2 internal and 2 external factors which can impact on the employment relationship

Table of Content

Before submitting your work to www.bradfield.co.uk please read the following statements and tick the appropriate box to show that you have understood and completed what is required.

1. I have read my work through and have checked it for spelling and grammatical errors using, where appropriate the spell and grammar checker on the computer.

This essay could be plagiarized. Get your custom essay
“Dirty Pretty Things” Acts of Desperation: The State of Being Desperate
128 writers

ready to help you now

Get original paper

Without paying upfront

2. I have written my name at the top of each page of my work and have numbered each page.

3. I have read the definition of plagiarism. I realise that plagiarism is cheating and can confirm that the assignment I am submitting is my own work.

The definition of plagiarism is given below. Read it carefully and note what it says. ‘Plagiarism is the act of presenting the ideas or discoveries of another as one’s own. To copy sentences, phrases or even striking expressions without acknowledgement in a manner which may deceive the reader as to the source is plagiarism; to paraphrase in a manner which may deceive the reader is likewise plagiarism. Where such copying or close paraphrase has occurred the mere mention of the source in a bibliography will not be
deemed sufficient acknowledgement; in each instance it must be referred specifically to its source.

Date Received:
Date sent for Assessment:

Activity ANo of words 2829

1. Performance management is a repetitive process, established by organizations to help them in accomplishing their objectives (goals, as listed in the organization’s vision) by maximizing the performance of an individual, team or whole organization and ensure that the objectives are achieved.

The Performance Management Process is a key component of organization’s overall approach to the management of its people. As part of the performance management system, Performance Management Process aims to achieve the following

To enable an individual employee to know exactly what is expected both in terms of outputs (the delivery of agreed objectives) and the relevant, appropriate behavioralstyle (role-related competency models), which will underpin the delivery of the agreed objectives.

To enable individual and team effort to be focused on the delivery of the departmental business plan and to feel motivated and valued for their contribution to the on-going success of organization

2. Components of the Performance Management System
The Performance Review Cycle is a continuous process that includes 3 key meetings between a manager and his / her direct report(s) as part of the cycle. It is a process that requires participation, respect, and frequent honest discussion and feedback on issues like role, responsibilities, objectives, resources, risks to success, and performance Performance Review Cycle (PRC)

The Performance Improvement Plan (PIP), a supportive approach to addressing underperformance

3. Motivation and job performance are inextricably connected because every worker has to have some degree of motivation just to go to work in the first place. Many people believe that the most highly motivated employees are the employees who will reach the highest level of job performance. Consequently, many large firms train supervisors and managers to motivate their employees or develop methods that will enable them to understand the factors that motivate individual employees

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is often portrayed in the shape of a pyramid with the largest, most fundamental levels of needs at the bottom and the need for self-actualization at the top.[1][9] While the pyramid has become the de facto way to represent the hierarchy, Maslow himself never used a pyramid to describe these levels in any of his writings on the subject.

The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called “deficiency needs” or “d-needs”: esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs. If these “deficiency needs” are not met – with the exception of the most fundamental (physiological) need – there may not be a physical indication, but the individual will feel anxious and tense. Maslow’s theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire (or focus motivation upon) the secondary or higher level needs. Maslow also coined the term Metamotivation to describe the motivation of people who go beyond the scope of the basic needs and strive for constant betterment

Vroom’s expectancy theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain. Vroom realized that an employee’s performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. He stated that effort, performance and motivation are linked in a person’s motivation. He uses the variables Expectancy, Instrumentality and
Valence to account for this.

Expectancy is the belief that increased effort will lead to increased performance i.e. if I work harder than this will be better. This is affected by such things as: Having the right resources available (e.g. raw materials, time) Having the right skills to do the job

Having the necessary support to get the job done (e.g. supervisor support, or correct information on the job) Instrumentality is the belief that if you perform well that a valued outcome will be received. The degree to which a first level outcome will lead to the second level outcome.i.e. if I do a good job, there is something in it for me. This is affected by such things as: Clear understanding of the relationship between performance and outcomes – e.g. the rules of the reward ‘game’ Trust in the people who will take the decisions on who gets what outcome Transparency of the process that decides who gets what outcome Valence is the importance that the individual places upon the expected outcome. For the valence to be positive, the person must prefer attaining the outcome to not attaining it. For example, if someone is mainly motivated by money, he or she might not value offers of additional time off.

