Apple: Power, Control and Conflict

Table of Content

Harmonizing to Fortune magazine. Apple has been named the most admired company in the US in 2008. spread outing its repute throughout the universe from 2008-2012. However. the popular elephantine administration has being critsized widely for it’s contractor labor patterns. concern patterns every bit good as Apple’s ain environmental attack. This essay will analyse Apple in two different position theories which will assist us understand the patterns in a better context ; these two position will be the modernist and the Critical theory.

The modernist organisation theoretician thinks that holding a appreciation over cognition over how good they understand how and why organisations work the manner they do and how their functionality is affected by the ever-changing environmental conditions. Organizational jobs are identified so as to come up with more efficient and effectual ways for the organisation to better its profitableness and have a competitory advantage. In add-on. the modernist theoretician thinks that successful organisations are able to get by with force per unit areas internally and externally. develop basic competences. increase productiveness and being adaptable to alter.

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The Critical Theory position is really a slightly opposite attack of the modernist theory. It is introduced to review the unfavorable on the job conditions for the workers in an administration. Although critical theoreticians claim it is of import to detect and interact with the universe. they besides believe one must be able to analyze and near jobs in order to come up with solutions ( Rucker. 2012 ) Critical theoretician besides feel that the modernist manner see labour power is a trade good because they use people to to bring forth fiscal additions. The critical theory besides states that there are unequal power in the workplace where there is control and domination by the directors with important power.

Power. Control. Struggle

There are three different theories to power. control and struggle in an administration. Harmonizing to ( Weber. 2001 ) . he thinks that legitimate power is hidden within hierarchy. For control. it is normally exercised by the administration and it is assumed that the determination shaper agree about organizational ends. Finally. for struggle. organisational determination shapers are normally faced with competition. scarce resources. mutuality. This normally leads to the struggles as the one keeping powerful places would be given to do their ain determinations for their ain benefits to safeguard their place. This becomes a political behaviour by persons. However. self consciousness of the person would normally take them to aline their involvements with that of the company’s that will in bend benefit the organisation aims at the same clip.

Modernist theoreticians hold the construct of control utilizing bureaucratic theories. It makes usage of authorization to put certain ordinances. regulations. criterion processs to obtain a certain sort of control over its employees. It besides normally prosecute in distinction and departmentalization. The modernist theoretician strives to better efficiency and effectivity at all times by holding control on information. surveillance. rewarding of employees and a contract to protect the involvements of both sides. Clan control theories attacks are besides used to act upon employees through group behaviour and to set up civilization within groups. Finally. they besides hold the belief that struggle in organisation is counter-productive and should be managed by those in power to maximise public presentation.

A critical theoretician believes in the societal. economic and political constructions and political orientations play a portion in impacting the administration. It besides challenges the owner’s right to profit-favours democracy. It besides criticizes the system demoing marks of development. domination. opposition and miscommunication. It tries to frees dominated groups and develop more democratic and humanistic signifiers. It believes that employees of an administration normally give consent to their ain development through a false sense of consciousness. Finally. it feels that struggle is an inevitable effect of capitalist economy and is necessary for opposition.

When the two different persons have different position. dissensions tend to happen. The dissensions are farther aggravated by the miscommunication or the attitudes of different persons. This normally consequences in one party seeking to derive an upper manus on another.

A modernist theoretician supports struggles under control by delegating power and authorization to an person to pull off such jobs. The formalistic methods. regulations and ordinances by administrations besides assist in assisting to cut down struggles at work. With lesser struggles happening at work. public presentation. productiveness and efficiency is greatly improved.

In comparing. the critical theoretician supports conflicts as it shows a signifier of opposition towards the power in the administration. With struggles. betterments could be implemented and this could increase work productiveness every bit good as a sense of worker’s satisfaction. Conflicts are viewed as good in this instance as workers are entitled to their ain sentiments which in bends help actuate the worker’s morale and bring on creativeness in them.

Organization construction and physical construction

The organizational societal construction refers to the relationship people portion within an administration. This construction is believed to be used as a tool to command organizational results. It besides represents the manner people interact and exchange information and information which improves the efficieincy of the administration. The physical construction refers to the spacial relationships between physical elements of an administration linked to its edifices and the topographic points they are located at.

Modernist and Critical theoretician portion similar political orientations about the administration and physical construction as they help employees achieve maximal productiveness which addition efficiency. However. there are certain positions that are between Modernist and Critical Theorist that pales in comparing.

Modernist theoretician normally try to look for high degrees of public presentation which they believe is linked to statistical relationships between dimensions of construction and public presentation they could develop a successful scheme. They follow the organizational patterns and ordinances by following the ‘Mechanistic’ construction ( Burns & A ; Stalker. 1961 ) . which implements conventionality and customary patterns through guidelines. With places and ranks to find authorization. this normally creates a sense of control over employees to accomplish good net incomes ( Clegg & A ; Haugaard. 2009 ) . This construction is normally modelled on successful regulating administrations to be used as a point of mention. As for the physical construction. the modernist position believes that illuming. music. temperature and a few other physical factors affects employee’s productiveness.

