The Toulmin argument created by the British philosopher Stephen Toulmin, is a method that involves three parts: reasoning, grounds (or data), and a warrant of an argument. These three points are essential building blocks to support a good argument. According to the text on page 130, the Toulmin method is a powerful tool that helps determine various arguments. Not only is it useful for understanding the aspects of the world, but it also can help verify claims that are either debatable or controversial. The text on page 131 shows us an assortment of relevant claims usually involving personal experiences. One example stated that veganism is the most responsible choice of diet. This claim creates an outburst effect that most likely turns into a debatable argument. Another interesting example talked about Congress enacting legislation to help illegal immigrants receive their citizenship. Since immigration is a sensitive and popular topic in today’s society, it can perhaps become a mix between a debatable and controversial argument.
Another way of shaping arguments is combining claims with reasoning. This ends up creating enthymemes. On page 132, for example, one individual stated that the government should lower the driving age due to having a pleasant experience of driving perfectly at the age of fourteen until today. Although this claim might sound biased, it shows us that backing up claims with reasoning can be quite convincing. This helps emphasize on the important parts of an argument. The last major part of the Toulmin method is determining warrants. A warrant of an argument is crucial because it gives a person the authority to proceed with their case. On page 134, the example shown warns people to not eat mushrooms. The reason behind it was that they are potentially poisonous. This led to the conclusion (warrant) stating that eating poisonous things in general are dangerous.
Unlike the Toulmin argument, the Rogerian argument focuses on finding a common ground between different viewpoints and providing a compromise as a conclusion. The secret to this method is having the will to consider your opponent’s position and describe them in a positive-like manner. This method drifts away from the path of negativity and encourages the two sides to approach the path of positivity. Rogerian arguments also steer off from stereotypical linguistics, highlighting that all the parties are able to reach a fair negotiation by working together. Not only can this approach be influential, but it can also be the key to your advantage for winning the case. Persuading your opponents to understand your perspective can possibly inspire them to come with you instead of rooting against you. A perfect example of the Rogerian method is displayed on page 128. In this example, Frederick Douglass gives a speech about liberty and justice. The purpose of this speech was to inform the American people about his personal experiences as a slave who was stripped away from his personal freedom and independence. Although his speech is somewhat argumentative, it does deliver the message to people in a patriotic way, emphasizing on reality and how slavery dehumanized thousands of innocent people. This approach encourages people to fight for their freedom and rights.
For the Toulmin method, I would use it while reporting a public crisis that heavily broadcasted across the nation. This type of crisis occurred to me personally back in 2012 that changed my life forever. I would report the following: Superstorm Sandy has created a detrimental effect to thousands of people from all over the globe. It is one of the deadliest and most destructive hurricanes to be ever witnessed. Pictures of houses and buildings that were completely deteriorated and demolished surfaced through the web, along with photos of huge piles of trash due to the overwhelming floods of waters. According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Sandy has triggered a reported $71 billion in damages, causing it to be the fourth-costliest US storm in history. We believe that the government should create more safety precautions when dealing with extreme natural disasters such as this. They should also build more protective barriers and shelters to reduce the amount of damage. This helps avoid spending billions of dollars needed to renovate residential homes along with years of public construction and development.
For the Rogerian method, I’d probably encourage others to stop smoking and ban all types of tobacco permanently. Smoking is not only dangerous to your health, but also emotionally, mentally, and physically harmful as well. Tobacco contains an addictive drug called nicotine that poisons all aspects of the human body, especially the lungs. If everyone stopped and reduced their bad habits of smoking, people would live longer and our planet would become healthier again. It is scientifically proven that people who don’t smoke are less likely to be diagnosed for various types of cancers and diseases. Non-smokers also function better on a daily basis and are more proactive. Furthermore, Smoking increases the risk of stroke and brain damage, along with affecting your personal hygiene. So next time when you stop and pick up a cigarette, think to yourself, “How is this benefiting me in any way? Is this really the path I want to go through? What will the outcome be?”