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Youth, Digital Media and Their Roles in Social Changes

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YOUTH, DIGITAL MEDIA AND THEIR ROLES IN SOCIAL CHANGES Idola Perdini Putri Communication Science Program Study – School of Multimedia and Communication Telkom Institute of Management Jalan Telekomunikasi No. 1 – Dayeuh Kolot, Bandung Cell. +6285294258565 / e-mail: [email protected] com INTRODUCTION New Media And Youth Every day, a story runs in the news media that relates to teenagers and the internet or social networking or digital media. There are many stories –one of them for example- about sexual predators tracking down teen users through social networking site, or tons of stories about personal disclosure.

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Whatever, there no many stories explained about young people using new digital media for good. The media itself, sometimes, gave many stories that prey on their audience’s fears about the present of new digital technology. Reporters often intentionally mislead audiences about youth and digital technology. They aren’t published complete stories that give the full nuances of what is going on. Unfortunately, now days teens perceived couldn’t become active producers of media just a passive receptacles of it, or at least in most of the examples, as a victims of it.

It is really that bad? Research Perspective This paper analysis focuses on the youth possibility participatory in social changes in relation to new digital media uses. Underlining the short film/video –made by HDSLR, which uploaded in Youtube link on youth internet sites (website, blog or social networking site), the paper talking about three perspective which are the internet sites uses, short film/video made by HDSLR, and social changes. The social change it self looked from the intercultural communication perspective.

Many stories told about some youth who perform remarkably sophisticated because they were facilitated by the internet. The result of course different for some teens; new media given the individual variations effect. Many of them, just because of the concept of ‘adolescence’ it self whose less defined by a fixed chronological age and operates more as a textual referent for that stage where abstract thinking emerges, identities are being tested, and peer relationship are of paramount importance, brought different understanding to lead variations result in youth.

Uniquely, although the result shows different, new media it is develop youth creativity, participatory cultures, artistic expression and strong support for creating and sharing creation. This paper considers on how youth are impacted by the affordances the new digital media offer, and how these new values and beliefs leads into new social changes. Research Methodology The study literature methodology used to exploring question about how youth are changing today, as a result of broad social and cultural changes, including the advent of new digital media.

This body of work focuses primarily, upon digital tools exploring –specially short film/video format -made by HDSLR, as they manifest in an individual’s achievement of the uses of new media, such as Internet web site, blog and social networking sites, using Youtube link and how their participatory in social changes. Throughout this paper, we focus primarily, on young people. We apply the terms ‘teen’, ‘adolescent’ and ‘youth’ to distinguish among subtle points of development.

The terms ‘teen’ and ‘adolescent’ refer to someone who is more experienced, capable of abstract thought and wrestling with a host of emotional, social and physical development challenges. Such as youngsters are typically 15 years of age or older. The term ‘youth’ refers to a generation in the liminal space between childhood and adult, represent one era. INDONESIA YOUTH RECENT ISSUES – THE INTERNET Undeniable, now teen culture is permeated with technology. There’s no way could talk to a teenager without talking about social networking or digital technology.

So it’s just this huge, how the Internet and the digital world now it’s something that really is the province of teenagers. Research shows, based on data obtained from internetworldstats. com per December 31, 2011 that the amount of Indonesia internet users reach 55 million peoples. Indonesia was ranked 4th in Asia after China, India and Japan. (http://www. internetworldstats. com/stats3. htm) Table 1 Indonesia’s Internet Users (http://www. internetworldstats. com/stats3. htm)

Indonesia Internet users growth rapidly from only 2 millions people in 2000 to 55 million users in 2011 it’s about 23% from 245 million peoples total population. This amount has a penetration of only 22. 4% and the average number of internet users in urban areas are 60% under 30 years old and other data show nearly 30% of internet users in Indonesia comes from among teenagers aged 15-24 years. (http://www. internetworldstats. com/stats3. htm) Table 2 Indonesia’s Internet Penetration (http://www. internetworldstats. com/stats3. htm)