Critical theoreticians provinces that administration and physical constructions are required as the administration would non be able to work usually without a proper construction and hierarchy. However. they see it as a manner to implement and keep control over employees. ( Hatch and Cunliffe. 2006 ) . Critical theoretician holds a different sentiment in comparing to the modernist position on political orientation as it feels that the modernist attack tends to work workers. They strive to enable the employees to be able to voice out against the direction who make usage of employee’s attempts. The critical theoreticians prefer to trust on the “Organic” construction ( Burns & A ; Stalker 1961 ) as it ensures flexibleness. creativeness and and tends to be less formalised.

Organization Culture

Apple represents a important portion of modern civilization in today’s context. However. civilization is a pretend attack and does non truly impact the company as a whole. Nonetheless. Apple makes full usage of this attack to successfully pull strings civilization to ‘please’ clients and net income off them.

Analysis of Apple in Theoretical position

The two positions are used to specify Apple’s positive results of its successful concern theoretical account and understand its defects. Mordernist and critical theoretician have different attack on power. control. perceptual experience of organisational and physical constructions of organisations. Therefore a comparing between the two theories will let us to hold a better apprehension of how a large organisation like Apple operates.

Apple is considered one of the most successful companies globally. It is considered one of the most iconic trade names around the universe. Their success didnon come until the debut of iMac. iPhone and iPad series. In the modern universe where people can non populate communications and networking. velocity is an of import factor which determines the consumer’s picks. Apple has managed to run into the consumer’s outlooks of velocity with an added advantage of its merchandises being user-friendly.

Modern Perspective

Modernist theoretician feels that Apple is the perfect illustration as it sets a criterion for other companies to pattern after. It has been discovered that Apple has eanings of over $ 400. 000 in net income per employee. That is more than other planetary administrations such as Goldman Sachs. Exxon Monil or Google in 2011 ( Duhigg & A ; Bradsher. 2012 ) . With the enormous sum of net incomes. it normally means the company is making good harmonizing to modernist theoretician. Apple’s values of holding a clear way. single answerability. sense of urgency. changeless feedback and lucidity of mission has helped to profit them financially every bit good as winning the esteem of other organisations.

Apple’s operating processs at first had proper power and control merely like any other organisations. This shows that they followed the hierarchy and implemented a bureaucratic system for the employees to adhere to. Apple believes making this will enable to employees to better into an elect work force. However. when Steve Jobs became CEO. he introduced a different construct to the administration. There were still power and authorization at work but this was rearranged to maintain the employees motivated at work.

Apple besides introduced the “Direct Responsible Individual’ . significance that there were no confusion to the duties of the person that were assigned to manage as it was detail-orientated. Everybody is responsible for their ain actions therefore the employees could take pride in their work. However. the control still works in a bureaucratic mode without compromising the flow of communicating. hence esteeming the hierarchy of the administration. ( Clegg & A ; Hauggard 2009 ) . This in bend helps to hike Apple’s repute as a professional and reputable company. giving rise to their stock monetary values that appealed to purchasers.

Apple has ever outsourced its fabrication processs to foreign states ; This has enabled them to beginning for lower paid workers who were more than willing to take up the repetitive and tough occupations compared to their opposite numbers in America. They chose Chinas because of its big population and inexpensive labor. with an mean hourly rate of US $ 1. 57 in 2008 ( Froud. Johal. Leaver & A ; Williams. 2012 ) . They were able to bring forth on a monolithic graduated table with the big work force working in its China mills. With the low production cost per unit. Apple’s gross border per unit sold was high. raising its stock market value lifting up to $ 343 billion ( Froud. Johal. Leaver and Williams. 2012 ) . Organizations around the universe are now following in Apple’s footfalls by outsourcing their fabrication processs to other states trusting to derive a higher net income border.

Critical Position

Critical theoreticians criticize Apple’s operation attack as it feels that all it cares approximately is its net incomes and does non see the demands of its employees. Although Apple claim to set less force per unit area and let its employees to better their creativeness on by presenting the “Direct Responsible Individual’ . Critical Theorists feels that the administration is merely doing usage of the employees thoughts without giving them the due acknowledgment or fiscal benefits generated from their ain thoughts. So the critical theoretician is proposing that Apple’s attack to ‘organic’ construction ( Burns & A ; Stalker 1961 ) is used merely to work and command their workers by leting them to experience a false sense of fulfillment.

