The Youth of the Nation: Lyndon Johnson and the National Youth Administration By: Cheryl Boswell HIST: 4133. 01 Dr. Landdeck The Texas National Youth Administration (NYA) was remarkably unique for various reasons. Its success was attributed to the leadership of the state’s young director, twenty-seven year-old Lyndon Johnson. Despite reservations, for example Johnson’s young age compared to the other state directors, from many New Dealers and even President Franklin Roosevelt, Johnson able to gain attention and notice among the public and even set an example for other states to follow.
What will be the focus is what Johnson’s goals were as director for the Texas NYA. What will be the focus of discussion will include Johnson’s goals and what happened to the Texas NYA after Johnson left. Johnson’s primary goal, as could be expected, was to provide jobs for unemployed youths so they could continue their educations. To do this, he sought to find as much funding as possible for the Texas NYA. He strove to find and create as many projects as possible to employ as many young people as possible.
To help make the NYA successful, LBJ relied upon newspapers to spread the word of NYA projects, relief and their successes to the Texas public. He worked to make innovative ideas the most successful they could be. Most of all, he wanted to put as many youths as possible to work so that they could continue their educations. To begin, a background of how the National Youth Administration was established will be given and why it was thought to be created. In the midst of the Great Depression, not only were there millions unemployed in America, but the youth of the nation were as well.
Youths, defined as being between sixteen and twenty-five years, made up one-third of unemployed people in America. President Roosevelt recognized this as a problem, and therefore attempted to help solve this dilemma. FDR established the National Recovery Act in 1933 to help alleviate this problem, but it did not attain its desired effect. What happened was that one million people lost their jobs and could not find other jobs due to the mandatory minimum wage. When this did not work, he (Roosevelt) created the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) in 1933.
Lindley states that it was FDR’s personal concern for the unemployed youths that led him to create the CCC. In addition, the CCC was “perhaps the most original contribution Roosevelt made to the unemployment crisis, for the government hired young men to work on important conservation projects”. However, the CCC still did not adequately attack the youth unemployment problem. In the CCC, a young man had to be able to leave home and join a CCC camp to obtain a job. This left out thousands of individuals unable to do so.
Eleanor Roosevelt, rather than her husband the President was the one who fought to conquer the problem of unemployed youth. The First Lady was perhaps more concerned than her husband about the youth of the nation as the following statement implies: “I have moments of real terror when I think we may be losing this generation. We have got to bring these young people into the active life of the community and make them feel that they are necessary. ” It was because of her concern that she sought to devise a program that would benefit young people.
Harry Hopkins and Aubrey Williams, the top two administrators of the Works Progress Administration (WPA), shared Eleanor’s concern. Their solution was to “create a national program of youth relief patterned after the WPA. ” It was at the urging of Hopkins and Williams that Eleanor decided to take their idea to FDR. FDR was hesitant to create a national youth relief program due to his concern that it would turn into a fascist program, like what had occurred in Europe. Only after he deduced that the program would be one of financial assistance to youths did he finally agree to create the National Youth Administration.
FDR knew the program would need administration from elsewhere, and his top choices were the Office of Education and the Works Progress Administration. The President chose the WPA to be the administrative body, most likely due to the influence of Hopkins. On June 26, 1935, Executive Order 7086 was issued by President Roosevelt. In it, the President stated the establishment of the National Youth Administration, which would operate within the Works Progress Administration. FDR also appointed Aubrey Williams to be Executive Director f the NYA. Lyndon Johnson was appointed director of the Texas NYA July 36, 1935, one month after the original Executive Order went out. During his first month as director, Johnson hastily appointed district administrators and designate regions of the state for which they would oversee. Many of the positions went to former classmates and friends from his days at the Southwest Texas State College in San Marcos. One confidant Jesse Kellam, worked closely with Johnson, and would later serve as the state’s second NYA director .
After appointing his administrators, Johnson set to work finding and creating projects that the young people would be working on. Perhaps the greatest and most successful project of the Texas NYA was its Freshman College Centers. The idea had been proposed to Johnson by President C. E. Evans of his alma mater. Johnson then took the proposal to Aubrey Williams, who approved it in October 1935 to cooperate between freshman colleges and the State Education Agency. Fifteen centers were established across the state, including North Texas State University, Texas Christian University, and the University of Houston.
