Topic of study: A comprehensive study of Training & Development programs that has been carried out by Cadbury India Ltd. , Delhi.
Rational behind the study: Training plays a vital role in effective functioning of any company. The efficiency and productivity of worker working in an organization not only depends upon the skills they possesses or working environment, they are working in, but also depends upon the policy of the company of providing training to the employees according to the demand of the job.
There remains a gap between the demand of the job and skills of the worker. This gap can be patch up by delivering effective training and development programs. The workers get the better opportunity to improve themselves and as a result to enhancement of the productivity of the organization. So it is most important for every organization to provide such training to the employees for development of their skills as well as knowledge related to the job, that will fulfill his own requirement of learning and the requirement of the organization and achieve the organization goal too.
Objective of the study:
- The main objective is to study the training and development activities carried by the Cadbury India Ltd.
- To study the training procedures provided by the company.
- To evaluate the effectiveness of training programs.
Methodology of data collection:
- Going through the records: I would like to go through relevant files and the company has carried out documents from where can get an idea about the different types of training and development that.
- Preliminary discussion: In this regard at the outset, I would like to talk about the training and development in charge to enquire for the identify the needs of training and development programs at present scenario.
- Feedback from the employees through the interview and written questionnaire. For evaluation the effectiveness of training and development programs I would like to take feedback from employees that how much they get benefit from that programs. At last I would like to take suggestion for future improvement.
Successful candidates placed on the job need training to perform their duties effectively Workers must be trained to operate machines, reduce scrap and avoid accidents It is not only workers but executives and supervisors who need training as well in order to enable them to acquire maturity of thought and action Training and development constitute an ongoing process in any organization Training thus means to turn members into productive insiders It is the second step after recruitment, screening and selection
The legend called Cadbury 1824 – A once business was opened in 1824 by a young Quaker, John Cadbury, in Bull street Birmingham was to be the foundation of Cadbury Limited, now one of the world’s largest producer of chocolate. 831 – By this year the business had changed from a grocery shop and John Cadbury had become a manufacturer of drinking chocolate and cocoa. This was the start of Cadbury manufacturing business as it is known today.
A larger factory in Bridge Street Birmingham was rented in 1847, John Cadbury was joined by his brother Birmingham and the business became Cadbury Brother of Birmingham. 1861 – John Cadbury resigned his business and handed over to his sons, Richard, 25 and George, 21 who after 5 difficult years almost shut down the business to take up other vocation. Fortunately for generation of chocolate lovers, they didn’t. 1866 – Saw a turning point for the company with the introduction of a process for pressing the cocoa butter from the coca beans.
This not only enabled Cadbury Brothers to produce pure coca essence, but the plentiful supply of coca butter remaining was also used to make new kind of eating chocolate. The essence was advertised as ‘Absolutely pure, therefore best’. 1879 – Business prospered from this time and Cadbury Brother outgrew the Bridge Street factory, moving in 1879 to a ‘Greenfield’ site some miles from the center of Birmingham which came to call Bourneville. The opening of the Cadbury factory in a garden also heralded a new era in industrial relations and employee welfare with joint consultation being just one of the introduced by the pioneering Cadbury Brothers. 1899 – In this year the business private limited company – Cadbury Brothers Limited.
Progress since the start of the century through the inter – war years onward ahs been rapid. Chocolate has moved being a “luxury” item to well within the financial reach of everyone. 1905 – Cadbury has many famous brands with one of major success story being Cadbury’s Dairy Milk chocolate launched in 1905, today Britain’s favorite moduled chocolate bar. Cadbury today is the market leader in the U. K chocolate confectionary market, employing the most advanced processing technology and management information and control techniques. The company is the confectionary division of Cadbury Schweppes plc which is major force in the confectionary and soft drinks international market.
World – wide Cadbury is one of the pre – eminent names in confectionary with impressive range of famous brands. Quality has been the focus of the Cadbury business from the very beginning as generations have worked to produce chocolate with that very special taste, smoothness and snap, so characteristics of Cadbury’s chocolate.
Design Development Milk chocolate for eating was first made by Cadbury in 1897 by adding milk powder paste to the dark chocolate recipe of cocoa mass, cocoa butter and sugar. By today’s standards this chocolate was not particularly good as it was very coarse and dry and was not sweet or milky enough for public tastes. At that time there was a great deal of competition in the U. K from continental manufactures, not only the French with their fancy chocolates but also from the Swiss, who were renowned for their milk chocolate.
Led by George Cadbury junior, the Bourneville experts set out to meet the challenge. A considerable amount of time and money was spent on research and new plant design to produce the new chocolate in much large quantities. A new recipe was formulated fresh milk and new production processes were developed to produce milk – chocolate not as merely as good as but better than the imported milk chocolate. Four years of hard work were invested in the project and in 1905 what was to be Cadbury’s top selling brand was launched. Three names were considered Jersey Highland Milk and Dairy Maid.
Dairy Maid became Dairy Milk and Cadbury’s Dairy Milk with its unique flavor and smooth creamy texture was ready to challenge the Swiss domination of the milk chocolate market. By 1913 it had become the company’s best selling line and in the mid twenties Cadbury’s Dairy Milk gained its status as the brand leader, a position that it has held ever since.