Uniquely, from this amount of number, the internet uses still dominated on the access of social networking media and online forums like Facebook (rank 4), Blogspot. com (rank 4), Youtube (rank 6), Kaskus (rank 7), and Twitter (rank 10). (http://www. alexa. com/topsites/countries/ID) Detik. com one of Indonesia famous news site said that Indonesia facebook users registered up to nearly 43 million users, in early 2012 period. The amount made Indonesia facebook users the largest number 4 in the world. In terms of age, facebook users with an age range 18-24 years dominate approximately 41. %. (http://inet. detik. com/read/2012/04/18/170412/1895579/398). Table 3 Indonesia’s Facebook User (http://inet. detik. com/read/2012/04/18/170412/1895579/398) Meanwhile, active Twitter users in Indonesia reach 5. 6 million users. The numbers of ‘bloggers’ in Indonesia are also increasing. Initially, the number of ‘bloggers’ in 2007 only amounted to 130,000 people, then in 2008 to 600 thousand `blogger`, and increased to 1. 2 million `blogger` in 2009. That number increased dramatically to 3. 4 million in 2010. (http://www. alexa. om/siteinfo/twitter. com) From this amount, teenagers dominated the Internet users in Indonesia. The word “teenagers” itself derived from latin word “adolescence”, which means to grow or to grow maturity. According to Papalia, Olds and Feldman in his book Human Development, adolescence is a developmental transition between childhood and adulthood which are generally begins at age 12 or 13 years and ended in late teens or early twenties (Papalia, Olds & Feldman, 2009: 11). A variety of group has interprets the word of ‘teens’ differently.

WHO said teens is the age of group 12-24 years; meanwhile Indonesia Health Department defined teens in the age of group 10-19 years; and the 1998 Youth Manifesto sets teens in the age of group of 10-24 years; even Indonesia Youth Regulations proposes that teens is Indonesia resident in the group of ages 18-35 years. In general Indonesia young people, according to BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik – Indonesia Central Statistical Agency) Catalog: 3101015 August 2011, stated that the number of adolescents aged 10-24 years old Indonesia based on the census in 2010 reached 63,426,993 million, or nearly 30% of the total population of Indonesia.

This amount consists of 32,151,398 million male and 31,275,595 million female. The Internet it is affords an independency to teenagers. They’re able to have a private space even while they’re still at home; they’re able to communicate with their friends and have an entire social life outside of the purview of their parents without actually having to leave the house (Gee, 2010: 15). And social networking sites in particular have taken off because teen culture is a social culture.

That’s what being an adolescent at this time; it’s being social. A recent study conducted by Danah Boyd, sought to investigate that when it comes to using social networking web sites, young people use them to emulate their every day lives. The same or similar social structures that they know and that already exist in the real world are the same ones that they construct and maintain online. Friend lists are usually made up of people that they already know in the real world, and they are interested in socializing with as opposed to strangers.

In many ways, they make their online world an extension of their offline world. (http://susan-roberts. hubpages. com/hub/Teenagers-and-the-Social-Networking-Phenomenon) Adolescence defined as time of “identity consolidation,” so what teens are doing is going around and trying on many different identities. What Internet sites allow them to do is to display that identity in a very dramatic and very succinct way. Whereas, teens had to rely on isual cues or say, “I listen to rock music,” or “I had gothic style because this is going to say something about me,” now they can literally say on their Internet sites, “This is my identity, this is my music, these are my friends, these are my heroes, these are the people I don’t like,” and that really defines an identity in a really public way for them. (Sarwono, 2009:34) In a way, the Internet sites are this digital representation of what we think of as adolescence. Media sometimes is a little paranoid, shaping the thought that the new media and the Internet have really bad influences to youth.

We seems forget that youth now days more clever –and of course have easier access to the information around the world, and they’re a lot more savvy than we think they are. Avoid teens to digital technology and new media, doesn’t stop them for being curious. It just shuts down excitement and shuts down any chance the teens has of founding their role in society. The privacy restrictions that are built into Internet sites make it possible for teens to share as much information as they want with their friends and with any one within their social circle.

At the same time, it allows them to block out anyone that they have not given approval to communicate with them. Youth will most likely continue to socialize online through whatever good web sites and web tools are available, this probably will not change. Thus, in the other words, besides being paranoid on how new digital media could harm youth, the condition could be potential power to youth in fulfill their role in the society. HDSLRs, VIDEO AND YOUTUBE Hardly to say, but it is almost impossible to stop Internet penetration among youth.

