Vertebrate Developmental Biology 1st Problem Set 1. A woman has had several bouts of pelvic inflammatory disease and now wants to have children. However, she has been having difficulty becoming pregnant. What is likely to be the problem, and what would you suggest? Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the pelvic organs: the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and their supporting structures usually caused by bacteria. The more times you have pelvic inflammatory disease, the more likely it is that you won’t be able to get pregnant.
When you have pelvic inflammatory disease, bacteria infect the tubes or cause inflammation of the tubes. This turns normal tissue into scar tissue. Scar tissue can block your tubes and make it harder to get pregnant. Even having just a little scar tissue can keep you from getting pregnant without infertility treatment. Commonly the Sexual Transmitted Disease like gonorrhea, chlamydial and also the Intra Uterine Device (IUD) affects the fertility of women. Pelvic inflammatory disease is most often caused by an STI that hasn’t been treated.
You can keep from getting pelvic inflammatory disease by not getting an STI.
But I would suggest that the client should consult a physician for her to be assess and for her to be prescribed a proper antibiotic to be taken and management to be followed. 2. A woman who believes she is pregnant complains of edema and vaginal bleeding. Examination reveals high plasma hCG concentrations and placental tissue, but no evidence of an embryo. How would you explain this condition? Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (Hydatidiform Mole) is an abnormal proliferation and degeneration of the trophoblastic villi. As the cells degenerate, they become filled with fluid and appear as clear fluid-filled, grape-sized vesicles.
With this condition, the embryo fails to develop beyond a primitive start. The condition tends to occur most often in women who have a low protein intake, in women older than 35 years old and in women of Asian heritage. Because of this proliferation of the trophoblast cells occurs rapidly with this condition, the uterus tends to expand faster than normally. Also hCG (human chorionic gonadothropin) is produced by the throphoblast cells that are overgrowing, serum or urine test of hCG for pregnancy will be strongly positive( 1-2 million IU compared with a normal pregnancy level 400,000 IU). 3.
A 40-year-old woman is approximately 8 weeks pregnant. What tests are available to determine whether her unborn child has Down syndrome? What are the risks and advantages of each technique? Two types of prenatal tests are used to detect Down syndrome in a fetus: screening tests and diagnostic tests. Screening tests estimate the risk that a fetus has DS; diagnostic tests can tell whether the fetus actually has the condition. Screening tests are cost-effective and easy to perform. But because they can’t give a definitive answer as to whether a baby has DS, these tests are used to help parents decide whether to have more diagnostic tests.
Diagnostic tests are about 99% accurate in detecting Down syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities. However, because they’re performed inside the uterus, they are associated with a risk of miscarriage and other complications. For this reason, invasive diagnostic testing previously was generally recommended only for women age 35 or older, those with a family history of genetic defects, or those who’ve had an abnormal result on a screening test. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a substance produced by the liver that is present i amniotic fluid and maternal serum.
The level is low if the fetus has a chromosomal defect such as down syndrome. 4. Why is it important to determine the status of an infant prenatally? What maternal or family factors might raise your concern about the well-being of an unborn infant? Prenatal care, essential for ensuring the overall health of newborns and their mothers, it’s a major strategy for helping reduce the number of low-birth weight babies born yearly and maternal mortality rate. It allows parents-to-be to know if the baby they are carrying has Down syndrome and other disorders.
Factors that might raise concern about the well-being of an unborn infant are: >pre-existing illness of the mother during pregnancy >family history of a disease >nutritional and diet of the mother >gynecological and obstetric history >environmental condition >physical and psychological changes in pregnancy 5. What are teratogens? What factors influence the action of a teratogen? Teratogen is any factor, chemical or physical, that adversely affects the fertilized ovum, embryo, or fetus.
A teratogen may halt the pregnancy outright. To reach maturity in optimal health, a fetus needs a sound genes and a healthy intrauterine environment that protects it from the influence of teratogens. Factors that influence the action of teratogens: > teratogenic maternal infections > potentially teratogenic vaccines > teratogenic drugs > teratogenecity of alcohol and cigarettes > environmental teratogen > teratogenic maternal stress 6. A young woman in only the third week of her pregnancy develops a fever of 104? ut refuses to take any medication because she is afraid that drugs will harm her baby. Is she correct? Yes, because most drugs can be teratogenic to the fetus including the analgesics (that is used for fever) that may cause prolonged pregnancy, maternal bleeding and patent ductus arteriousus for the fetus. But fever should be a concern because it is also a teratogen to the fetus that may cause abnormal brain development, possibly seizure disorders, hypotonia, and skeletal deformities. The mother should immediately go to a health practitioner for her to provide intervention. . A young insulin-dependent diabetic woman who is planning a family is concerned about the possible harmful effects of her disease on her unborn child. Are her concerns valid, and what would you recommend? Yes, because this disease interfere to the fetal growth that may cause congenital anomalies, even miscarriage. It may also affect the childbearing mother to different signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus. Introduction of such drugs for her to regulate her insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is a teratogen to the fetus.
A more frequent prenatal visit than usual are needed to ensure close monitoring of their condition and that of the fetus. 8. In taking a history of a young woman in her 10th week of gestation you become concerned that she may have contracted rubella sometime during the fourth to eighth weeks of her pregnancy. What types of defects might be produced in her offspring? Rubella or german measles may cause fetal damage from maternal infection includes deafness, mental and motor challenges, cataracts, cardiac defects, restricted intrauterine growth, thrombocytopenic purpura, and dental and facial defects such as cleft lip and palate. . A woman appears to have accessory nipples in her axilla and on her abdomen bilaterally. What is the embryological basis for these additional nipples, and why do they occur in these locations? Because some growth in accessory nipples may occur at puberty or during pregnancy in response to estrogen stimulation and also the increased production of estrogen caused by the development of the placenta. 10.
Why are the third to eighth weeks of embryogenesis so important for normal development and the most sensitive for induction of structural defects? Because this is the most sensitive time for risk of birth defects, in this weeks the fetal circulation, respiratory system, nervous system, digestive system, reproductive system, and urinary system have been developed so anything that interfere the fetus especially teratogens within these weeks can cause anomalies to the different systems that developed in this stage.
During the fetal period, the risk for gross structural defects being induced decreases, but organ systems may still be affected. For example, the brain continues to differentiate during the fetal period, such that toxic exposures may cause learning disabilities or mental retardation.
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