Today more than 250 million bars of Cadbury’s Dairy Milk are made every year and sales reach over 100 million Pound in value. While advertising and label design g-have changed with fashion and considerable strides have been made in manufacturing technologies, the recipe for Cadbury’s Dairy Milk its ‘glass and a half of full cream milk in every half pound produced’ is still basically the same as when it was launched. Cadbury’s Dairy Milk Story Chocolate has been enjoyed by successive generation since the manufacturing process was developed in the Victorian Times.
Good chocolatiers is an art form depending on recipe traditions, which have grown over the years. Chocolatiers have use their skills to make balanced recipe in which all the ingredients combine to produced chocolate with all the characteristics that enable full delicious taste to be enjoyed by the consumers. By today’s standards the first chocolate for eating would have been considered quite unpalatable. It was the introduction of the Van Houten cocoa press from Holland that was the major break through in the chocolate production as it provided extra cocoa butter needed to make a smooth glossy chocolate.
Milk Tray has maintained its popularity in the changing world since the milk chocolate assortment made with the famous Cadbury’s Dairy Milk chocolate was first introduced in 1915. The name ‘tray’ derived from the way in which the original assortment was delivered to the shops. Originally Milk Tray was packed in five and as half pound boxes, arranged on trays from which it was sold loose o customers. The half pound deep – lidded box with the traditional purple background and gold script was introduced in 1916, followed by one pound box in 1924. With its stylish, without frills presentation Milk Tray was the assortment for everyday, not just special occasion and it represented the best buy in the chocolate for millions of people.
The pack design has been regularly updated and the assortment itself has changed in line with consumers taste and preferences. By the end mid – thirties the Cadbury’s Milk Tray assortment outsold all its competitions and today it is still one of the most popular boxes of chocolates in this country.
Cadbury Schweppes Cadbury Schweppes plc, a global beverage and confectionary giant with annual sale of Rs 20,ooo crores,is the worlds number one non – cola soft drink company having bottling and partnership operations in 14 countries and franchises of its brand in a further 86 countries around the world. Its Hundred Percent subsidiary in India named Cadbury Schweppes Beverage India (private) Limited (CSBIL) started operation in March 1995. The first brand was launched was crush which was later followed by Canada Dry, Schweppes Tonic Water, Schweppes Bitter Lemon.
TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT POLICY
Why training is important Every company should be fully committed to the continuous development of its staff, in the same ways as we continuously develop our services. This will be achieved by helping all staff identify and meet their own job and business related development needs. This includes seconded, fixed-term contract or short-term contract staff. Permanent employees can expect to benefit from further commitment for each individual to devote at least 5 days a year towards training and development. First priority will be towards job-related training, but we will also encourage individuals to undertake personal development training.
This may entail taking professional qualifications; undertaking research into a particular field of interest or experiencing a particular aspect of another job in order to gain an insight into the role and fuller understanding of the work. Training should not be viewed purely as “attending a training course”. There are a variety of different methods that can be used to help train and develop individuals and Personnel Services will be happy to help individuals and managers select the most appropriate method. For example, using open learning materials; computer-based packages; videos or CD-ROMs; e-learning; and reading literature, to name but a few. Shared responsibilities
It is recognizes the need for everyone to learn and develop their skills on a continuous basis and will support individuals to help them achieve this. Equally, the company expects individuals to take on some responsibility for their own self-development. For example, identifying suitable training activities (with the help of line managers and Personnel Services) and adopting a flexible and positive approach to any training and development that is identified with them. Identifying training & development needs Identifying training and development needs, and helping individuals to improve their performance, are key responsibilities for line managers, so they are expected to be actively involved in their team’s training and development.
Line managers are also responsible for measuring the effectiveness of any training and development undertaken by team members, with assistance from Personnel Services. The skills and knowledge that will be needed for the future success of the company will become apparent as each year’s business (corporate) plan is drafted and communicated to teams within the company and individual performance objectives agreed. Where individual skills, knowledge or the development of competencies are needed to achieve our business objectives, these should be recorded on the Development Needs Assessment plan, which forms part of our Performance Review process. Setting and evaluating learning objectives/outcomes
The company has a number of key business objectives that it needs to achieve. These objectives can be achieved only through harnessing the abilities and skills of everyone in the company and by releasing potential and maximizing opportunities for development. If individuals need to learn in order to achieve business objectives, it is important that any training and development in which we invest has a relationship to our business objectives, so we can demonstrate the contribution learning makes towards overall organizational success. To demonstrate this contribution, individuals will agree with their line managers, prior to undertaking a learning activity, “learning objectives”.
Learning objectives will be the means by which managers and company can measure how effective training and development has been towards achieving our business objectives or performance. Setting learning objectives will therefore provide a benefit for everyone: For individuals, objectives give a better understanding of what is expected of them; where priorities lie; where their contribution fits into the organization and how they are progressing. For managers, objectives provide a basis for allocating responsibility to individuals for achieving certain results; monitoring the achievement of results and providing solid evidence, which is less subjective, for assessing an individual’s performance. For the organization, objectives give a greater likelihood of strategic and corporate plans being achieved.
