dalit literature saw a fresh crop of new writers like Baburao Bagul, Bandhu Madhav and Shankar Rao Kharat, though it’s formal form came into being with the Little magazine movement. In Sri Lanka, Dalit writers like K. Daniel and Dominic Jeevagained mainstream popularity in the late 1960.  Dalit Writers Maharastra(Marathi)
Arun Kamble, Shantabai Kamble, Krushna Kamble, Raja Dhale, Namdev Dhasal, Daya Pawar, Annabhau Sathe, Bandhu Madhav,Laxman Mane, Laxman Gaikwad, Hari Narake, Sharankumar Limbale, Waman Nibalkar, Bhimsen Dethe, Bhau Panchbhai, Ambadas Shinde, Murlidhar Bansode, Kishor Shantabai Kale, Mayur Vhatkar. Heera Bansode, Joyti Lanjewar, Mallika Amershekh etc Karnataka (Kannada) The first ever Dalit Writer was from Karnataka. Madara Chennaiah(12th Centuary), Dohara Kakkaiah were the earliest known. Later at the end of 20th Century (1970) Prof. B. Krishnappa, Dr. Siddalingiah, Devanooru Mahadeva, Deviah Harave, Prof. Aravinda Malagatti, Prof.
M. N. Javaraiah, Prof. Govindaiah, Prof. Chenanna Valikar, Sathyaanada Patrota, V. Munivenkatappa, Mulluru Nagaraja and Mogalli Ganesha paved way for the enrichment of Kannada Dalith Literature. Tamil Nadu (Tamil) Ka. Ayothi dass Pandithar is the pioneer of the Dalit literature and Philosopher in India as well as south India. Rev. John Ratnam (Editor, Dravida Pandian), Rettamalai Srinivasan (Editor,Parayan), k. Appadurai (Editor Tamilan), Periasamy Pulavar (Poet)and many writers were contributed to dalit literature. Andhra Pradesh (Telugu) Gurram Jashuva, Kusuma Dharmanna, Boyi Bheemanna, Kolakaluri Enoch, Siva Sagar (KG.
Sathyamurthy), Gaddar, Boya Jangaiah, Chilukuri Devaputra, Kathi Padmarao, Bojja Tharakam, Endluri Sudhakar, Vemula Yellaiah, G. Kalyana Rao, Satish Chandar, GR. Kurme, Madduri Nageshbabu, Kalekuri Prasad, Gogu Shyamala, Jupaka Subhadra, Jajula Gowri, MM. Vinodini, Sujatha Gidla, Thullimalli wilson Sudhakar,challapalli Swarupa Rani,Sikhamani,etc Gujarat (Gujarati) Some of the eminent dalit writers in Gujarati include Neerav Patel, Dalpat Chauhan, Pravin Gadhvi, Raju Solanki, Sahil Parmar, Shankar Painter, Harish Mangalam, Bhi. Na. Vankar, Yashavant Vaghela, Pathik Parmar, Chandraben Shrimali, Mohan Parmar, Madhukant Kalpit, Jayant Parmar, B.
Kesharshivam, Raghavji Madhad, B M parmar and Joseph Macwan.  About the Writer (Joseph Macwan):- Joseph Macwan was born on 9th October 1935 in Tranol near odd in Anand district of Gujarat which is also known as Charotar Pradesh. Macwan was born in the poor Vankar family which follows Christian religion. Joseph Macwan is one of the best writer of Gujarati literature especially Dalit literature. Macwan was witness of poverty, cast system and suffering of untouchable class in Gujarat. He completed B. A. with first class in 1967 and M. A. in 1969 with second class, he is also completed B. d in 1971 with first class. Then he joins as lecturer in college. There some people put on pressure to leave the college job and go to Village School and not only that he was suffers from many more problems because of he comes from lower class Dalit family and some people cannot digest the progress he is do though he is Dalit. Later he joins as a teacher in Saint Xaviar High School, Anand. He was witness of injustice and suffering of Dalits so he writes his experiences in his novels with the medium of charotari language and suppressed characters of village.
