Physical Abuse is when, a person inflicts physical force that is non-accidental and results in pain, impairment or bodily injury.
Sexual Abuse is direct or indirect involvement in sexual activities without consent. As well as being physically forced into sexual activity without consent.
Emotional / psychological abuse is when a person uses threats, bullying, trying to control a person’s mind, makes them feel powerless, as well as making them believe it is their own fault. This type of abuse results in mental and physical distress and includes denial of basic human rights.
Financial abuse is unauthorised and improper use of funds, property and any other resources belonging to another person. Examples are: Forcing someone to change their will to include them in it, preventing people access to their own money, properties and personal belongings.
Institutional abuse is an unsatisfactory regime within and organisation. This occurs when staff change the routines systems and support they give clients to suit their needs, rather than the clients.
This involves a system that is stretched beyond capacity, which causes maltreatments through lack of resources.
Self-neglect is when a person fails to attend to their basic needs, such as personal hygiene, feeding and tending to any medical conditions they may have. This also means a person has the inability to maintain and accepted standard of care for their selves and their surroundings. Self-neglect can be caused by many factors such as health problems, childhood problems, other forms of abuse and self-consciously.
Neglect by others is a form of abuse where a person is responsible to provide care for someone unable to care for themselves. However they fail to provide adequate care. This can be referred to as Omission – fails to care for another. Some of the things included in neglect are, failure to provide medical care, failure to fulfil other needs, failure to provide sufficient nourishment or supervision.
Q 1.2 Identify the signs and/ symptoms associated with each type of abuse?
The signs and symptoms of physical abuse are often evident but can also be hidden by the victim or abuser. Signs and symptoms of Physical Abuse are:
Bruises on any part of body
Clusters of injuries forming a pattern of article used
Different stages of healing
Lying to get people to stop asking questions
Wearing long clothes, make up etc. to cover up
Signs and symptoms of Sexual Abuse are:
Sexually transmitted disease or pregnancy
Tears or bruises in genital/ anal area
Wetting or soiling
Urinary tract or vaginal infections
Difficulty or sensitivity in walking or sitting
Stained/ bloody clothes
Emotional or crying
Signs and symptoms of Emotional / Psychological abuse are:
Taking anger out on others
Loss of sleep or nightmares
Low self- esteem , anxiety and lack of confidence
Signs and symptoms of financial abuse are:
Sudden loss of assets
Unusual financial transactions
Visits on pay days
Bills not being paid
Lack of food in the house
Change of will and testament
Signs and symptoms of Institutional abuse are:
Set meal times
Lack of consideration of diet requirements
Structured and inflexible events
Treating people like children
Lack of privacy, dignity and choice or respect for people as individuals Withdrawal
Signs and symptoms of Self-Neglect are:
Poor social interaction
May turn to drugs and alcohol
Signs and symptoms of Neglect by others are:
Rapid weight loss
Lack of personal care
Dirty clothing / household
Not having access to physical aids
Untreated medical condition and injuries
Can turn to substance abuse
Bruised, cuts, scars, marks
Isolated or anti-social
Can lead to self-harm
Q 1.3 describe factors that may contribute to and individual being more vulnerable to abuse?
Factors that may contribute to and individual being more vulnerable of abuse may include, if the individual has a mental disability such as dementia or not have the mental capacity. If the individual is isolated they become more vulnerable. People who have previously been abused, low self-esteem, no sense of worth, people who have substance abuse, old people, children, homeless, people who cannot communicate verbally, medically dependant people.
This is because they have nobody to protect them, which leads to them becoming more likely to be abused. Abusers prey on vulnerable people to make their attacks easier and less of a challenge.
Q 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 Explain the actions to take if there are suspicions that and individual is being abused? Explain the actions to take is an individual alleges that they are being abused? Identify ways to ensure that evidence of abuse is preserved.
A 2.1, 2.2, 2.3
If there are suspicions that an individual is being abused I would make a written report about my findings that have lead me to believe abuse is happening or happened. As an alerter I would report this to my line manager and any other departments I needed to inform. If my line manager did not take action on my report, I would take it to the regulator or other agencies by using the whistle blowing technique. All my reports would include body mapping to show where I have seen evidence of abuse and this would then be used as evidence.
If the client had any clothing that needed to be used as evidence (i.e. blood on their clothes) I would ask the client to remain in those clothes until the relevant person came to investigate the suspicions making sure any evidence was preserved for the investigation. In doing this I would also be making sure no evidence became contaminated.