The facilities for the centers were usually provided by a local school board and the faculty from the college. The purpose of these centers was to provide tuition-free freshman courses to high school graduates in need. Self states this idea was unique to Texas, and it was a “novel one in the mid-1930’s. ” Also, a newspaper article titled “NYA Allotments to College Students” describes additional jobs being created, 817 jobs in fact, to provide further aid to needy students at 31 colleges across the state. These jobs were specifically created to benefit students whose families were affected by drought conditions.
Just one week later, the same newspaper published Johnson approving applications for three schools in Stonewall County to receive relief aid. Another article describes a specific project- a community center to include an auditorium, library and kitchen, not just general or overall success of the NYA. This article was published in 1938, after Johnson had left and Kellam was made the state director. The use of newspapers to spread NYA success demonstrated Johnson’s ability to make effective use of the technology and propaganda of the time.
In addition, camps were set up for young women that were unemployed and unskilled. In the Bartlett Tribune in 1937, an article that may be describing a camp such as this was published. It details how girls that have not previously worked are “learning discipline and productivity. ” Also, these 200 girls worked on projects in San Antonio, the site of one of the camps. These camps were set at five locations: two in San Antonio, Fort Worth, Houston and Brownsville. At these camps, women were taught “home management and elementary academic subjects. The camps were the least successful of the NYA projects, perhaps due to they only benefited residents and not the local communities. However, the women that participated in these camps gained skills and confidence and that alone is worth more that the camps’ success as a whole. Johnson had the difficulty not only of finding projects and locations for them, but funding them as well. Roosevelt allocated $50,000,000 that was appropriated from Congress when he established the NYA, leaving the Texas NYA to have $90,000 per year. Johnson wanted the money to be used to only pay the youths that would be employed by the NYA.
He then asked Governor James Allred in a letter to ask the state Congress for $50,000 so that he could purchase materials for the state park work projects that had been proposed. The money was approved during the second session of the Forty-Fourth Legislature, giving Johnson what he needed to make his NYA successful and run smoothly. Self states that Gov. Allred was “interested in the work of the youth program, but in general the state government was content to let the NYA director administer the project”. Johnson realized the NYA could not provide materials, space, and supervision as well as compensation for the youths employed.
Johnson set to work obtaining state agencies to co-sponsor projects such as the Texas Highway Department and the Texas Relief Commission. He appealed to Gib Gilcrest of the Highway Department to allow NYA boys to build roadside parks. By March 1936, the Highway Department had co-sponsored 142 NYA projects. As previously stated, newspapers published the progress of several projects and of the NYA itself. Not too long after the establishment of the Texas NYA, an October article stated a report coming from Austin that would aid high school students.
The article quoted Johnson stating 8,547 part-time jobs would be given to high school students to aid them in relief. The article went on to describe the type of work the students would be doing, such as “clerical, library, campus improvement, and playground supervision. ” In December 1936, the Aspermont Star published two articles, one about a placement committee being appointed and another about a soil conservation project in Stonewall County. The publicity the Texas NYA was getting from the newspapers led to Johnson being quite successful among the state NYA directors.
Due to his success as state NYA director, Johnson received visits from Eleanor Roosevelt on several occasions. Eleanor told the press on one of her visits that “she had come to find out why the Texas NYA director was doing such a good job”. The First Lady also dedicated the Little Chapel in the Woods at the Texas State College for Women (later Texas Woman’s University) on another visit. The chapel had been built as an NYA project and Jesse Kellam remembered the dedication being a special event in an interview years later.
Although Johnson had set to work appropriating funds and locating projects, he took the plight of African-Americans to heart. Johnson had been told in a letter from John Corson, the national deputy administrator that he was to appoint an African-American to the Advisory Committee. Johnson refused, for fear his current nine members would resign, leaving the fate of the Texas NYA to spiral down. This was not because he was racist, as Bourgeois states, rather he viewed the answer was in cooperation between blacks and whites.
This was his goal in helping their plight, not to encourage conflict and rebel against the “defined system of mores and customs which cannot be upset overnight. ” To help ease Corson’s mind, Johnson sent a reply, with an idea to establish a camp for unemployed African-American women. This helped somewhat, but it was just the beginning of Johnson’s aim to conquer the problem: to aid unemployed and in need African Americans. Bourgeois implies that including blacks in New Deal programs was difficult, due to the racist attitudes throughout the South as was expected.