Critical theoretician besides inquiry Apple’s determination to outsource their fabrication procedure to Foxcon. They feel that workers were exploited by the low rewards and long working hours. Dangerous work environments with routinized processs to adhere to farther worsen the on the job conditions for the employees of Foxcon. This has allowed Apple to harvest enormous net incomes at the disbursal of the worker’s rewards and ill constructed work environment. All these factors contributed to the unexpected self-destruction instances due to what employees have to confront at Foxcon. Although Apple released a statement that it will seek its best to better the on the job conditions at Foxcon. critical theoreticians have uncertainties about their claims and believe they will go on to work their workers.

Apple and its environment

The organisational environment is external factors that will impact the organisation. ( Hatch & A ; Cunliffe. 2006 ) The environment plays an of import portion for Apple’s growing and sustainbility as it is a large organisation.

Modern positions

Modernist oversee the environment by detecting and nearing it consistently and technologically. By associating to Apple. the administration separates itself from its fabrication installations in China although it uses these resources for their input procedure. The merchandises produced by the mills would so be sold internationally. As Apple is cognizant how the environment may impact or hinder their fiscal advancement. it sticks closely to the three environmental eventuality theories to assist them accommodate.

The first theory that modernist examine would be the ‘Environmental Contingency Theory’ . This states that the organisation construction should undergo alterations to suit the current environment ( Lawrence and Lorsch. 1967 ) . In the context of Apple. this organisation alteration in construction could be apparent in the early 90s. where Apple attempts to reinvent its platforms and better its merchandises hardware. It besides restructured the company’s merchandise line and introduced a new build-to-order fabrication scheme. This adaptive attack has helped Apple return to profitableness and combat other competition from other companies externally.

The following theory will be the ‘Resource Dependence Theory’ . This states that the environment has a enormous influence over the organisation. Therefore it must command their dependence on it and seek to come up with counter schemes to the environment. ( Lawrence and Lorsch. 1967 ) . One of the illustrations that can be linked back to Apple would be how it outsourced its fabrication processes to foreign states. This shows that it is non dependent on its ain labour resources but lookout for cheaper options alternatively. This theory has assisted Apple in the sense of non being excessively dependent of the resources found in its ain state. leting Apple to harvest monolithic fiscal benefits in making so.

Finally. the last theory would be the ‘Population Ecology’ theory. Organizational ecology gets information from the biological science. economic sciences. and sociology. and attempts to trust on statistical analysis to hold on the conditions under which organisations emerge. turn. and dice. ( Hanan & A ; Freeman. 1977 ) It is seen as a different option to derive a stronger clasp to the version position. Simplified. it’s the thought that environment affects organisation construction. failure. and success. This happens when companies focus on lasting within an environment by being dependent on it to run at a basic degree ( Hatch and Cunliffe 2006 ) . Apple’s success has left many administrations around to universe seeking to pattern after it in order to be gain fiscal benefits. Apple has set a benchmark for the administrations to trust on in order to last. Therefore. Apple has successfully implemented certain schemes that allowed it to outlive the environment and still go on to make good.

Critical position

Critical theoreticians believe that Apple is a capitalist who make usage of the environment to back up their ain company aims. The direction of Apple is seen as concentrating their attempts on profitable thoughts alternatively of bettering organizational productiveness and effectivity. This makes the company develop a sense of impregnability. Capitalist are able to derive control over societies to avoid doing damagess for hapless societal and environmental behavior. Over the old ages. Apple has managed to transformed from an American based company to a transitional corporation. It is able to run and bring forth anyplace every bit long as the input resource is low in cost.

Although Apple has helped hike China’s economic system and generate occupations and income for its citizens. critical theoretician provinces that Apple merely does this for their ain fiscal involvement. This can be seen from the development of under-aged workers and the neglect for worker’s safety in a ill constructed mill.

Critical theoretician besides believes the fact that Apple is seeking to derive monopoly of the workers through Taylorism attacks. This affects the employees in such a manner that they have no other accomplishments but to go on working for Apple. As the Chinese authorities does non desire Apple to draw out of its state for the fiscal growing it is bring forthing. it is coerced to follow with Apple’s unwanted organizational patterns.

Finally. Apple besides registered their administration with NASDAQ. This will better public consciousness and acknowledgment in the company within its environment as they can supply future fund-raising capablenesss by agencies of publishing portion ( Mcdowall. 2007 ) . Achieving this would enable them to better their cyberspace worth and derive an upper standing in the fiscal universe. This will let them to rule over the environment’s societal web.


In decision. through the two positions. it has allowed us to efficaciously see the differences in patterns in Apple. It may be a right organizational attack in the sense of a modernist position. but in a critical position. it focuses more on the societal impacts Apple has on its employees. Therefore. the positions merely provide two different attacks of but non about whether it is a right or incorrect pattern. The theoretical position merely serve as a regulation of pollex in sing the administration in from different angles but is non a good benchmark to trust on for opinion of understanding.


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