As an alerter I would not be responsible for investigating the case however if there was a situation where the evidence may be damaged or tampered with I would try to preserve this by moving it to a safe place and making sure in my written report I have logged where it was moved to why and how. I would communicate with the client but not question them as this may make the client feel more vulnerable. I would alert client’s family or friends about the incident with the client’s permission. Once the case had been investigated care plans would be updated and I would make sure I follow any care plans or changes to my job role needed.
If a client alleges that they are being abused I would also follow these procedures, the only difference would be in my written reports it would have a statement from the client about their version of events instead of mine. Also the body mapping diagram would be different as the client would be showing me all areas that the abuse happened rather than me reporting what I have seen. I would still alert the same people and preserve the evidence in the same ways.
It is important to preserve as much evidence as you can to allow an investigation to be carried out as quickly as possible. Always putting the
client’s safety and needs first. Other ways of preserving evidence is by asking for any CCTV which may show the abuse happening or identify some factors that are involved in the abuse.
Q 3.1 Identify national polices and local systems that relate to safeguarding and protection from abuse?
National Polices that relate to safeguarding and protection from abuse are:
No Secrets: guidance on developing and implementing multi agency policies and procedures to protect vulnerable adults. Safeguarding Board
MAPPA (Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangement) this can be used by Social Services, Probation, Police, NHS and many other agencies. Care Quality Commission (CQC)
Before recruiting Employers now work closely with the ISA ( Independent Safeguarding Authority) who work closely with the CRB (Criminal Record Bureau) who get information from POVA (Protection Of Vulnerable Adults) and POCA (Protection Of Children Act) lists to assess and vet anyone who wants to work within the care sector. General Social Care council
Following Codes of Conduct
Agencies within the public sector such as Social Services, City councils, CAB, Age UK, MIND, Mencap, DSS Benefits system, and many other charities. Private Sector such as Solicitors
This is Knowsley Safeguarding and protection policies
To recognise when there is an issue with a client. To then identify what the issue is, which policies to follow and who to repot to. Making sure the client is kept informed and their needs are always put first.
Safety of the individual
Checking the client to make sure there is nothing to harm, hurt or distress them any further. Calling an ambulance or the appropriate services to meet the client’s needs. Making sure you follow your alerter roles i.e. paperwork, informing higher member of staff and family if you have the client’s permission.
As alerter it is your job to alert all relevant staff, support working, and family of any incidents. Also making sure that written records are made and kept up to date throughout the investigation.
Always discuss what has happened, what the next steps are i.e. emergency protection plans. Manager talks to the police or other services to decide what is best for the client. Always inform the client of what has been agreed and keep written records.
Observe the situation and always try to preserve evidence and avoid contamination when necessary. An example of this is if a client has blood on their clothes advise client to keep them on until the relevant team can collect evidence. In the event of a fire or where the client may be harmed move the evidence making sure that it is logged in written reports to say who moved it and where to.
Establish wishes of alleged victim
Discuss the incident with client, but do not question as this may make the client feel more vulnerable. Decide with the client what actions to take next, discuss reports and what you think is best. Also allowing client to decide as long as they have the mental capacity which would be assessed.
The making of a strategy to ensure what is best for the client. Taking into consideration the established facts, background, and any action plans in place. Record information discussed in strategy meeting and agree the best
plan to safeguard and protect the client. Arrange regular reviews with the client and of the plans and make any amendments that need to be made. Implement any new changes to the care plan.
Carry out plan
To carry out the care plan and any other actions that have been agreed.
To monitor the situation at regular intervals to ensure the client’s needs and plans are being followed. Ensuring that the clients not becoming any further distressed.
To review and observe the plans and client’s needs and being met.
Once you are certain that the abuse. Incident has now been resolved. The investigation can be closed in a strategy meeting, were you would update all care plans, policies and procedures. Lastly you would make sure the client is aware of the outcome as well as anyone else involved in the investigation.
Q 3.2 Explain the roles of different agencies in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse?
The police play a vital role in safeguarding adults especially when the individual alleges that they are being abused. This is because it is a criminal act and becomes the responsibility of the police to investigate allegations of crime, they have to preserve and collect evidence. If a crime is identified, the police will be the main agency and they will direct any investigation within their policies and procedures.