This didn’t stop Johnson from tackling what he knew to be a heavy problem in his state. Johnson also knew people would not approve of mixing the races or interference from the government, so he had to tread carefully on the issue. One of the first things Johnson did was establish a Negro State Advisory Committee of black state leaders who would spread word of NYA benefits across the state. As previously stated, one of the benefits they were promoting was the Freshman College Centers, perhaps the most successful program in the state, which included helping blacks.
According to Dallek, blacks especially benefitted from the Freshman College Centers and were among the hardest hit during the Depression. To illustrate this, black unemployment in 1932 was as high as fifty percent, and those who wanted to continue working also took up to fifty percent in pay cuts. Also, Dallek states that the NYA as a whole did more to help blacks than virtually any other federal agency during the 1930’s. A prominent problem that appears to have occurred throughout the NYA programs (but is not surprising) is getting blacks certified for vocational training requirements when they applied for relief.
What is surprising is that Bourgeois states Johnson often dealt with conflicts such as this and local ones personally. That fact alone illustrates how seriously Johnson took the matter. In addition, Johnson worked closely with leaders of black schools, such as the president of Prairie View State College. This was most likely due to the Freshman College Center program and a new one, unique to the college and a brainchild of Johnson’s. Johnson had the idea along with George Banks of the CCC to establish a joint camp near the school in September 1935.
The camp would teach youths that would be staying there soil conservation, the building of parks and pools, repair and construct roads, bridges and various other projects. This was not to occur, since Aubrey Williams the national director refused a project that would be a joint cooperation between the agencies. Williams, according to Bourgeois, wanted the NYA to fully oversee their own projects rather than have to cooperate with the army and Department of the Interior, which was what the CCC had been run by. Williams’ refusal did not stop Johnson and Banks, for they altered their plan to have dormitories built for black women by black men.
At these residences, the young ladies would learn how to run a household essentially: cooking, cleaning, and caring for children. Despite the gender stereotype, the project was the first of its kind and among the highest success in Texas. These women also received a wage and attended classes during the day. Their wage was $19. 20 per month; from that they would pay room, board, and medical expenses costing $14. The deputy executive director, Richard Brown, asked Johnson to lower their wages to the least amount they could live off of. Johnson not only refused Brown, but raised their wages as well.
Returning to the Freshman College Centers project, it should be described how well the project benefitted blacks. Bourgeois states that while 24. 2 percent of black students participated in the project, only 12 to 14 percent of whites did. This demonstrates the extent that which blacks took full advantage of this opportunity presented to them. Bourgeois later states that there were more than enough students and faculty for the centers to work, but not enough funds to pay the salary of the teachers. This became Johnson’s frequent goal, locating funding for NYA projects so that they could succeed as much as possible.
Johnson desired the centers to open as quickly as possible so the students could obtain nine months of work (presumably course work, although the students worked as well at these centers). Johnson then set to work obtaining permission from Williams to allocate funds that had been appropriated for unemployed women and use the remainder of it to pay teachers. When he received no answer, he then sought out Williams’ administrative assistant Elizabeth Wickenden of the WPA. After some smooth talking and bribing with pralines, the funds were approved and by March 1936, twenty centers had been set up across the state.
Fifteen of these centers were for blacks, further illustrating the extent to which Johnson desired to help them . Bourgeois states that Johnson and the state of Texas did more for blacks during the 1930’s through NYA and New Deal projects than most of the southern states did. This was due to the NYA being “more responsive to the needs of blacks in Texas” than other states in the South were. Johnson dedicated his time as state NYA director to locating as much funds as possible, and as many projects as possible to help as many young people as possible.
In 1937, Johnson resigned as NYA state director to run for the position vacated by James Buchanan upon his death. The man to fill his position was Jesse Kellam, former classmate and friend of his alma mater. After Johnson’s leave, an administrator for Negro affairs was finally appointed: J. W. Rice in 1940, although Bourgeois states Kellam did so after coming under pressure. One wonders why it took so long to finally appoint a black leader to a position of authority, but taking in the context of the time, nobody (including Johnson and even FDR) viewed publicly helping blacks as a political no-no.