Once someone has experienced a training and development activity or learning, we will measure its impact and effectiveness on individual performance and the organization. Again, line managers are expected to be part of this process by defining the performance standards (or measures) when setting objectives and deciding on the methods that they will use to evaluate the learning. (Personnel Services will of course be available throughout the process to provide guidance and support). There are three key stages that will be used to evaluate training and development: Reaction: At this level, evaluation provides information on the attitudes of a participant to learning, but it does not measure how much they have actually learned.
That being said, if a participant has a positive reaction to the learning experience they are more likely to implement what they have learned. Evaluation at this level will be measured by a post-learning questionnaire, which will be completed immediately after the learning activity has taken place. Normally, Personnel Services will be responsible for issuing this type of questionnaire. Performance: Evaluation at this level looks at the impact of a learning experience on individual performance at work. Key to this area of evaluation will be the need to have established smart learning objectives prior to the learning experience so that when evaluation takes place there are measures to use.
For example, an important learning objective for a junior secretary attending a Word training course may be “to produce typed correspondence with no spelling or typographical errors. ” In this example, a manager would be able to evaluate the secretary’s performance using a measure of “no spelling or typographical errors”. Ideally, evaluation on performance should take place approximately 3 – 4 months after the learning activity. Line managers should undertake this evaluation and send a copy of the results to Personnel Services. Organizational impact: At this level evaluation assesses the impact of learning on organizational effectiveness, and whether or not it is cost-effective in organizational terms. Personnel Services will undertake this evaluation as part of a wider training and development evaluation process.
In summary then, Personnel Services will evaluate training and development at the reaction and organizational levels, and line managers will be responsible for evaluating the effectiveness of training and development at the performance level. However, there will be some types of learning activities, for example attending conferences or seminars, where it may not be appropriate to undertake any evaluation. If any doubt, please contact Personnel Services. To assist line managers, there are a variety of methods that can be used to measure the effectiveness of the learning.
Funding Funding for training and development will be paid from a central training budget, therefore the Head of Personnel Services must approve any training and development that involves a financial cost before any financial commitment is made. Details of how to apply for a training and development are explained under the section headed “Selecting a training provider and applying for training”.
In addition to job-related training and development, company also recognises the need to help individuals to improve within their chosen career path by encouraging individuals to gain professional/vocational/academic qualifications. With this in mind, company has established a company sponsorship scheme whereby full or partial sponsorship will be provided. Information about the scheme can be found under the section headed “Company sponsorship”. Time off to attend training courses Where an individual needs to attend a training course funded by company, time off during working hours will be given to attend the course. Individuals are expected to travel to and from a training venue within the normal course of the day.
Where company is providing sponsorship towards a professional qualification, time off to attend lectures/workshops/summer school will be agreed on an individual basis, taking account of the business needs. The Head of Personnel Services will approve any such requests, in full consultation with line managers. Non-training course learning activities Typically, a training course is designed to transfer new skills or knowledge to an individual. Invariably new skills and knowledge will be developed over time to improve performance. However, not all learning has to be addressed through a training course. There is a wide range of development methods available that can be used without leaving the office.
For example, being coached by a fellow colleague or manager; using a computer aided training package; on-the job training; reading books; undertaking research or practising a particular skill. Finding out about training courses or alternative learning methods Personnel Services is building up a range of literature from training suppliers and a selection of books/videos/computer discs available for individual use. To find out more, please contact Personnel Services. Selecting a training provider and applying for training Before booking a training event, individuals should research the costs and course availability with possible training providers.
Personnel Services will be happy to help as they keep details of various training providers, so please contact them for information/advice. Company organised training programmes, for example Customer Service Training, Team Building training, will be co-ordinated through Personnel Services (so individuals do not have to complete any forms).
All other training and development activities must be authorised by Personnel Services before any training is booked. Company sponsorship Company recognises the need for continuous professional development and are pleased to be able to offer a sponsorship scheme to all permanent and fixed-term employees (whose contracts are for at least one year).
The scheme covers professional, academic or NVQ (or equivalent) qualifications. The following guidelines are designed to give individuals an idea of the sort of funding that may be available and how individuals may apply.
TRAINING NEEDS IDENTIFICATION IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEEDS
Training is often included as an essential element of an organization’s strategy to gain a competitive advantage. Regulatory agencies require that employees be trained certain topics and personal development/career paths often specify skill and knowledge areas which must be mastered. These are the factors that influence an organization’s overall training program.
With all these sometimes-divergent factors competing for resources training systems can become stressed, ineffective, inefficient and fragmented. Organizations need a structure approach when developing/improving their training system. For purposes of this discussion we will divide the training process into three phases:
- needs identification
- Training Systems (courses, modules, training aids, presentation, instructors, records)
PHASE ONE: Needs Identification The first phase is the identification and analysis of an organization’s training needs. As a minimum, the organization should be able to accomplish the following four things:
- Systematic review of each trade, occupation or process by a team of knowledgeable individuals
- Conduct verbal and/or written surveys of managers, supervisors, leaders, technicians and workers
- Conduct a complete review of legislated training requirements
- Review the results of Hazard Analyses, Occupational Health surveys and other survey or process analyses.