The police now have policies and procedures in place to communicate with other services to allow them to know which addresses have vulnerable people living at them and allows them to know how many times they visit the address in a month, two months and six month period. This allows the police to see if any patterns occur and help them safeguard and protect individuals. Police are now made to read serious case reviews to help them progress and amend their policies and procedures to ensure they are protecting the individuals. The police have more problem solving training to allow them to recognise problems with abuse in their jobs.
Social Services play a vital role in the safeguarding and protection of individuals who are victims of abuse. They have a ‘no secrets’ document that requires them to work together with other agencies to ensure that the protection of vulnerable adults is adhered to. Social services work in partnership with other agencies to develop policies and practices to protect vulnerable adults from abuse. They have a responsibility to provide a wide range of care and support for vulnerable adults. Where vulnerable adults are at risk social services with be responsible for assessing the client’s needs to promote their wellbeing and protection.
Ambulance and NHS work together to provide the best care for vulnerable individuals by keeping in touch with other agencies. This is to protect vulnerable people from safeguarding and protection issues. If a client is admitted into hospital several times for the same reason there are now systems in place to alert them of this, for example if a client has been admitted several times with signs of any type of abuse they will be alerted by their computer systems which notifies staff how many times the client has happened been admitted for similar issues i.e. once in one month twice in two months and six times in six months. Another example of identifying abuse or vulnerable adults is in some hospitals they have introduced a system to help them identify if someone is being abused. If there is suspicion that a client is being abused they will ask the client to go to the toilet and give them a water sample bottle, in the toilet there are different coloured stickers to put on the pot to show if they are being abused. If they cannot talk to the staff as the abuser is with them they would put a sticker on the bottle that was relevant to them. If the sticker/s are used it will alert the staff and they will try to move the client away from the abuser to protect them following their safeguarding and protection policies and procedures.
Care quality commission is to regulate and inspect care providers.
Over the years there have been many serious case reviews which has made all agencies review their policies and procedures. Most agencies now work within the Multi- Agency Public Protection Arrangement (MAPPA) guidelines to enable them to communicate and share information more effectively.
Q 3.3 Identify reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse?
Serious case review into the death of “04”- we discussed this as a group and presented the findings in this case to the class.
Serious case review of the murder of Stephen Hoskins 2008
In the serious case review of the murder of Stephen Hoskins 2008 I found many different failures by agencies that could have prevented Stephen from being murdered. As well as policies and procedures that could have been followed to safeguard and protect him.
Stephen had reached out to many different agencies before his death. Ambulance, police, social services are some examples of the agencies he had tried to reach out to. Each agency involved in Stephens case had failed to realise he was being abused. Stephen had called 999 on a number of occasions but there was no system in place to alert them of this, each call was dealt with as individual calls. Stephen had stopped visits from social services. Why was there no investigation to why he no longer wanted social services involved in his life, could he have been blackmailed into doing this? Did this give the abusers more power over Stephen if social services where not connected with Stephen?
A mental capacity assessment was not carried out on Stephen, to assess if he had the mental capacity to make the decision to stop his visits.
In the investigation to Stephens murder it was found that each agency had a small or large piece of information but the information was never pieced together until his murder occurred why is this?.
The procedures that were available at the time did not protect Steven and the protection of Stephen should have been a priority. Why does it take serious case reviews for agencies to all communicate with vulnerable people?
There are systems now in place to help protect future vulnerable individuals from the same problems Stephen experienced, but not all agencies could say they have solved the problems 100%. Social services said that although their services have been improved and they try and share as much information as they can that there was still training and more systems to be put into place. The NHS have said they are trying to work more closely with the Police but this has not yet been put into place. The Ambulance service are working close with all agencies but there is still progression to be made.
Q 3.4 Identify sources of information and advice about your own role in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse?
There are many ways to find information and advice about your own role in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse such as
Read safeguarding and protection policies and procedures
Read your job description
Ask you colleagues
Ask you line manager
Ask your regulator
Ask or read the Care Quality Commissions policies and procedures to safeguard and protect individuals Personnel
Q 4.1 Explain how the likelihood of abuse may be reduced by: Working with person-centred values
Encouraging active participation
Promoting choice and rights
It is important to work with person centred values as this enables to client to be central to the care they receive. As a carer you will build a relationship and trust with the client. If you have trust and a relationship with your client they are more likely to open up to you about any problems they are having and if they are being abused. If you have a good relationship with your clients you will spot the signs of abuse sooner than someone who does not work with the client as closely as you do. You will learn about their routines, moods and notice any changes in the client behaviour, which will raise suspicion and could detect that the client may be abused and you could prevent this from happening.
