This short survey efforts to analyze the nature and range of the Tourism Industry of Sri Lanka and measure critically, the cardinal factors that may excite or discourage the growing of the Sri Lankan touristry sector.
Sri Lanka, officially known as Ceylon is situated in the Indian Ocean off the southern tip of India. It is an island state of 432 kilometers at its longest and 224 kilometer at its widest with a coastline of 1340 kilometer. Its topography is largely apparent all around the seashore and the land rises to 2524 meters at the highest point in the cardinal cragged country. Because of its propinquity to the equator, Sri Lanka enjoys warm temperatures all the twelvemonth unit of ammunition. Sri Lanka being an island and no portion of it is more than 72 kilometer from the sea ; the mean temperature is 30A°C in the coastal countries due to the chairing consequence of the sea zephyr and 28A°C in the cardinal Highlandss consistent with its altitudinal place.
Sri Lanka ‘s rainfall is influenced by the seasonal tropical monsoons from the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. During the south west monsoonal period of May to September, the south western portion of the state receives abundant rain whilst the north east monsoon brings rain to its north eastern parts during November to January.
The south West receives an mean one-year rainfall of about 2500 millimeter and the north E of about 1500mm. The moisture conditions was ideal for the growing of alcoholic evergreen tropical woods in the south West and the cardinal cragged part, where the flora tends to be of temperate nature for ground of the lift. These woods and jungles provide a home ground for many species of animate beings and birds.
The geographical place and characteristics of the island of Sri Lanka were the determiners of the potencies for the growing of touristry in this state as for any other state. Sri Lanka is endowed with warm sunlight about throughout the twelvemonth, 100s of kilometers of good beaches fringed with thenar trees all around the island, exuberant green woods with its home grounds, stat mis and stat mis of green tea and gum elastic plantations in the hills, its many mountains, woods, rivers and waterfalls of scenic beauty ; had all the natural resources to transform it into a tourer oasis.
Sri Lanka is an island non merely of many natural attractive forces but besides a land of people of diverse cultural and cultural backgrounds such as Sinhala, Tamils, Muslims, Malays, Chinese and posterities of former consecutive colonial powers. The presence of Buddhist, Hindu, Islamic and Christian faiths amongst this population “ supply a alone chance to witness a colorful array of civilizations, traditions and imposts celebrated round the twelvemonth ” .[ 1 ]The people of Sri Lanka are by and large friendly, and welcome any foreign visitant with a wide smiling, regard and heat.
Adding to this singular combination of Sun, sea, beaches, capturing landscapes and friendly people of varied civilizations to its tourer ‘s attractive forces are the many sites rich in archeological value and cultural heritage in the north cardinal portion of the Island. The ancient metropoliss of Sigiriya, Polonnaruwa and Anuradhapura, the Dambulla Cave Temple, the Sacred City of Kandy and the Ancient City and Fort of Galle have been inscribed by the UNESCO in its World ‘s Cultural Heritage List. The Central Highlands of Sri Lanka and the Singharaja Forest Reserves in the South West lowland are inscribed by the UNESCO in its World ‘s Natural Heritage List.
Traditionally, Sri Lankan economic system depended on agricultural exports such as tea, gum elastic, coconuts and other spices for its foreign exchange net incomes and the potency of touristry to its economic system was non realised until the mid 19 1960ss.
The Ceylon Tourist Board was established in 1966 and one-year statistics on the Island ‘s tourer industry are published by the Board since origin. In the twelvemonth 1966, the entire figure of tourer reachings was a mere 18,969. It will be seen from Table 1 below that tourer reachings increased manifold making a entire figure of 321,780 in the twelvemonth 1980. This upward tendency peaked at a entire tourer reaching of 407,230 in the twelvemonth 1982. The undermentioned twelvemonth 1983 saw a diminution in the figure of reachings to 337,530 and the downward tendency either continued or saw merely moderate additions in the old ages that followed. Tourist reachings even late as 2008 and 2009 remained sulky at 438,475 and 447,890 severally. The twelvemonth 2010 saw a sudden rush in the tourer Numberss and harmonizing to the statistics already released by the Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority, the figure of reachings in the first three months of 2011 reached 215,124. Sri Lanka Tourism expects 700,000 tourers in 2011 and this appears to be a realistic mark for ground that the Sri Lanka Tourism Promotion Bureau celebrated the reaching of the 250,000th tourer to see Sri Lanka this twelvemonth on the 21st of April 2011.
The slow growing of the touristry industry in the late 1960ss and 1970ss can be attributed to the restrictive patterns of the province such as foreign exchange controls and deficiency of inducements for foreign investing. Relaxation of these financial and investing policies by 1977 and institutional promotion advancing touristry in Sri Lanka in the states abroad led to a crisp addition in tourer reachings by 1980. The communal perturbations of July 1983 dealt a definite blow to the flow of tourer traffic as is apparent from a 17.2 % bead of tourer reachings from the old twelvemonth. In existent footings the bead amounted far higher as the lessening in Numberss relates merely to the 2nd half of the twelvemonth after the public violences in July 1983. Arrivals in the period 1986 to 1989 were appreciably below the 200,000 grade, nevertheless in the subsequent old ages tourist reachings showed a modest addition as the struggle zone was confined to the North and East of the state. The stoping of the war in May 2009 had a positive impact and in the twelvemonth 2010, tourer reachings increased by 54.7 % over the old twelvemonth.
Apart from the fluctuating tendency of tourer reachings, the statistics from the Tourism Development Authority reveal a seasonal form on their reachings. This form is largely dependent on the climatic seasons of the states of tourer market and their finish and evidently remains reasonably changeless. The tallness of the “ Tourist Season ” in Sri Lanka is from November to March. This is the winter season in the Northern hemisphere, where most of Sri Lankan tourer market lies and people populating in those parts want to get away the rough winter to the alien tropical states like Sri Lanka. The south west monsoonal season that brings heavy rains to the cardinal Highlandss and to the south West of Sri Lanka in May to September is good past to co-occur with the tourer season and this serves as an ideal tourer finish. July and August besides see an addition and this mid period is frequently referred to as the “ mini tourer season ” . Nevertheless, the sea, sand and beaches in the E seashore, and the ancient metropoliss in the north cardinal part enjoy warm and cheery conditions during the moisture season in the South West and hence, Sri Lanka is an ideal tourer finish all the twelvemonth unit of ammunition.
The chief markets for tourer traffic to Sri Lanka are the European states, closely followed by Asia. Together, they accounted for 82.7 % of the tourer reachings in Sri Lanka in the twelvemonth 2009[ 2 ]. India produced the largest individual tourer market followed by the United Kingdom. The Western European Markets were really much stronger than the East European opposite numbers and in Asia, Japan and China provided a just portion. The other subscribers to the market are Australasia 5.8 % , North America 5.6 % and Mid East 5.3 % . Sri Lanka is a inexpensive tourer finish for its weaker currency and for India ; the geographical propinquity may be an added ground for the big figure of tourer to see Sri Lanka.
The major factors for tourers choose Sri Lanka as their finish is its clime, natural scenery, beaches, cultural attractive forces and friendly people. The Research Division of the Sri Lankan Development Authority conducted a study of going foreign tourers at the Colombo Airport between September 2008 and February 2009, the findings of which were published on their web site.[ 3 ]About 81 % of the tourers stated that the chief intent of their visit was vacation. The first pick of the vacation shapers were sun and beach, 59 % and historic sites for 11 % . The most popular topographic points