4. Purpose of reward in performance management
In creating a high performance workplace, your reward strategy and remuneration practices will be vital. Market leaders avoid “one size fits all” remuneration programs – they develop innovative ways to encourage the employee behavior that will make a difference in achieving their particular business goals. These organization’s go well beyond benchmarking their salary & benefits practices – all their reward systems and remuneration programs Contingent on employees making a contribution, rather than just doing certain tasks; Meaningful and valuable to all individuals, regardless of their function; Based on objective and attainable goals;

Fair to all, and not based on a competitive struggle within the workplace; Balanced between workplace conditions and fulfillment of individual needs and priorities; Focused on efforts to serve customers and to enhance collaboration within the workplace.

5. Reward Components
Components of rewards
The components rewards
• compensation – the ‘foundational’ rewards that are primarily financial in nature and satisfy financial needs for income • benefits – which satisfy protection needs and are unlikely to be performance-based • the work experience – which meets the relational needs that bind workers to the organization more strongly because they satisfy an individual’s needs such as personal development and fulfillment 6. Factors to be considered when managing good and poor performance Performance management is a process and not an event. Performance management is not another term for personal appraisal. It is a process that brings together and manages all the factors that affect performance, treating the individual as a vital component but not the only component in a multifaceted aspect of management.

Knowledge and Experience

This is what you see in the candidate’s resume. Be careful, though, because you have to ignore the “advertising material” and opinions in the resume. Instead, concentrate on: What type of work have they been doing in the past?

What formal qualifications do they have, if applicable?
Does their knowledge and experience indicate that they are worthy of consideration?

This involves the reasons they have moved from job to job. In particular, why they left their last job and why they want yours. In the final analysis, it’s actually up to you to make the ultimate judgment here. You should carefully check several key performance indicators:- What was the candidate’s original intention when taking their previous job? How did that work out once they got established?

Why did they then leave that job?

External Factors
By this we mean those things that can negatively influence a person’s ability to perform well. These include such external influences as:- A crashing personal problem.
The distance they have to travel to work.
The money they need to make.
The limitations of some type of physical disability

How does the candidate respond to the problems that life (or the job) throws at them? What is their general demeanor?
Do they have the right approach and style for this job?

Proven Results
The candidate’s ability to perform is the primary factor in all this. This is the most important of all performance factors. Consider the following scenarios: 1. The candidate has certain knowledge or experience missing from their background. They have enough to be considered, but not as much as other candidates do. If, however, they have done this type of work before and achieved outstanding results (far greater results than the other “more qualified” candidates did), what does it matter if they don’t seem to have the same amount of knowledge and experience as the others do? 2. Consider the candidate who would have to travel further to work than other (equally qualified) candidates.

Poor Performance

An employee doesn’t know what is expected because goals and/or standards or workplace Policies and consequences are not clear, have not been set; Lack of, or an insufficient induction/orientation process There is a mismatch between an employee’s capabilities and the job they are required to undertake, or the Employee does not have the knowledge or skills to do the job expected of them; An employee does not know whether they are doing a good job because there is no counseling or feedback On their performance Workplace bullying.