His novel “Vyathana Vitak” and “Aangaliyat” got first prize of Gujarat Sahitya Academy. He is also got prize from Sahitya Academy Delhi in1989. In addition, many of his other writings received various awards. He was died on 28th march 2010 in Ahmadabad. * Other Famous Writing of Joseph Macwan:- * “Vyathana vitak” (Got first prize of Gujarat Sahitya Academy in 1985) * “Mari Parnetar” (Novel) * “Laxman ni Agniparixa” (Novel) * “Amar Chandalo” (Novel) * “Mankhani Mirat” (Novel) * “Dadano Desh” (Novel) * “Dariya” (Novel) * “Sangvato” (Novel) * “Vahalna Valkha” (Short Story) * “Pagla Prabhuna” (Essay) “Amar Sanvedan Kathao” (As Editor) * “Bhalna Bhom Bhitar” (Report) * Various Rewards and Prizes for his contribution in literature:- * 1985 – Two Prizes of Gujarati Sahitya Parishad * 1987 – Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi Award * 1989 – Babasaheb Ambedkar Award * 1989- Sahitya Acadamy Delhi Award * Three Gujarat Sahitya Academy award for his various novels  Stepchild – As a First Gujarati Dalit novel:- JOSEPH MACWAN’S Angaliyat, skillfully translated by Rita Kothari from Gujarati as The Stepchild, works at four levels. It is a gripping tale of love, heroism, humiliation, revenge and death.
It is a vividly colored picture of the lives of two neighboring villages in the Charotar district of central Gujarat. It is a document of the politics of the pre- and post-Independence years, as seen from the perspective of the downtrodden; and finally, it is an account of the struggle of one Dalit community against its upper-caste oppressors, spurred on by two opposing ideologies, the Gandhian and the Ambedkarite. The novel has twenty six chapter and each chapter plays important role in the whole novel. Macwan tells the real and fact story of Dalits and other downtrodden community.
Macwan used Charotari language (one of the dialect used in charotar Pradesh in Gujarat) for local flavor. While the whiplash of the derogatory Charotari term “dedh” (now banned) used of some groups cannot be conveyed in English, Kothari does a good job of limning the struggle of four “transgressive” Vankar lives on the outskirts of a village run by the landowning Patidar and Thakurs in the Charotar region of Gujarat. The Stepchild is a cornerstone of Gujarati literature, the first Dalit novel set in rural Gujarat of the 1930s, which draws attention to its own aesthetics and political ideology.
Rich in local idioms and expressions, the novel vividly explores the ethos, fears and aspirations of the Vankar community through the characters of Valji, Methi, Teeharam, and Bhavaankaka. Angaliyat in Gujarati, is a child whose mother leads him by the hand to his stepfather’s house. This is metaphorically the social position of the Vankars, a Dalit community. Significant from several points of view, the novel provides a view of history from below. Caught in external and internal forms of subjugation, the community of weavers, the Vankars, is subject to oppression from the more powerful upper castes, the Patels.
Through the use of powerful dialogue, the author illustrates the subtlety and complexity of the major Dalit characters, and elevates them. But they are ultimately defeated by the dominant castes in the story. The novel critiques systems of internal colonization that exist within the Hindu caste system, which is far more difficult to fight than the British colonization of the land. Angaliyat represents the recently emerged genre of the Dalit novel. Today, Dalits are both asserting their identity and challenging a society that had earlier excluded them, by writing about their lives themselves.
This translation is aimed at students and general readers interested in regional Indian literature and anyone who is trying to understand South Asian society. Angaliyat tells the story of oppression and exclusion by transforming the vanquished into the victor, by turning the periphery into the core. Teeha and Methi, and Valji and Kanku, fiercely oppose two oppressive social structures, one represented by landowning, aggressive and vicious Patidar and Thakor village leaders and the second by greedy and manipulative Dalit caste leaders.