What appears to have captured Johnson’s belief in this matter is evident by several statements made in Bourgeois’ article: “…he (Johnson) knew his future opponents would make it a serious political liability the first time he ran for office in Texas. ” Bourgeois referenced an additional reason with the previous statement as to why Johnson did not do what most southern states did; appoint a black member to their advisory boards. Also, Johnson knew his political career was at stake, and if it would have gone against the majority of people to publicly help blacks, he was not going to do it then.
However, after reading the evidence presented by Bourgeois, one tends to agree when she states LBJ went farther than needed to extend NYA benefits to Texas blacks. Johnson went against the odds being such a young man in his position and proved everyone wrong. He worked fast and furious, much like in FDR’s first hundred days, to appoint advisory board members, to locate agencies to co-sponsor projects, come up with projects, all to help the youth of the nation. Not only was it his desire to help these young people that were the future of America and his state, but he went a step farther to help young blacks.
Most politicians recognized a need to help blacks during this time, but did not go so far to press the issue like Johnson did for fear of their political livelihoods. Johnson did not appoint a black board member during his tenure, but he as head of the Texas NYA helped more blacks than any other state in the South. One can assume he carried the memories and wishes of helping blacks during this time to his presidency, when the Civil Rights Act was finally passed, recognizing them as equal members of the country.
So many forget what LBJ did during the 1930’s, but one can see from the evidence presented by Bourgeois and Self that he was definitely on his way to paving a lustrous political career for himself. Bibliography: Primary Sources: 1) Hopkins, Harry L. , “Spending to Save,” (New York: W. W. Norton and Co. , 1936 2) Rosenman, Samuel, “The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt” (8 vols. ; (New York: Russell and Russell, 1938) 3) Lindley, Betty, and Lindley, Ernest K. , “A New Deal for Youth,” (New York: Viking Press, 1938) 4) The Aspermont Star, “NYA Allotments to College Students,” vol. 9, no. 12, October 1, 1936, accessed October 25, 2011: http://texashistory. unt. edu/ark:/67531/metapth126967/m1/1/zoom/? q=national youth administration date:1935-1939 5) The Aspermont Star, “Applications of 3 Stonewall Schools Approved By NYA,” vol. 39, no. 13, October 8, 1936, accessed October 25, 2011: http://texashistory. unt. edu/ark:/67531/metapth126968/m1/1/zoom/? q=national youth administration date:1935-1939 6) Borger Daily Herald, vol. 12, no. 192, July 1, 1938, accessed October 25, 2011: http://texashistory. unt. edu/ark:/67531/metapth167224/m1/3/zoom/? =national youth administration date:1935-1939 7) The Bartlett Tribune and News, vol. 50, no. 18, January 22, 1937, accessed October 25, 2011: http://texashistory. unt. edu/ark:/67531/metapth76459/m1/3/zoom/? q=national youth administration date:1935-1939 8) Cox, Louise, Fort Worth Star-Telegram, “Girls Broken By Depression Get New Grip On Life At Youth Camp,” September 27, 1935 9) Richard Brown to Lyndon Johnson, January 15, 1936, NYA papers, Johnson Library 10) Governor James Allred, “Message to the Forty-Fourth Legislature, First Called Session,” October 9, 1935, James V.