7. Items of Data

Data as an abstract concept can be viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from which information and then knowledge are derived. Some items od data that add value to the perfromnace management process can be internal and external Internaldata can be classified as

PDP Performance development Plan
performance improvement plan is a formal process used by supervisors to help employees improve performance or modify behavior. The performance improvement plan, or PIP, as it is sometimes called, identifies performance and/or behavioral issues that need to be corrected and creates a written plan of action to guide the improvement and/or corrective action. Fundamentally, a PIP is a structured communication tool designed to facilitate constructive discussion between the employee and the supervisor. An effective PIP will: Specifically identify the performance to be improved or the behavior to be corrected. Provide clear expectations and metrics about the work to be performed or behavior that must change. Identify the support and resources available to help the employee make the required improvements. Establish a plan for reviewing the employee’s progress and providing feedback to the employee for the duration of the PIP. Specify possible consequences if performance standards as identified in the PIP are not met. Job Description

A job description is a list that a person might use for general tasks, or functions, and responsibilities of a position. It may often include to whom the position reports, specifications such as the qualifications or skills needed by the person in the job, or a salary range. Job descriptions are usually narrative,[1] but some may instead comprise a simple list of competencies; for instance, strategic human resource planning methodologies may be used to develop a competency architecture for an organization, from which job descriptions are built as a shortlist of competencies.


An achievement is a something done successfully, typically by effort, courage, or skill. It is also a representation of a coat of arms as well as all the adjuncts.

An External data can be Salary Research
Salary Survey is a study that is carried out to compare salaries, which are given to various people working in the same profession but in different countries

8. Frequency , purpose and process of performance review
In our organization the performance is usually done twice a year one in the mid-month which is call mid-month appraisal and the other in the end of the year end appraisal; Companies use performance appraisals for evaluation and developmental purposes. A properly executed appraisal acts as a basis for hiring new employees, training and development of current employees, restructuring of workflow and employee motivation. Performance appraisals offer evidence for pay increases or for terminations. Well-designed performance appraisals can start dialogue between supervisors, direct reports and coworkers that may result in positive outcomes for the individuals and the business.It provides an opportunity for both the supervisor and the employee to review the past year’s accomplishments and to establish measurable goals and objectives for the near future. Furthermore, it encourages open discussion of individual achievement in the context of career development, departmental strategies, and the institutional mission. While the appraisal is in part an assessment of the employee’s overall performance over the past year, it is also intended to offer feedback and to address mutual expectations for the future The process

process will serve as a tool for enhancing job effectiveness, progress and growth. In addition, the review process will foster mutual understanding of job requirements and employee contributions, lend insight into what motivates optimal performance, and provide an opportunity for feedback regarding development and other career interests. Preparation

The preparation process involves review and data gathering, holding a
preliminary meeting with the employee, and employee preparation of a self-appraisal.

The writing phase of the performance appraisal process involves completing the Performance Appraisal Form and writing the appraisal narrative.

Planning the performance appraisal meeting is considered critical. Typical advice in this respect includes: Prior to the meeting, review your written appraisal of the employee’s performance. Review your notes covering the last year and the evidence in support of the rating you gave.

Plan your discussion. Objectives for the discussion include: Reviewing, discussing, and confirming understanding of the essential functions listed on the job description, annual goals and standards of work performance. Recognising strengths and achievements.

Confirming previously identified functional areas needing improvement and establishing agreement about how improvement is to be accomplished. Identifying areas in which education, training, or other development opportunities are needed and a strategy for developing skills, knowledge or abilities. Discuss and confirm understanding and agreement about the steps the employee will take to accomplish self- development goals, as well as how you or the department will help. Plan to meet with the employee in private.

When you meet, carefully review his or her self-appraisal. Discuss areas of agreement and difference.
Review your draft of the Performance Appraisal Form and appraisal narrative with the employee. Discuss the employee’s strengths first, covering each point in detail. This sets a positive tone to start the discussion.

Discuss previously identified areas needing improvement. Ask the employee for suggestions about how he or she will improve performance. Introduce your ideas for improvement as well.  Consider whether anything raised in the employee’s self-appraisal sheds new light on your assessment, and be prepared to modify your appraisal if appropriate.
Show your interest in your employee’s progress and your willingness to take up the discussion again any time. Close the appraisal when all points have been covered and the employee has had the opportunity to provide input.