Both Valji and Teeha are ultimately killed but to the end, they refuse to submit. The portrayal of Methi and Kanku as pure women challenges the age-old perceptions of higher castes which denigrate the practice of remarriage among backward communities. The stepchild who follows the mother to a new home holding her finger or angali, remains on the periphery of the stepfather’s family. Angaliyat signifies the secondary, the peripheral, never accepted by the core family or society. * Beginning of the Novel:- Teeha and Valji are neighbours and inseparable friends from the Vankar or weaver caste. Surprisingly, the Vankars are a scheduled caste in Gujarat. ) Valji and his wife Kanku would dearly like to see Teeha married. Unknown to them, Teeha is in love with Methi from Shilapaar village next door. Loyalties towards village and pargana sometimes override caste loyalties, and so there are hurdles in the way of their marriage, Teeha is the finest weaver in the district and a man of great physical courage. Teeha is very popular in Shilapar. The event that sets the story in motion occurs at Shilapaar. Teeha has persuaded Valji to accompany him there to auction their cloth.
In the course of the auction, an upper-caste man notices Methi approaching with a pot of water on her head. He aims a stone at the pot, drenching her completely. Teeha springs to her defense. In the challenges and counter-challenges that follow, Teeha humiliates the man, Nanio Patel, so thoroughly that he swears revenge. Now, the Patels of Shilapar became very angry and they look for revenge of Nania Patel’s ultimate insult among the whole village done by Tiha Parmar. They consider Naniya’s insult as insult of whole Patel community. Rising action of the Novel:- From here the story proceeds through many twists and turns of plot to its inevitable end, acquiring in the process an entire cavalcade of characters that play their various parts in the revenge drama. Some use the opportunity to serve their own interests. The community as a whole gets drawn into a situation they would rather not be part of. Ranchhod Dehlawala of Teeha’s village is the key manipulator in the drama. A shrewd Congressman, later to become a Minister, he has enough powers to influence the course of events.
On the other side of the line from him stand Bhavaankaka and Master. Bhavaankaka is very wise and clever elder of the village. The whole village respects him a lot because he is very knowledgeable and worldly wise man. The spiritual Bhavaankaka tries to weigh the scales on Teeha’s side, but fails. The Master is another wise person of the village; he has the knowledge of lows and orders. Master attempts to raise the consciousness of the Dalits so they may unite and fight the common enemy. He too fails. Dehlawala’s strength lies precisely in the Dalits’ disunity and lack of self-awareness.
As he says to his nephew, “The day they achieve self-recognition, the sun will set on us. ” Whatever the odds and however hard the struggle, Teeha knows the vital importance of fighting on. When Methi’s brother Moti remarks, “One can’t live in water and risk enmity with the crocodile”, Teeha snaps back, “To hell with water and crocodiles…. People like us either become extinct or we suck up all their water itself…. The British sun is still warm. Once Independence arrives, our days will be numbered. ” * Dialogue as texture:-
It is observations like these that give muscle to Teeha’s character. In fact, Macwan uses dialogue with tremendous verve to reveal character. The abundance of dialogue in the novel, peppered as in the above case with proverbs and sayings, serves to lend texture to the translation too, though English cannot reproduce the dialectal registers of the original. Rita Kothari explains in her insightful introduction that Macwan’s use of the local dialect of Charotar, was a significant departure from the Sanskritised language that marked serious Gujarati literature.
While Macwan clears an independent linguistic space for his characters, he locates his female characters in the psycho-emotional spaces traditionally assigned to women in mainstream novels. Teeha and Valji are opposites in many ways. Teeha has a wider perspective on life than Valji. He is the leader, Valji is the led. But the women, Kanku and Methi, are like twins — both beautiful and both pure. Kanku marries Dana after Valji’s death, but only to stop people from ascribing an impure significance to their relationship. Marriage, ironically, gives them the freedom not to be husband and wife.