Identification of training needs (ITN) Identification of training needs (ITN), if done properly, provides the basis on which all other training activities can be considered. Also requiring careful thought and analysis, it is a process that needs to be carried out with sensitivity: people’s learning important to them, and the success or the organization may by to stake.
It is important to know exactly what you are doing, and why, when undertaking ITN. This is the reason we have included material to help you make considered decision and take thoughtful action. You will find, however, that the return on the investment you make in fully understanding what ITN is all about will make it well worth while.
STUDY OF NEEDS OF TRAINING
In Cadbury India Ltd. , Delhi across training is customized product wise. If any defect comes in a product or process, a training session is initiated to eradicate root cause. There are normally two work stations in production, 1. Critical station 2. Normal station At critical work station an efficient worker should produce 5000 to 6000 units in one shift.
At this work station minor job is done. At normal work station an efficient worker should be produce 8000 to 10000 units in one shift in normal circumstances. In this company there are two types of worker are working.
- Permanent worker
- Temporary worker
A worker get the permanent job after the good and consistent performance in the company, these people are well experienced in their relative jobs. Temporary worker is a layman. They don’t know any thing about the work, so these types of people require training. When a new person joins the company, he got the training about the safety and maintenance. For getting these training he is send in technical training cell (TTC).
In TTC he has to go some basic knowledge and instruction, which is given by the just senior boss. That person is called line in charge. During the training a person gets the job. He is watched by the line in charge. At any point the line in charged found any fault in the work, the line in charge instructed at that time, so that the worker does the job in a proper way and come out with zero-defect product. A line-in charge is there, who will watch each and every steps during the work.
If any fault in the work is found, he takes that serious and instructs to remove the fault immediately. After some experience the worker is transferred from one operation to another operation area. Where same procedure is performed. He works and if get any confusion regarding the job, he may ask the line in charge or if line in charge see any fault during the operation, he educates the worker to do the job better. This process is repeated on each and every operation. This is how each and every employee is familiarized to the job . The main advantage of this job rotation is, if any worker does not come on the particular day, that place can be filled by any other worker and the works progress without any interruption.
If a person can handle all the machines related to any particular job. That worker is called highly efficient worker. After getting training 40% out of them became as highly efficient worker. These workers are very efficient and can handle any situation during the work. He can work on any machine at any time without any problem. These people can take decision at the critical point of time. So that these type of worker are called highly efficient worker. After highly efficient the second category is called ‘efficient’.
In this category those type of person are master in their job. He is master in one job. In this category 50% worker comes. These types of people are well known people in their particular job. They are not able to handle the different machines. They feel problem in some job. After that the third category comes, that is called adequate. This type is not beneficial for the company. So that they are not acceptable. They have less knowledge and not will to work. Highly efficient person is well-known about their job. He can handle any situation. So that this type of people doesn’t require training. Efficient people are master of just on job. So that they need training to be highly efficient worker.
Company is giving training to the efficient worker. For them there are three types of training;
- Give the opportunity to work with highly efficient worker.
- Give the expert knowledge about the work.
In counseling the instructor or line in charge counsel the worker. A line in charge tries to motivate the worker to do their job in proper way. This is a verbal communication. With the help of words a senior person tries to make them as effective as highly efficient worker. The second option “provide them opportunity to work with highly efficient people” helps those people to learn. During the work he can watch how the highly efficient people work? How can they handle the situation?
They got the idea about the problem, which may be arising during the work. They also get the idea about dealing those types of problems. This way an efficient worker is developed to be highly efficient worker. Before start working every worker should get the knowledge about the job profile. Without proper knowledge no one can perform better. There must be some defective in the product due to less knowledge about the production process. So specific knowledge is essential for zero-defect product. This is the duty of management to educate them and provide full knowledge about the production process and quality control. For adequate people company has some other way for giving them training.
The work pressure is the best way for make them work. Under this the adequate person is send to work between two highly efficient workers. Highly efficient people can work faster than adequate person. So from both sides he faces the pressure for work faster and effectively. This way an adequate worker can be the efficient and highly efficient worker for company. In any company some factor effect the training:
- Strategies changes
- Technical changes
- Matter of cost saving
If the top management of the company want to change their strategies. Here company wants trained people for work. So firstly company looked for the experienced people, but it is very difficult to get trained people.
So they hired semi- skilled people and after joining them they give them training. So that this can work effectively and according to the requirement of the company. If company wants some technical change in product, they also require trained people for work. Technical change requires more technical people. If company wants to retain the same people who are working form last some times then company has to give them training. After getting training a worker can adjust in any environment and work effectively. Today’s era is the cost cutting era. In the intensive competition cost of the product is very important. We can’t survive in the market with high cost. So we need to cut the cost of the product.
For cutting the cost we need more trained worker who can work faster and quickly. So that the production time can be reduced. At lastly we can get the low price product. So that in every area we need trained people. For getting trained people we have to make them trained by giving training.