Allred Papers, University of Houston Library 11) Letter, Gov. Allred to Lyndon Johnson May 15, 1936, Allred Papers, University of Houston Library 12) The Aspermont Star, “NYA to Aid High School Students,” vol. 38, no. 12, October 3, 1935, accessed October 25, 2011: http://texashistory. unt. edu/ark:/67531/metapth126915/m1/4/zoom/? q=national youth administration date:1935-1939 13) The Aspermont Star, “Notice” and “NYA Job Placement Committee Appointed,” vol. 39, no. 3, December 17, 1936, accessed October 25, 2011: http://texashistory. unt. edu/ark:/67531/metapth126977/m1/1/zoom/? q=national youth administration date:1935-1939 14) Letter, John J. Corson to Lyndon B. Johnson, Sept. 17, 1935, File: “Administrative: Lyndon B. Johnson, Sept. 15-Oct. 1935,” Box 8 JNYA, Lyndon Johnson Library 15) Brown to Johnson, Nov. 4, 1936, file: “Fiscal and accounting Matters, April, 1936-Dec. 1937,” Box 9, Ibid,: “The NYA Resident Projects at Prairie View, Texas,” Apr. 15, 938, Reports Concerning NYA Operations, by Congressional Districts, prepared for the executive Director of the NYA, 1938-39, E-183, Series, RG 119 16) Johnson to Brown, Mar. 16, 1936, “Special Report of Negro Activities of the National Youth Administration of Texas…,” File: “Administrative Reports: March, 1936,” Box 5, JNYA 17) Johnson to Brown, Oct. 31, 1935, telegram; “Special Report of Negro Activities of the National Youth Administration of Texas” 18) The Bartlett Tribune and News, vol. 50, no. 24, March 5, 1937, accessed October 25, 2011: http://texashistory. nt. edu/ark:/67531/metapth76462/m1/1/zoom/? q=national youth administration date:1935-1939 19) Texas Outlook, “NYA Youths at Work,” XX, March 1936 20) letter, H. A. Zeigler to Deborah Self, March 31, 1974 Secondary Sources: 1) Self, Deborah Lynn “The National Youth Administration in Texas, 1935-1939, (master’s thesis, Texas Tech University, 1974) accessed: November 5, 2011 through Texas Tech University: electronic theses and dissertations; http://esr. lib. ttu. edu/bitstream/handle/2346/13260/31295001072080. pdf? equence=1 2) Kearney, James, Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. 1968) 3) Lash, Joseph P. Eleanor and Franklin (New York: W. W. Norton, 1971) 4) Interview, Lady Bird Johnson, Austin, Texas, June 6, 1974 5) Steinberg, Alfred Sam Johnson’s Boy (New York: Macmillan Co. , 1968) 6) Interview, Jesse Kellam, February 14, 1974 7) Bourgeois, Christie “Stepping over Lines: Lyndon Johnson, Black Texans, and the National Youth Administration, 1935-1937,” Southwestern Historical Quarterly, vol. 91, Issue 2, Oct. 1987 accessed November 11, 2011: https://twu. lliad. oclc. org/illiad/illiad. dll? SessionID=Y144032585E&Action=10&Form=75&Value=70928 8) Dallek, Robert Lone Star Rising: Lyndon Johnson and His Times 1908-1960, 1991, Oxford University Press 9) Arthur Goldschmidt and Elizabeth Wickenden to Paige Mulhollan, June 3, 1969 (quotation), oral history interview, AG 79-95 (transcript, LBJL) 10) Elizabeth Wickenden Goldschmidt to Michael Gillette, Nov. 6, 1974, oral history interview, AC 76-7 (transcript: LBJL) 11) Peters, Charles Lyndon B. Johnson, 2010, Times Books, Henry Holt and Co.
New York ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Harry L. Hopkins, Spending to Save, (New York: W. W. Norton and Co. , 1936) p. 161 as cited in: Deborah Lynn Self, “The National Youth Administration in Texas, 1935-1939, (master’s thesis, Texas Tech University, 1974), p. 3 [ 2 ]. Samuel Rosenman, The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt (8 vols. ; New York: Russell and Russell, 1938), IV, 284 as cited in: Self, thesis: NYA in Texas, p. 4 [ 3 ]. Betty Lindley and Ernest K. Lindley, A New Deal for Youth, (New York: Viking Press, 1938), p. as cited in: Self, thesis: NYA in Texas, p. 4 [ 4 ]. James Kearney, Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. 