The development of technology will only increase in its complexity. And youth, who always tends to figure out how technology works, will explore whether adult give permission or not. One of the technologies, whose complement the new digital media era among youth, that in recent time popular in youth is high-definition single lens reflex camera (HDSLR). This digital camera popular among youth, because promises the great performance of photo and video, easy to use, look sophisticated and fit with the youth style.

HDSLRs transform from the tools used by professional photographer to Indonesia’s youth ‘must have item’ now days. Together with the emergence of large CMOS imagers, HDSLRs are nothing short of a revolutionary, democratizing, distruptive moviemaking technology, as important as the invention of color film, 16mm, or HDTV. (Koo, 2010: 6) To emphasize: these cameras are not designed to shoot movies. Their primary function remains to shoot still photos, but it just so happens that they shoot amazing video very inexpensively.

These camera like a reward for dream of a few years ago: video camera that cheaper than any of us imagined (Koo, 2010: 6). HDSLRs has an ability to work with shallow depth of field, while at the same time creating a sense of intimacy difficult to achieve with standard (small chip) prosumer video cameras (Bork, 2003:22). The main advantages of a HDSLR are in relation to its ISO sensitivity, focal length, and depth of field. In addition, using HDSLRs was able to decrease the ISO noise, and also to be able to decrease the depth of field (with the HDSLR features of small aperture and big CMOS sensor) (Koo, 2010: 7).

Even though these cameras offer a world of advantages, they also come with a considerable set of drawbacks. However, these drawbacks are worth dealing with in order to get the kind of amazing images possible with an imaging sensor that has twenty to thirty times more surface area than that of a similarly priced, dedicated video camera. (Koo, 2010: 8) There are no doubts that videos more popular among youth than others media –for example books. Videos have lot of advantages as learning and entertain media.

With audio and visual element, video it is expected to capture nearly 100% of the audience’s concentration. People tend to watch videos, because they are unique presentations. Beside that, video can show how tasks are performed, something which written materials cannot do. It can bring material to life and learning will never be boring. And although there are some unique technical challenges to learn HDSLR cinematography, the technology give youth a huge jumps start in figuring out how to make beautiful, inexpensive videos using a HDSLRs.

Using HDLSRs, youth could become a part of video production not just a viewer. In the other hand, stated by Jakarta Book Festival Website quoting data from the UNDP, Indonesia youth lack of reading interest which are lowest in ASEAN, become one of the main reason why using video as messenger media more effective in present time between Indonesia youth. HDSLRs give youth an opportunity to show theirs felling and thought about some issue in creative visual way. Now days, phenomenon shows, that many Indonesia teens choose short film as their work of expression, either fiction film or documentary ilm. The condition above leads youth as a producer of the film and has a full controls for the content. And not stopping there, in the end, youth publish their short film using the Internet in order to communicate their perception of some issues and obtain existence. In this stage, YouTube has important part because short film usually shared via YouTube link from their personal sites. YouTube itself define as a video-sharing website, created by three former PayPal employees in February 2005, on which users can upload, view and share videos.

The company is based in San Bruno, California, and uses Adobe Flash Video and HTML5 technology to display a wide variety of user-generated video content, including movie clips, TV clips, and music videos, as well as amateur content such as video blogging and short original videos. (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/YouTube) Most of the content on YouTube uploaded by individuals, although media corporations including CBS, the BBC, VEVO, Hulu, and other organizations offer some of their material via the site, as part of the YouTube partnership program.

Unregistered users can watch videos, while registered users can upload an unlimited number of videos. Videos considered to contain offensive content are available only to registered users at least 18 years old. (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/YouTube) By February 2008, the YouTube was grabbing one-third of the estimated 10 billion views of online videos that month, up from 15 percent in 2007, according to internet marketing research company comScore. (http://www. certmag. com/read. hp) Ten billion views a month shows that online video is an explosive new medium, and YouTube has proven to be one of the most influential cause. And even though, some sites provide video, it’s used to be in YouTube link. YouTube is proving to be a medium for expression or documentation of idealism, response of issue or learning material. YouTube Video more easily known among youth as medium to transfer the issues, cause human beings gain much of their initial understanding of others through our sensory capabilities – both visual and auditory.

According to some studies the written word only communicates 7% of what we mean. Voice tones and inflections can account for as much as 38% of the understanding a normal conversation. Video can add another 55% to understanding (Yudhawati & Haryanti, 2011:78) Video allows all those body language cues– the smile, the twinkle of the eye, the raised eyebrow, the lean, the crossed arms, the tilt of the head. The instantaneousness of moving image and impact of human voice is very powerful.