METHODOLOGY OF TRAINING
The content of the induction program should be predetermined in the form of a checklist specifying the topics to be covered. Attempts are to be made to follow-up and assess the program by interviewing the new employees as a measure to correct the gaps in the knowledge and attitude of the employees.
Rank-and-File job training: This is based on similarities in training on several specific jobs. This type of training can be imparted in a classroom or on the job. It is performed by a foreman or a group leader. Its advantages arise in so far as it is realistic and economical and does not hamper production as well as necessitate from classroom to job situations.
Limitations of rank-and-file job training:
- The trainer may be an incompetent teacher
- The shop floor may be busy
- There may arise heavy production losses.
Supervisory training: Supervisory training needs reveal utmost divergence in view of divergent duties of supervisors. Employee attitude surveys help in identifying area of supervisory training. Likewise, supervisors themselves may be requested to indicate the areas where they need training. Frequently, these surveys indicate that supervisors need training in human relations, production control, company policies and how to instruct. Supervisory courses consist of job methods training (JMT) and job relations training (JRT). The JMT helps the supervisors to improve methods in their departments, while the JRT helps them in handling human relations problems in their departments.
ON THE JOB TRAINING
On the fob techniques are conducted in the real job settings. On the job methods usually involve training in the total job. These methods are typically conducted by individuals, workers, supervisors. The main advantage is that the trainees learn while actually performing their work, which may minimize the training cost. They also learn in the same physical and social environment in which they will be working once the formal training period is completed. Types of on the job techniques:
- Job instruction training
- Job rotation
Vestibule training Job instruction training: Job instruction training (JIT) is received directly on the job and so it is called “on the job training” it is used primarily to teach workers how to do their current jobs. The worker learns to master the operation involved on the actual job situation under the supervision of his immediate boss who has to carry the primary burden of conducting the training. Usually no special equipment or space is needed, since now employees are trained at the actual job location.
Some trainers move a trainee from job to job. Each worker move normally is preceded by job instruction training. This is a method of training wherein workers rotate through a variety of jobs. Thereby providing them a wide exposure. Trainees are placed in different jobs in different parts of the organization for a specified period of time. They may spend several days or even years in different company locations. In this way they get an overall perspective of the organization. It is used with both blue-collar production workers and white collar managers and it has many organizational benefits. Job rotation creates flexibility, during manpower shortages, workers have the skills to step in and fill open slots.
The method also provides new and different work on a systematic basis, giving employees a variety of experiences and challenges. Employees also increase their flexibility and marketability because they can perform a wide array of tasks. Limitation of job rotation: The major drawback of this, it is time consuming and expensive too. Apprenticeship: An apprentice is a worker who is learning a trade but who has not reached the state where he is competent to work without supervision. It is particularly common in the skilled trades. In organization a new worker is “tutored” by an established worker for a long period of time. An apprenticeship lasts from two to five years.
Each apprentice is usually given a workbook consisting of reading materials, tests to be taken and practice problem to be solved. This training is used in such trades, crafts and technical fields in which proficiency can be acquired after a relatively long period of time in direct association with the work and under the direct supervision of experts. Training is intense, lengthy and usually on a one to one basis. Increasing national attention is being paid to workforce preparation in the United States. This stems from the growing realization that America’s ability to occupy a leading competitive position in the emerging global economy hinges, to a large degree, on assuring that the nation’s workforce is second to none. Today, unfortunately, this is not the case.
Employers frequently report that significant numbers of young people and adults alike exhibit serious educational deficiencies and are ill-equipped to perform effectively in the workplace. As a consequence, leaders from industry, labor, education, and government are all grappling with how to design educational reforms and education/training strategies that will improve the skills of America’s current and future workforce. In the spirit of this reform, one particular training strategy — apprenticeship — has captured the interest of many policy makers, educators, and others who are involved in the national reform movement. Its growing appeal comes as no surprise and, perhaps, is long overdue.
Experience both in the U. S. and growing abroad has repeatedly demonstrated that apprenticeship is a highly effective strategy for preparing people for work. The bulk of apprenticeship programs offered in the U. S. and its territories are in the building trades and manufacturing industries, but there is significant potential to develop apprenticeship programs in a variety of other industries. The rush to embrace apprenticeship, however, is leading to efforts that could undermine the very pillars of its value. For example, in some instances, apprenticeship is being viewed as a generic concept — one that can be loosely applied to a variety of learning situations.
Likewise, others have coined such terms as “youth apprenticeship” to characterize various school-to-work transition programs. Such thinking, while understandable in an environment that begs for creativity and innovation, may be more harmful than helpful to the cause. What Apprenticeship Is: The Essential Components
- Apprenticeship is a training strategy that combines supervised, structured on-the-job training with related theoretical instruction and is sponsored by employers or labor. Management groups that have the ability to hire and train in a work environment.
- Apprenticeship is a training strategy that prepares people for skilled employment by conducting a training in a bona fide and documented employment settings. The content of training, both on-the-job and related instruction, is defined and dictated by the needs of the industry, which refers to all types of business/workplace settings. The length of training is determined by the needs of the specific occupation within an industry. In the building trades, for example, some apprenticeship programs are as long as five years with up to 240 hours of related instruction per year.