1968), p. 23 as cited in: Self, thesis: NYA in Texas, p. 8 [ 5 ]. Joseph P. Lash, Eleanor and Franklin (New York: W. W. Norton, 1971), pp. 537-540 as cited in: Self, thesis: NYA in Texas, p. 9 [ 6 ]. Ibid [ 7 ]. Self, thesis: NYA in Texas, p. 11 [ 8 ]. Rosenman, Papers of FDR, pp. 281-282 as cited in: Self, thesis: NYA in Texas, pp. 10-11 [ 9 ]. Self, thesis: NYA in Texas, p. 19 [ 10 ]. Ibid, pp. 24-26 [ 11 ]. Self, thesis: NYA in Texas, p. 37 12 ]. Ibid, pp. 36-37 [ 13 ]. October 1, 1936, The Aspermont Star, “NYA Allotments to College Students,” vol. 39, no. 12, p. 1 [ 14 ]. October 8, 1936, The Aspermont Star, “Applications of 3 Stonewall Schools Approved By NYA,” vol. 39, no. 13, p. 1 [ 15 ]. July 1, 1938, Borger Daily Herald, vol. 12, no. 192, p. 2 [ 16 ]. January 22, 1937, The Bartlett Tribune and News, vol. 50, no. 18, p. 3 [ 17 ]. Louise Cox, “Girls Broken By Depression Get New Grip On Life At Youth Camp,” Fort Worth Star-Telegram, September 27, 1935, p. 4 as cited in: Self, thesis: NYA in Texas, pp. 8-39 [ 18 ]. Rosenman, Papers of FDR, p. 96; Letter, Richard Brown to Lyndon Johnson, January 15, 1936, NYA papers, Johnson Library as cited in: Self, thesis: NYA in Texas, p. 40 [ 19 ]. Governor James Allred, “Message to the Forty-Fourth Legislature, First Called Session,” October 9, 1935, James V. Allred Papers, University of Houston Library as cited in: Self, thesis: NYA in Texas, p. 41 [ 20 ]. Letter, Gov. Allred to Lyndon Johnson May 15, 1936, Allred Papers, University of Houston Library as cited in: Self, thesis: NYA in Texas, p. 41 [ 21 ].
Interview, Lady Bird Johnson, Austin, Texas, June 6, 1974; “NYA Youths at Work,” Texas Outlook, XX (March, 1936), 24; Self, thesis: NYA in Texas, pp. 41-42 [ 22 ]. October 3, 1935, The Aspermont Star, “NYA to Aid High School Students,” vol. 38, no. 12, p. 4 [ 23 ]. December 17, 1936, The Aspermont Star, “Notice” and “NYA Job Placement Committee Appointed,” vol. 39, no. 23, p. 1 [ 24 ]. Alfred Steinberg, Sam Johnson’s Boy (New York: Macmillan Co. , 1968), p. 98 as cited in: Self, thesis: NYA in Texas, p. 44 [ 25 ]. Interview, Jesse Kellam, February 14, 1974; letter, H.
A. Zeigler to Deborah Self, March 31, 1974 as cited in: Self, thesis: NYA in Texas, p. 44 [ 26 ]. Letter, John J. Corson to Lyndon B. Johnson, Sept. 17, 1935, File: “Administrative: Lyndon B. Johnson, Sept. 15-Oct. 1935,” Box 8 JNYA, Lyndon Johnson Library as cited in: Christie Bourgeois, “Stepping over Lines: Lyndon Johnson, Black Texans, and the National Youth Administration, 1935-1937,” Southwestern Historical Quarterly, vol 91, Issue 2, Oct. 1987, p. 149 [ 27 ]. Bourgeois, “LBJ, Black Texans and NYA”, p. 151 [ 28 ]. Ibid, p. 153 [ 29 ]. Ibid, p. 156 30 ]. Robert Dallek, Lone Star Rising: Lyndon Johnson and His Times 1908-1960, 1991, Oxford University Press, pp. 135-36 [ 31 ]. Ibid, p. 158 [ 32 ]. Ibid, p. 159 [ 33 ]. Ibid [ 34 ]. Brown to Johnson, Nov. 4, 1936, file: “Fiscal and accounting Matters, April, 1936-Dec. 1937,” Box 9, Ibid,: “The NYA Resident Projects at Prairie View, Texas,” Apr. 15, 1938, Reports Concerning NYA Operations, by Congressional Districts, prepared for the executive Director of the NYA, 1938-39, E-183, Series, RG 119 as cited in: Bourgeois, “LBJ, Black Texans and NYA,” p. 60 [ 35 ]. Johnson to Brown, Mar. 16, 1936, “Special Report of Negro Activities of the National Youth Administration of Texas…,” File: “Administrative Reports: March, 1936,” Box 5, JNYA as cited in: Bourgeois, “LBJ, Black Texans, and NYA,” p. 162 [ 36 ]. Johnson to Brown, Oct. 31, 1935, telegram; “Special Report of Negro Activities of the National Youth Administration of Texas”; Arthur Goldschmidt and Elizabeth Wickenden to Paige Mulhollan, June 3, 1969 (quotation), oral history interview, AG 79-95