Videos it is are the most powerful communicative tools in history. Video allows the communicator to communicate his message quickly and effectively, while holding the audience’s interest. One of the reasons why video is such a powerful medium is because it involves the audience’s emotions. Even for specific purpose, the ease of learning can alleviate audience’s fear to a particular subject. Producing a video it’s also often costs no more than any other media. In fact, video is able to give a great deal of information in a short amount of time. Juhasz, 2011: 14) Short films and short documentaries film become the focus represent video form on the research. According to the dictionary film defined as a sequence of images of moving objects photographed by a camera and providing the optical illusion of continuous movement when projected onto a screen and a form of entertainment, information, etc. , composed of such a sequence of images and shown in a cinema, etc (http://www. thefreedictionary. com/film).

While on of the Film and Television School in Paris, EICAR The International Film and Television School, explain film as encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry; films are produced by recording images from the world with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or special effects; films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating — or indoctrinating — citizens.

The visual elements of cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue. (http://www. eicar-international. com/definition-film. html) Often film is not just a result of imagination experience, but it could be a lesson for the audience. Many things can be explained through the film: the process that occurs in the human body or in an industry, natural events, ways of life in a foreign country, mining, teaching skills, the history of world leader, and many more (Usman and Asnawir, 2002: 95).

Film functions are illumination (entertainment), education (education), and entertainment (recreation). Therefore, the film can be used as a medium for publication or to convey messages about the program of development in all fields. (Permadi, 1999: 55). Film has power to visualize a human being civilization in one period of time and it’s also in one point influent the civilization. As one of the mass communication form, film believed could persuade and manipulated the public opinion and finally take a part in human civilization.

INDONESIA’S YOUTH FILM – THE COMMUNITY, FESTIVAL AND IDEALISM One of measurement of film making development among Indonesia youth can be seen from the increasing number of film communities. Now days, no less than 80 film community in a big city and other parts of Indonesia carrying out their activities independently through film screening, discussions and film production. The film community is not only managed by enthusiastic individual/non-formal organizations but also cultural centers, campuses and schools. What makes the spirit of the filmmakers and the film community flared up again?

If we trace its development from the beginning, Indonesia independent film communities first appeared shortly after Indonesia has the first film’s educational institution in 1970 (Jakarta Arts Institute). At that time Jakarta Arts Council held a mini film competition and was followed by enthusiastically filmmakers outside the student of Jakarta Arts Institute. The participant’s name their group as independent film communities. During this year Indonesia experiencing extraordinary growth in film production, indicated by the appearance of 125 films who born in just one year.

Unfortunately, due to lack of support, the condition only lasts one year. After vacuum for almost a decade, significant movement in Indonesia independent film industry started again when Forum Film Pendek (FFP – Short Film Forum) presented in 1980s. Various backgrounds of the community founders and members created bigger impact to the independent film industry. FFP could screen the film which responses the recent issues and play it in a festival up to Medan, Lombok and Bali. FFP is also listed as the first community to formulate a short film as an alternative and independent films.

And one of the precious achievement were accomplishment by Gatot Prakosa whom invited to play his movie at the Oberhausen Film Festival Germany –a oldest and most prestigious short film festival in the world. Although the film community in the 80s and early 90s decade not as much as now, but with the opportunity given, the independent film industry growth rapidly –in the positive way, during this period. Conversation and discourse about film began to own not only among film academics and activist, but also the audio-visual art practitioners and pop culture fans.

The industry made youth began to plunge into the world of short film creativity to express their opinion about some issues. The spirit continuously present, especially when Indonesia film industry was in its lowest point between 1994-1998 when almost 95% of Indonesian film produced categorized as adult films. The independent film industry started positioning itself as the opposition party for the mainstream of Indonesia film industry (read: national film). In 1997 was a critical year for the development of Indonesia film industry.

In this year present one of the best Indonesia independent film created by Seno Gumira Ajidarma (Indonesia humanist), Kuldesak –a combination of four story (short film) in one movie. Kuldesak occur by the spirit of the Indonesia youth film activists, who determined to give audience different perspective of Indonesia films. In the other hand, the film also become proving point of Indonesia youth filmmakers existence since the director who involved in the film (Mira Lesmana, Riri Riza, Nan Achnas, Shanty Harmayn and Rizal Mantovani) is young people and newcomers in Indonesia film industry.