- Apprenticeship is a training strategy with requirements that are clearly delineated in Federal and State laws and regulations. The National Apprenticeship Act of 1937 (also known as the Fitzgerald Act) and numerous State laws provide the basis for the operation of formal apprenticeship training programs in the U. S. ; regulations that implement these laws are in force today. These laws and regulations establish minimum requirements for protecting the welfare of the apprentice such as the length of training, the type and amount of related instruction, supervision of the apprentice, appropriate ratios of apprentices to journeypersons, apprentice selection and recruitment procedures, wage progression, safety, etc.
- Apprenticeship is a training strategy that by virtue of a legal contract (indenture) leads to a Certificate of Completion and official journeyperson status. These credentials have explicit meaning, recognition and respect in the eyes of Federal and State governments and relevant industries.
- Apprenticeship is a training strategy that involves tangible and generally sizable investment on the part of the employer or labor/management program sponsor.
- Apprenticeship is a training strategy that pays wages to its participants at least during the on-the-job training phase of their apprenticeship and that increases these wages throughout the training program in accordance with a predefined wage progression scale.
- Apprenticeship is a training strategy that involves a written agreement and an implicit social obligation between the program sponsor and the apprentice. The written agreement, which is signed by both the apprentice and the program sponsor and is ratified by government, details the roles and responsibilities of each party.
The implicit social obligation gives employers or program sponsors the right to xpect to employ the apprentice upon completion of training given the investment in training and gives the apprentice a reasonable right to expect such employment. Labor market conditions should guide the size of training programs to enable each party to maintain his or her side of the obligation.
Is Not Unless they conform to the essential components described previously, apprenticeship is no cooperative education, vocational education, tech prep, two plus two (three or four), summer or part-time work experiences or any other myriad training strategies that many are promoting as ways to assure adequate workforce preparation. Such strategies undoubtedly have value in their own right, but they are not apprenticeship.
What distinguishes apprenticeship from most of these other approaches are such fundamental qualities as training program sponsorship and location, the skills required, the value attached to the credential earned, curricula content that is defined exclusively by the workplace, wage requirements, the written agreement, and the implicit social contract that exists between program sponsors and their participants. No other training strategy provides for this unique combination of characteristics. When a person completes a registered apprenticeship program, he or she is prepared to go to work as a fully trained, competent journeyperson whose skills enable him or her to perform effectively in the workplace. Few, if any, other types of educational programs can make this claim.
As the education and training system in this country undergoes its restructuring, how apprenticeship fits in must be considered. Some may argue that the definition of apprenticeship should be boarded to encompass some or all of the previously described alternative training strategies. Unfortunately, this could have the practical effect of seriously undermining a tried and true training strategy — on that, ironically, exhibits all ten qualities that reformers are striving to achieve in new training designs.
Of particular concern is the possibility that an expanded definition could significantly dilute the value and meaning attached to the apprenticeship credential. Today, an apprentice who earns a Certificate of Completion and ttains journey worker status from a registered apprenticeship program knows that he or she has acquired industry-defined skills at industry-accepted standards of performance and can reasonably expect to be gainfully employed in his or her occupational area.
If alternative training strategies (ones that do not fully conform to the essential components) are also permitted to call themselves “apprenticeship,” the apprenticeship credential stands to become devalued. Such a step makes little sense at a time when other credentials — such as high school diplomas — have lost much of their meaning. Thus, we conclude that their term “apprenticeship” should be reserved only for those programs that adhere to the eight essential components described previously. Other strategies may seek to adopt designs that conform to all the essential components, in which case they may be called apprenticeship.
But to call any other types of programs “apprenticeship” is to do a major disservice to the participants in such programs. Whether intentional or not, the participants may be misled into thinking that completion of these programs will allow them to reap the benefits accorded to graduates of true apprenticeship programs. Clearly, we are on the verge of a major revolution with respect to how America prepares its workforce. As a new national training system emerges in the coming years, considerable thought should be given to the role of true apprenticeship in that new system. One on hand, apprenticeship could be the locomotive that drives this training system.
Under this scenario, apprenticeship programs would serve as the principal form of training for preparing the majority of the nation’s workforce. Alternatively, apprenticeship may become one of several cars on a train that provides a variety of training options to existing and future workers. This choice requires further study and broader deliberation, but, whatever the outcome, the integrity of the term “apprenticeship” should not be jeopardized or compromised.
Coaching: At management levels Coaching of immediate subordinates by their managers is common. A coach attempts to provide a model for the trainee to copy it tends to be less formal than an apprenticeship program. Coaching is almost always andled by the supervisor or manager. It is likely not to be as directive approaches such as nondirective counseling or sensitivity training. If the trainee’s shortcomings are emotional or personal.
Coaching will be ineffective if relations between trainee and coach are ambiguous in that the trainee cannot trust the coach. Coaching thrives in a “climate of confidence”, a climate in which subordinates respect the integrity and capability of their superiors. Vestibule training: Vestibule training is a type of instruction often found in production work. A vestibule consists of training equipment that is set up a short distance from the actual production line.
