Conversely, discernible incentives can also alter n employee’s performance, work ethic, and job satisfaction – working for an employer with proven high standards, one that treats employees fairly and appraises their performance objectively, can yield positive workplace performance from employees. It is the intent of this paper to evaluate the relationship between motivation, job satisfaction, and work performance with specific emphasis on the motivation theory conceived by Herbert and how it relates to performance issues and motivation.
Research has explained the often ambiguous term ‘motivation’ by identifying two key types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is the desire to do or achieve something because one truly wants to and takes pleasure or sees value in doing so. Extrinsic motivation is the desire to do or achieve something not for the enjoyment of the thing itself, but because doing so leads to a certain result. (Usher & Sober, 2012). After the type of motivation has been determined it can be advantageous to apply a category to motivation, either content or process.
Content theories of motivation “examine factors within individuals, notably needs, that lead to behaviors… For example, individuals eight be motivated to work because it helps them meet certain physical needs, such as those for food, clothing, and shelter” (Aback, 2012). Process theories on the other hand, examine the specific phases of action that proceed motivational behavior and these theories can be subdivided into operant processes and cognitive processes.
Operant processes “explore external factors, such as rewards given by managers to employees that increase and decrease behaviors, using Skinner’s behaviorism principles” (Aback, 2012), whereas cognitive processes investigate the rational and thought processes that lead to specific behavior. Motivation or lack thereof in the workplace can lend to poor or exemplary employee performance and has the potential to affect an organizations bottom- line via profitability and output.
An example of a performance issue resulting from motivational matters is a customer service-oriented employee of a movie theatre demonstrating poor customer service and apathy towards their position. The job description for this staff person is to greet all movie theatre patrons with a greeting and smile, to upscale at the concession stand, and to keep the respective theatres clean after each showing. This employee appears to have low morale; they greet patrons and colleagues with a head nod and a mumbled ‘hello’, they do not attempt the upscale when working concessions, and do sub-par cleaning of the theatres.
The theatre manager recognizes the employee’s behavior and meets with them one-on-once to discuss, with the hope of resolving the problem. The manager learns that the employee feels overlooked in their position – after two-years with the company they have yet to receive the employee-of-the-month honor or be promoted despite positive performance appraisals. Herbage’s Two-Factor Theory relates to the example of the movie theatre employee exhibiting poor work performance as the result of perceived employer neglect. The Two-Factor Theory “purports to differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of the job… Intrinsic factors [including] achievement, advancement, the work itself, responsibility, and recognition. The extrinsic factors [include] company policy and administration, technical supervision, working conditions, salary, and interpersonal supervision” (Maiden, 1991). The crux of Herrings theory maintains that issues that motivate people can change ever their lifetime, but respect for them as an individual is considered a top motivating factor at any stage of a person’s life. For the movie theatre employee, the need for praise and motivation from superiors, or in their case lack thereof, resulted in poor work performance.
Please see Figure 1 for a visual outline of Herrings theory, specifically the factors leading to employee dissatisfaction (hygiene) and factors leading to job satisfaction (motivation). Figure 1. How to create figures in PAP style. This figure illustrates effective elements in PAP style figures. In the case of the movie theatre employee, in order for positive change or elucidation stemming from the employee’s low morale, management should put themselves in a position of empathy with the worker and the nature of their position.
By having a better understanding of not just the job duties of the staff person, but an understanding of how the job presents opportunities for promotion, assuming responsibility, and achieving self-realization, the employer will likely identify with the employee and make the necessary changes. Then again, if management desires to reduce employee dissatisfaction, then it must Ochs on the work environment – the policies, procedures, supervision, and working conditions of the staff. To safeguard a fulfilled and productive workforce, managers must give attention to both sets of job factors to best relate to and manage subordinates. Employees have attitudes or viewpoints about many aspects of their jobs, their careers, and their organizations. However, from the perspective of research and practice, the most focal employee attitude is job satisfaction” (Sari & Judge, 2004). It was the intent of this paper to evaluate the relationship between titivation, job satisfaction, and work performance with a specific emphasis on Herbage’s Two-Factor Theory and how this theory relates to performance issues and motivation of a theoretical movie theatre staff person and their manager.