The film itself carries an unusual story at that time: portraits of young restlessness through the lens of young people themselves. The interesting part is all of the young directors above now become the leader of Indonesia film industry. Another interesting thing is that in this year the digital technology of filmmaking arrives in Indonesia. And all these short film whose take part in Kuldesak film made by digital film technology. Since then, many youth filmmakers joined the industry, published their project and positioning their self as an independent filmmakers who raises social issues.

Furthermore, Indonesia film community continuously growing –most of them focused on the appreciation, while others plunge into the world of practice by producing short films, documentaries and feature films. In 2000, recorded six feature independent films produced: Beth (Aria Kusumadewa), Bintang Jatuh (Rudi Soedjarwo), Jakarta Project (Indra Yudhistira), Pachinko & Everyone’s Happy (Harry Suharyadi), Tragedi (Rudi Soedjarwo) and Sebuah Pertanyaan untuk Cinta (Enison Sinaro). Some of them succeed played in Indonesia cinema while the others played from university to university among Indonesia cities.

The fall of Indonesia government (called: Orde Baru government) in 1998 brought freedom for many young people to escape from the doctrine ‘silence is golden’. Youth –with his new passion, translated the word ‘independent’ as the freedom of express their opinion through some creative work of art. Film community began present in Bandung, Yogyakarta, Solo and other cities beside Jakarta. On the way, all the film communities started to be able to synergize each other for the progress of Indonesia film industry.

As an example, some of the film community (Kineruku- Bandung, Kinoki- Yogyakarta and Arisan Film Forum -Purwokerto) are now joined to publish a quarterly journal of film studies and will be distributed in some points throughout Indonesia. Due to this, the outline of each independent film communities tend to be to share knowledge and experience (technical and appreciative), as well as creating a community of critical and appreciative audience. The presence of the communities feels stronger as the party whose take a responsibility to educate Indonesia’s film audience.

It’s why until now most of the communities produced independent films –fiction or documentaries films, to be free from insistence to promote something or takes side for certain parties. Being independent, the film project could stand neutral and focuses on the recent issues in the society. In line with film communities growth in the same time Indonesia film festival held continuously around Indonesia. There are some old names which still running until today, such as: Purbalingga Film Festival (FFP, 2007), Q!

Film Festival (QFF, 2003), Indonesia International Fantastic Film Festival (iNAFF, 2007), Documentary Film Festival (FFD, 2001), Jogja-NETPAC Asian Film Festival (JAFF, 2006), and Festival Film Indonesia (FFI, 1955, absent from 1992 to 2004). Each of them has own focus. FFP concentrate on developing the local film community in Purbalingga, while iNAFF and QFF has their meeting point in the capital city of Indonesia: iNAFF is for fans of horror and fantasy films, while QFF raise the issues about LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender).

In Jogjakarta, FFD and JAFF become a meeting point for the film community in Yogyakarta and its surroundings, as well as aesthetic developments in documentaries film about the development countries issues. In addition to that, there be FFI whom expected to be a barometer of the national film industry. Three pillars of film that can be served through the film festival are the exhibition, appreciation, and distribution. To achieve this ideal picture, the film festival must hold continuously. The ilm festival whose could continue to be held will be growing from year to year until it reaches (or at least nearly) ideal conditions. Unconsciously film festival represents the nation’s identity and become a meeting point for film appreciation activities. The festivals not only provide an alternative spectacle, but also provide an alternative space for the audience to “celebrate” the film. Two issues that should be highlighted here: are the contribution and the survival of the film communities and festival. Ideally, a film community and festival can contribute to the two parties: the filmmakers and audiences.

For the filmmakers of course besides the film screening, appreciated, and knowledge, they’ll have an opportunity shaping their opinion through the project to some recent issues. Thus, the youth filmmakers could deliver their message about some issues which interesting for them to the audiences. In the same time, audiences could response the messages directly while the screenings held or in the discussion forum. Many cases tell that Indonesia audience’s opinion can be carry by some film and lead to specific movement in the country. And digital technology took important part to achieve this goal.