If changes will be made to the appraisal, discuss those changes and agree upon a date by which the final draft of the appraisal will be prepared and the appraisal will be signed.
After necessary changes have been made, ask the employee to sign the Performance Appraisal Form. The employee’s signature indicates that he or she has read the appraisal and that a discussion has taken place. It does not signify that the employee agrees with the appraisal.

You may attach work standards, supplemental performance information, work samples, and additional comments. Inform the employee that he or she can add or attach comments to the Performance Appraisal Form as well. If the employee wants to add comments, allow time to write them, and attach the comments to the original, signed file copy. Comments should be filed with the performance appraisal.

Written record

A copy of the final, signed, performance appraisal should be given to the employee for his or her records. He or she can also use it as a guide for improving performance and for professional development.

The performance appraisal process is intended to break down barriers and maintain open communication, creating an atmosphere that allows a candid approach to discussions of performance. During the new review period, the performance manager and employee discuss the employee’s performance on an ongoing basis until it is time for the next written appraisal. This communication is part of the ongoing process of observation and feedback.


Policy requires appraisal of the performance of career employees in writing at least once a year. Performance appraisals may be delivered more often when necessary to address performance issues.

Employees may choose to write comments concerning their performance appraisal. The employee receives a copy of the signed appraisal form.
Record retention

The original, signed performance appraisal is retained in the department’s personnel records for three to five years following an employee’s separation. Modified approach to performance appraisal

Another approach to performance appraisal generalizes the process as follows Conduct ongoing observations and measurements to track performance The supervisor would observe the employee’s performance against a set of benchmarks and assess accordingly. Exchange ongoing feedback about performance

Feedback is information relevant to how well results are being achieved. Ideally, feedback addresses key activities to improve or reinforce performance Ongoing feedback is often one of the most important aspects of performance management. Conduct a performance appraisal (sometimes called performance review)

A performance appraisal (or review) includes documentation of expected results, standards of performance, progress toward achieving of results, how well they were achieved, examples indicating achievement, suggestions to improve performance and how those suggestions can be followed.

If performance meets desired performance standards, reward for performance This step in the performance management process — reward for performance — is often overlooked. One-off rewards are probably more manageable and controllable, eg a bonus instead of an increase in base pay.

Performance Report

Summary of Discussion
1. Her performance for the last six months has been moderate with a 50% achievement rate on sales. She Tends to miss small errors in work product. Her documentation Is slow and needs to speeden up . Her knowledge in the products needs to enhance in order to throw more vigor on her sales. 2. The quality of her work has been satisfactory. And the sales of the credit cards have gone well and the approach to grasp customers is positive. There needs to be more clarity in the sales of loan products and she lacks extensive knowledge in the same her . The cut off between the sales of her credit card and loans shows that her break off in card is more and faster than in sales She needs to improvise in gaining more knowledge in the loan products and also be able convince her customers on the positive of the products .she needs more training on the prospects of the products

Product category
Sales achieved
Reason givens
Credit card
250 cards
Targeted al small scale companies
Well within the task
80 processed 20 documentation pending
Not able to convince customers to take loan . Process to submit papers have delayed the numbers show. Not able to convince people over the phone Needs to work more in the sales on the sales of loan products

4. Action by line manager:
Needs more on the job training to sell loan products .advise to be given by supervisor on the customers to target . need to review the case in thequarter. Prefers to be more on to outdoor rather than indoor as she is not able to convince people over the phone

Action by employees;
Has promised to increase the sales by 25% in the quarter and also gain hands on sales ideas in the loan products

Recommendation for the bonus

Since she has achieved her targets for sales of the credit cards and also show loan application in process I recommend partial payment of her bonus . She has been a very good contact sales person in the past 5 years and become very slow in the 6 months as there was not much clarity on the new loan products .

We recommend for the bonus as she has shown more that 50% increase in sales of credit cards

Cite this page

2 internal and 2 external factors which can impact on the employment relationship. (2016, Jun 27). Retrieved from


Remember! This essay was written by a student

You can get a custom paper by one of our expert writers

Order custom paper Without paying upfront