Trainees can practice in the vestibule without getting in the way or slowing down the production line. These special training areas are usually used for skilled and semiskilled jobs, particularly those involving technical equipment. Vestibule is small, so relatively few people can be trained at the same time. The method is good for promoting practice a learning principle involving the repetition of behavior.
OFF-THE JOB TRAINING
Off the job method are those training and development programs that take place away from the daily pressures of the job and conducted by highly competent outside resource people who often serve as trainers, which is one of the main advantages of this method.
The major drawback of this is the transfer problem. Types of off the job training: Lectures consist of meeting in which one small number of those present actually plays an active part. The lecture method is a popular form of instruction in educational institution. The lecturer may be a member of the company or a guest speaker. Before preparing the lecture some points should be considered.
- Who is your audience?
- What is your audience?
- What is the time available?
- What is the subject mater?
The lecture should be brief and to the point, presenting the theme of the subject in a manner that arouses the interest of the audience from the start. The speaker should be poised, courteous and sincere.
The action should be spontaneous. The role of a lecturer is make difficult things simple, not the reverse. Limitation of the lecture method: It gives very little opportunity for active practice, development, over learning, knowledge or results or transfer of learning. In this method trainee himself or herself have to understand and personalize the content of the lecture. It is not suitable for courses where people with work experience are participating. This method involves one-way communication, which is not interaction of the audience. This method can’t readily adopt itself to individual differences, which may arise farthest from reality. Audio-visual techniques:
Audio-visual techniques covers an array of tainting techniques, such as films, slides and videotapes. It allows seeing while listening and is usually quite good at capturing their interests. These methods allow a trainer’s message to be uniformly given to numerous organizational locations at one time and to be reused as often a required.
Conference or discussion method: This method encourages the participation of all members of the group in an exchange of opinions, ideas and criticisms. It is a small group discussion in which the leader plays a neutral role providing guidance and feedback.
Inspite of the intention to encourage general participation the conferences are frequently dominated by a few, with the majority no more active than they would be at a lecture. It is more effective than the lecture in changing adult behavior and also modifying attitudes. The conference method can draw on the learning principles of motivation and feedback. It is used to enhance knowledge or attitudinal development. Main objectives of conference method:
- Developing the decision making and problem solving skills of personnel
- Changing or modifying attitudes
- Presenting new and sometimes complicated material Role playing Active participation rather than passive reception facilitate learnings.
Role-playing believes in active participation. This is a training method often aimed at enhancing either human relations skills or sales techniques. Role-playing can be defined as an educational or therapeutic technique in which some problems involving human interaction, real or imaginary is presented and then spontaneously acted out. Participants suggest how the problem should be handled more effectively in the future. This “acting out” is followed by discussion and analysis to determine what happened and why and, if necessary, how the problem could be better handled in future. Role-playing is less tightly structured than acting, where performers have to say set lines on sue.
Participants are assigned roles in the scenario to be enacted, so , in this way, it is a device that forces trainees to assume different identities. Usually participants exaggerate each other’s behavior. Ideally, they get to see themselves as others see them.
Role playing has been shown to be effective
- in studying small group leadership skills,
- increasing sensitivity to the motivation of others,
- improving interviewing skills,
- enhancing ability to develop innovative solutions to human relation problems,
- modifying attitudes.
Case Study By studying a case situation, trainees learn about real of hypothetical circumstances and the actions others take under those circumstances.
Beside learning from the content of the case, a person can develop decision making skills. Case method is an excellent medium for developing analytical skills. Cases are usually organized around one or more problems or issues that are confronted by an organization. Cases can range from one page to over fifty pages. Feedback and repetition, are usually lacking.
One inherent difficulty is personal bias. This method calls for skills with language. But many people are sent to case study courses primarily because they lack communication skills. When cases are meaningful an similar to work related situations, there is some transference. There also is the advantage of participation through discussion of the case.
It improves participants’ skills in problem analysis, communication and particularly brings home to the participant that nothing is absolutely “right or wrong” in the field of human behavior. Survey results indicate that the case method is considered by training directors to be the best methods of developing problem solving skills. Simulation Simulation is an approach that replicates certain essential characteristics of the real world organization so that the trainees can react to it as if it were the real thing and then consequently transfer what has been learned to their job. Simulation training is based on a reproduction of some aspect of job reality.
Simulation usually enhance cognitive skills, particularly decision making. A very popular training technique for higher level hobs in which the employee must process large amounts of information. Simulations have many forms- some use expensive, technical equipment, while others are far less costly. Some simulations need only one participant, others may involve as many as 15-20 people working together as a team. Simulations are a broad based training techniques that can be adapted to suit a company’s need. By using the equipment simulators, workers can practice new behaviors and operate certain complex equipment’s free of danger to themselves.
Equipment simulators can range from simple mock-ups to computer based simulations of complete environments. Some of them are utilized to train a single individual and the others are used for team training. Programmed instruction is a training approach which makes the advantages of private tutoring available to large groups of students beings trained in new skills. Programmed instruction is one of the innovations in teaching technology developed in recent years. The methods involves an actual piece of equipment, usually called Teaching machine, of a specially constructed paper booklet.