How about in recent years? SOCIAL CHANGES – THE IMPACT OF THE FILM Today, the various elements are indirectly but simultaneously supporting the development of Indonesia independent film industry: first, the development of digital technology that are friendly users (digital video cameras and editing software on personal computer); and secondly, the present of the internet that open up a chance to publish the project and add insight about film education and perspective. Youth has lot of resource more than before to make some changes in their communities.

With the digital technology and new media, and the engagement between HDSLR and YouTube, youth become a great power in its role to changing communities. If in 1997 the digital technology gave filmmakers easier way to produce independent film, now, youth has a chance to publish the project without waiting for some organization held film festival or created film community –via YouTube. However, the condition shows that even the film festival and community use the social networking and YouTube as their tools to approach youth independent filmmakers.

Hence, digital technology, new media and youth become powerful resources to impact the social changes. Youth filmmakers used YouTube to publish their project –usually film trailer. Most of them are the project to fulfill university or school assignment. Surprisingly, many short film shows on YouTube gain lot of viewers. During the time when trailer on air many of the audience will give responses and if they have same paradigm about filmmaking they usually gather and build their own community –film community. It is also become a beginning step of film online forum.

Image 1 Example of Youth Film in Youtube Image 2 Example of Youth Film in Youtube When youth use film as their tools in represent their response to one issues youth able to direct the content. They have absolute power in choose and expose the material, finding the similarity in peers. Some youth –mostly group leader, exposes their group to a link to a film and so they watch it. What they mostly are watching is video that they know of through some other source, and they use YouTube for its capacity to serve that video. (http://www. certmag. com/read. hp) New media arrive on the scene in a number of dimensions and interactive. Thus, in the end, through peer online forums, in the short of time, the video will popular and add more viewers and comment. Because of learning is a social process and involves active acquisition of new knowledge and understanding through group and peer interaction, the YouTube film could lead a youth perception to one issue. And considering the amount of youth using internet as their daily communication tools, the effect could reverse, to the good purpose of youth development.

The film could be used to share values, attitudes and beliefs of certain issue among youth like enculturation process in intercultural communication, which in the end, lead desired social changes in youth. Intercultural communication is communication between individuals or groups from different cultural backgrounds whose diversity of symbol systems and cultural perspectives in influences the communication exchange. The culture itself defined as group of people who share values, attitudes, beliefs, customs, and a symbol system that differentiates them from other group. Perkins, 2008: 155-156) Meanwhile enculturation refers to the process of socialization experienced by a collective group of people for the purpose of maintaining an agreed-upon worldview of values, attitudes, and beliefs within a common symbol system. (Perkins, 2008: 156) Through the process of enculturation, there is a layering of identity that creates our cultural, sociocultural, and psychocultural selves. (Perkins, 2008: 157) It is the totality of the individual that we interact with and create relationships with, not just that aspect which is familiar to us.

The aim is for varying perspectives to meet some specific objectives. What we must be agreed is that the responsibility to help them fulfill their role are task of all parties. After all, teenagers, has a lot of great potential: teenagers have a fit physical; intellectual progress that shows the development of abstract thinking abilities, an ability to made in-depth analysis when faced with the problem; spirit and passion that became the impetus to work hard and strive for achievement; idealism, high aspirations and creative; sociable; and have the interest and enthusiasm for new things.

The evolution of complex models eventually formed the concept of adolescents with comprehensive coverage, diverse, and trying to touch every aspect of human life: physical, ethical, intellectual, emotional, social and spiritual. Unfortunately, concept of adolescence describes with more negative terms: labile, moody, easily swept away, naughty and must be protected. Adolescent phase seemed to be complicated and difficult routines that must be passed by a human being.

In fact, with the number of youth in Indonesia and all their superiority youth become a great power in its role in a changing community. History shows most of the Indonesia monumental movement which shaping the form of ‘Indonesia’ in recent time fronted by Indonesia youth. In this term of research, few youth whose could play a role in peers through their films, will become ‘agents of change’ for the group and bringing the group opinion. In the end, lead to social changes to better community. REFERENCES 1. Bork, Rupert. (2003). The Digital Filmmaking Handbook. New York:

Cite this Youth, Digital Media and Their Roles in Social Changes

Youth, Digital Media and Their Roles in Social Changes. (2016, Dec 12). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/youth-digital-media-and-their-roles-in-social-changes/

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