It is important to encourage active participation to encourage the client to participate and make decisions for themselves or with you. An example of this is asking the client if they would like to wear a red top or a blue top. This way you are giving the client the choice in there care rather than choosing for them, this enable the client to feel in control. It is good practice to involve the client with their care plan as their wishes are the core to the care plan succeeding. If all staff works in the same manner it will reduce the risk of abuse and give the client confidence, self-esteem to speak up if there is an issue and it helps create and maintain a professional relationship with your client.
It is important to promote choice and rights so the client has the right to choose what care they would like to received and decline any suggestions that they do not agree with. The Client will have the confidence to express their needs and wishes. For example allowing the client to decide what colour top they would like to wear red or blue, Or allowing the client to
decide if they want to eat in there room or in the dining area with the rest of the residents.
Q 4.2 Explain the importance of an accessible complaint procedure for reducing the likelihood of abuse?
A complaint procedure is a process to resolve issues. Having a complaints procedure that is easily accessible is important to enable clients, families and staff to know there is a procedure if they have a problem and their problems will be dealt with in compliance with this procedure. A complaint procedure also help clients, families and staff feel less vulnerable and more protected. The complaints procedure also make it less easy for people to be abused as the abuse is more likely to be challenged. If the abuser knows there is a complaints procedure they are less likely to abuse a client.
A complaints procedure will also encourage workers to be professional at all times. Which would ensure no complaints where made about them. Complaints can also be made anonymously which give the client the opportunity to complain about a worker etc. without repercussions to them. Without a complaints procedure abuse and protection problems would carry on unrecognised which would increase the likelihood of abuse.
Q 5.1 Describe unsafe practices that may affect the well-being of individuals?
Unsafe practice is when policies and procedures are not followed correctly and cause harm or risk of harm to an individual or others.
Examples of unsafe practice are
Administering medication incorrectly
Poor manual handling
Not following infection control procedures
Shortage of staff
Lack of resources and equipment
Lack of communication and understanding.
If medication is administered incorrectly you are putting the service user at risk of overdoes or risk of illness due to medication not being taken. For example is someone has type on diabetes and you have not given them their insulin they this could result in them having a hypo or and hyper and lead to them being hospitalised. If you give a client the wrong dose of medication you could overdose them which may also lead to them being hospitalised.
If the procedures for manual handling are not followed you put the client at risk of being hurt, bruised, falling, feeling embarrassed and feeling helpless. If there is only one member of staff and you need two members of staff to complete manual handling you should never do this alone as you are also putting the client under the same risks.
Not following infection control procedures can lead to yourself and others becoming ill or hospitalised. Shortage of staff can be very popular in the work place and can put extra strain on care workers but you should always assess the risk of you completing each task to put the client first. Lack of resources and equipment can affect you from doing the job you need to complete but you need to make sure that these are ordered regularly and avoid carrying out these tasks without the resources or equipment. Lack of communication if you don’t understand a task or have not communicated with client or staff you will put your client at risk. You should always make sure you communicate and ask questions if you don’t understand something. Always ask for help if you need it.
Q 5.2 Explain the actions to take if unsafe practices have been identified?
If you identify unsafe practices you have a duty of care and should protect the individual making sure they are not at risk of harm, report this the manager, if the manager does not act upon this then report it to the care
commission. Once you have done this you should record your findings and make a report stating what is suspected as unsafe practice, who was involved and when it occurred and why you think this is unsafe practice. Always preserving any evidence where necessary.
Q 5.3 Describe the action to take if suspected abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but nothing has been done in response?
After you have reported an incident you still have a duty of care to your client. If nothing has been done to resolve the incident then you should speak to your manager again and see why nothing has been done yet. If the manager has done nothing about this then you can go to the regional manager or care commission using the whistleblowing procedure. Also you can contact other agencies which may be able to intervene and put the client’s needs first. Call the Police, Social Services, NHS in some cases family member can help.
Always keep any records updated and evidence preserved. Keep reporting the incident until it is dealt with and the client is no longer at risk of abuse or harm due to unsafe practices.
Cite this Assignment safeguarding and protection
Assignment safeguarding and protection. (2016, Sep 04). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/assignment-safeguarding-and-protection/