The participants are active in the training process. In fact they determine their own learning pace. What is to be learned involves many discrete pieces of material, and the participants get immediate feedback on whether they have learned each piece. The major advantage of programmed instruction is that is reduces the training time.
The learning takes place at the students own pace. Participants get immediate feedback. The participants are active learners, there is constant exchange of information between themselves and the programme. Fast learners do not have to wait for slow ones to catch up. Administrative simplicity and increased productivity in training result in lower training cost per student. The biggest disadvantage of this method is the absence of a teacher. The book becomes the teacher. Hence it is absolutely essential that the trainee is highly motivated to continue learning.
The material has to be broken down into a logical sequence, since there may be several correct ways to perform the task. This methods does not appear to improve training performance in terms of immediate learning of retention over a time compares with conventional methods. Computer Assisted instruction It is one of the newest developments in instructional methodology. It is a logical extension of programmed instruction and shares many of its benefits. C. A. I. Has the advantage of individual pace instruction and a considerably wider range of application. It requires less time to teach the same amount of information than any conventional method.
Trainees also react favorably to this method. The computer is capable of assessing the progress of the trainee and can also adapt to his/her need by virtue of its storage and memory capacities. This method offers advantages of standard presentation of materials to all trainees standard, structured practices, and instant, specific feed back. The major drawback to C. A. I. For most organizations probably is the initial expense. Syndicate Method Working in small group to achieve a particular purpose is described as a syndicate method. The essence of this method is that participants learn from each other and contribute their own experience to the fullest.
The syndicate method is designed to provide the participant an environment that would help him to reflect critically on his own work and experience; to update his knowledge of new concepts and techniques with the help of other co-participants; to develop sound judgement through greater insight into human behavior. This method is suitable for training and development students, without any experience. The participants are divided into groups consisting of about eight to ten participants. These groups are called “syndicates”. Each syndicate functions as a team that can represent various functional as well as interest areas. The syndicates are given assignments which have to be finished and a report submitted by a specified date and time.
By rotation each member of the syndicate becomes the leader for completing a specific task. Each assignment to a syndicate is given in the form of a “Brief”. This is a carefully prepared document by the faculty. Generally, each syndicate is required to submit a report which is circulated to other syndicates for critical evaluation. The advantages of this method is that it secures a very high level of involvement from the participants. Their own experience is the starting point in this method. It is a process of self business and development for participants. This method also gives the participant a practice in communicating with his colleagues and understanding them.
If the syndicate is not structured properly, it should lead to a lot of wastage of time and cause frustration. In the absence of proper pressure on the participants by trainers or participants themselves, some participants might start dragging their feet. Differences of opinion or viewpoint may be ignored to avoid action. Behavior Modeling According to social learning theory, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling. When social learning theory is applied in industrial training programmes, it is commonly referred to as “behavior modeling”. Used behavior modelling to improve the interpersonal and communication skills of supervisors in dealing with their employees.
The topic was first introduction by the trainers after which a film was shown to the trainees which depicted a supervisor model effectively handing a situation, followed by a set of three to six learning parts that were shown in the film immediately before and after the model was presented. A group discussion is them held in which the effectiveness of the method is discussed. After this, the practice session starts in which one of the trainee assumes the role of an employee. And then, feedback from the training class is given on the effectiveness of each trainee in demonstrating the desired behavior. At the end of each training session, the trainees are given copies of the learning points and are asked to try and apply them to their jobs during the following week.
It has been found that this programme has had desirable effects on learning, behavior and performance criteria. There creation of the behavior may be videotaped so that the trainer and the trainee can review and critique it. When watching the ideal behavior, the trainee also gets to see the negative consequences that befall someone who does not use it as recommended. By observing the positive and negative consequences, the employee receives vicarious reinforcement that encourages the correct behavior. 12. Fish Bowl Exercise it is essentially used in providing skills in understanding human behavior. It effectively uses group interaction to develop in the participants a degree of self awareness.
The primary objectives of the method is to inculcate in the participants the discipline of observing others and on the basis of this, provide objective and constructive feedback and to learn about oneself, ones behavior and personality as seen through the eyes of others and consequently to overcome weaknesses and improve upon strengths. The aspects to which the fish bowl exercise can be put to effective use are; individual and group behaviour , content of communication, roles individuals paly in groups, intergroup conflicts, level of participation, dynamics of group problem solving and decision making and, inter personal relations.
The exercise can involve up to 25 participants seated in two concentric circles( one inner, the outer). he inner circle is the target group, members of this group will either discuss a preselected topic or move towards completion of a group task. After the discussion by the members of the inner group, the outer group is asked to comment on the content and more importantly the dynamics and group process of the inner group members Participants must learn to provide feedback with clarity and precision.
Feedback must never be critical or it loses its constructive nature. After one cycle of the exercise is completed the outer group will change palces with the inner group and become the target group , inner group member become observers and the exercise is repeated. There are several non-group methods involving an assessment of each individual’s strengths and weaknesses.