Methi is on the point of committing suicide after leaving her alcoholic wife-beating husband. Teeha sees her in time to save her. From then on, she lives in his house, but separately, caring for him as a wife, but without actually being his wife, because she is still married to the other man. Teeha in turn cares for her and her son Goka as his own without ever overstepping the limits of their relationship into anything remotely sexual. In time he too is persuaded to marry to prevent tongues from wagging about him and Methi. * Climax of the Novel:-
The latter part of the novel revolves around these emotional and moral dilemmas. Ultimately, Teeha dies at the hands of Dehlawala’s men. But the novel ends on a defiant note. There are surprises: the wronged Vankars see the British in India as an impartial authority free from casteism and corruption and, despite the presence of Gandhians among the Vankar elders, a Congress-led independent India is feared for the coming “ram rajya” which would mean elevation of the higher castes to national office and further repression of the Vankars, and for the loss of livelihoods through the resulting industrialization.
In the story, Valji and Teeha are killed, mourned by Methi, who has stayed devoted to Teeha even after his marriage to someone else, and Kanku, Valji’s wife, who then remarries in defiance of upper class norms. Goka carries on Teeha’s work. As Teeha’s stepson, he is an angaliyat; and yet he is a truer son than the two born of Teeha’s flesh and blood. They abandon Teeha’s home and loom while he stays back to honor him. When Dehlawala inaugurates the first school in Ratnapaar village, and declares that whoever pays a donation of over Rs. ,000 to the school, will have his name inscribed on the marble plaque. Goka steps forward to donate Rs. 7000, “In the name of Teehabhai Gopalbhai Parmar. ” Joseph Macwan ends the novel with many questions hanging on the mind of the readers. The climax of the novel is very impressive and appropriate. The novel ends with the tragic death of Tiha Parmar but though his stepchild Goka proud to his father’s courage and his guts to fight against the diplomatic games of Patels.
Goka proudly donates seventy thousand rupees by the name of Tiha for first school in Ratnapar in the climax of the novel. Truly the novel is the mirror of society during that time in Gujarat, not only Gujarat but it is the representative of the whole Dalit community in India.  Conclusion:- Published in 1987 as part of the wave of Dalit writing that burst forth after Gujarat’s reservation riots of 1981 and 85, The Stepchild is arguably the first Dalit novel to be written in any language. Maharashtra, where Dalit writing began, has produced fine poetry, autobiographies, short fiction and drama, but no novels.
Unfortunately, despite winning critical acclaim and a Sahitya Akademi award,Angaliyat remains untranslated in other Indian language. One hopes the present translation will open the door to others. According to the editor, the suffering and the experiences of the Vankars have not been accommodated within Gujarati mainstream literature which has been distinguished by a “privileging of the literary over the political and substantive. ” Macwan’s complex novel with its many forms of storytelling is “a tale of a culture that is extinct and pushed into oblivion. It is not written to re-establish “its prestige but to acknowledge and sing of its strength and character. ”  Bibliography:- (1) Macwan, Joseph, ‘Angaliyat’ (original Gujarati version) Published by: – Bhagatbhai Bhuralal Sheth R. R. Sheth & Company Mumbai, 2003 (2) Macwan, Joseph, The Stepchild:Angaliyat (English version) Translated by: – Kothari Rita Oxford University Press New Delhi, India, 2012 (3) Dalit literature: The Voice of the downtrodden by Razi Abedi from The Best of Gowanus New Writing from Africa, Asia and the Caribbean Published by: – Thomas J Hubschman
Gowanus Books, Broolyn, 2001 (4) Prasad, Amarnath, Dalit literature a critical exploration Published by:-Sarup and Sons, New Delhi, 2007 (5) Thorat, Sukhadeo, Dalits in India: Search for a Common Destiny Published by: – Sage Publications Private Limited, New Delhi, 2009  Webography:- (1) http://www. google. co. in/ (2) http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Dalit (3) http://razarumi. com/2008/05/09/voices-of-the-oppressed-dalit-literature/ (4) http://www. hindu. com/thehindu/thscrip/print. pl? file=2004100300310500. htm&date=2004/10/03/&prd=lr& (5) http://www. gowanusbooks. com/dalit. htm
Cite this Stepchild – As a First Gujarati Dalit Novel
Stepchild – As a First Gujarati Dalit Novel. (2016, Sep 18). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/the-stepchild/