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The early viral proteins deal with the replication of viral DNA, they re then transported back into the nucleus. Once in the nucleus the proteins become involved in making multiply copies of the viral DNA, using host DNA polymerase. The copies of viral genome act as a template for transcription into late morn, which leaves the nucleus for translation into late viral proteins in the cytoplasm. The late proteins are structural proteins that are transported back into the nucleus for the next stage of replication (Venerate, 2010).

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RNA viruses cannot be transcribed the same way as DNA viruses. RNA viruses must provide their own polymerase if transcription is necessary. If ADSTAR happens, one strand s first transcribed by viral polymerase into morn. Three separate actions have to occur for morn to occur in Sara viruses. The first is an Sara with a positive- sense configuration can be used directly as morn. The second is Sara with a negative-sense configuration must first be transcribed into positive-sense strand by viral polymerase and then can be used as morn.

The third is retroviruses.

These viruses have a positive-sense Sara that is made into negative-sense stands, using viral reverse transcription present in the mononucleosis. This is followed by adds, which enters the nucleus and becomes integrated into cost DNS. The viral DNA is then transcribed by the host polymerase into morn (Venerate, 2010). In all three of these different processes, translation of the viral morn occurs at the host ribosome, producing viral proteins for the final assembly of the virus. In addition to viral protein synthesis the virus must also replicate its nucleic acid. Source: Venerate, K. , & Venerate, W. (2010). Microbiological Laboratory Techniques. In Microbiology for the healthcare professional (p. 148-149). Maryland Heights, Mo. : Mossy/Elsevier 2 Describe the host cell damage resulting from viral replication. There is four efferent effects there is morphological, physiology, biosynthesize, and genomic. Morphological effects is also known as osteopathic effects. These include altered shape of cell, detachment from tissue surface, lists, membrane fusion, altered membrane permeability, inclusion bodies, and potatoes.

Each of these happen depending on the viruses and the cells they infect. Physiological effects happens with the interaction of a virus with the plasma membrane or intracellular membrane. The changes might include movement of ions, formation of secondary messengers, and launching activities that lead to altered cellular activity. It may also alter its antigenic or immune properties. Biochemical effects a large number viruses inhabit or alter synthesis of infected cells’ own molecules. Cellular transcription and protein-to-protein interaction may be altered to promote virus replication.

May also stimulate specific cellular biochemical activities in order to increase virus replication. Lastly genomic effects deals with genomic substances damaging DNA either directly, by binding to DNA, or indirectly leading DNA to damage by affecting enzymes involved in DNA replication. This causes mutations in DNA which may lead to cancer. Microbiology for the healthcare professional (p. 149-150). Maryland Heights, Mo. : 3 Name and describe the different morphological types of viruses. The four types of morphology is helical, icosahedra, enveloped, and complex.

Helical virus structure has a sapid with a central cavity or hollow tube that is made by proteins arranged in a circular fashion, creating a disc like shape. The disc shapes are attached helically (like a toy slinky) creating a tube with room for the nucleic acid in the middle. All filamentous viruses are helical in shape. They are usually 15-NM wide and range in length from 300 to Mann depending on the gnome size. An example would be tobacco mosaic virus. Icosahedra viruses appear spherical in shape, but a closer look actually reveals they are icosahedra.

The icosahedrons is made up of equilateral triangles fused together in a spherical shape. This is the most optimal way of forming a closed shell using identical protein sub-units. The genetic material is fully enclosed inside of the sapid. Viruses with icosahedra structures are released into the environment when the cell dies, breaks down and less, thus releasing the versions. Examples of viruses with an icosahedra structure are the oblivious, rhinoceros, and dinosaurs. Enveloped virus structure is a conventional icosahedra or helical structure that is surrounded by a lipid belayed membrane, meaning the virus is encased or enveloped.

The envelope of the virus is formed when the virus is exiting the cell via budding, and the ineffective of these viruses is mostly dependent on the envelope. The most well-known examples of enveloped viruses are the influenza virus, Hepatitis C and HIVE. These virus structures have a combination of icosahedra and helical shape and may have a complex outer wall or head-tail morphology. The head-tail morphology structure is unique to viruses that only infect bacteria and are known as biographies. The head of the virus has an icosahedra shape with a helical shaped tail.

The bacteriologic uses its tail to attach to the bacterium, creates a hole in the cell wall, and then inserts its DNA into the cell using the tail as a channel. The Bosporus is one of the largest viruses in size and has a complex structure with a unique outer wall and sapid. One of the most famous types of possesses is the various virus which causes smallpox. Virus Structure. (2015). Retrieved from HTTPS://discovery. Wise. Du/media. Ajax /decade-6172-IEEE-AAA-404e19f5809c Compare and contrast the multiplication of biographies versus animal viruses.

In The attachment stage Bacteriologic tail fibers attach to cell wall proteins, while the attachment sites are plasma membrane proteins and globetrotting for animal viruses. For penetration viral DNA inject into host cell in bacteriologic, while sapid enters by indications or fusion in animal viruses. Uncoiling is not required in bacteriologic, while enzymatic removal of sapid proteins. Biosynthesize occurs in cytoplasm for bacteriologic, while in animal viruses it occurs in nucleus of DNA viruses or cytoplasm for RNA viruses.

Chronic infection is in the lysine for bacteriologic, while latency, slow viral infections, cancer for animal viruses. Release is host cell lased in bacteriologic, while in animal virus enveloped viruses bud out, and non-enveloped viruses rupture plasma membrane. Sources: Microbiology for the healthcare professional (p. 145-149). Maryland Heights, Mo. : 5 Explain the structure and pathogenic of suburbia agents. There is three different types of suburbia agent; ivories, virtuosos, and prisons. Ivories range in the size from 15 to 100 NM, and their RNA genomes are 246 to 375 nucleotides in length.

They are all single stranded circles. The pathogenic of this form is they are common plant pathogens causing serious economic problems. They cause disease in susceptible plants. Virtuosos structure is the RNA genomes are from 220 to 388 nucleotides long. Their genomes are circular and single stranded, and have ribosome activity. Virtuosos are associated with plant infections, but there are similar agents that infect animals. One of the human infecting agents is the hepatitis delta virus. Prisons are infectious agents that do not have a nucleic acid genome.

They are normal proteins in animal issue, but when these particles become abnormally folded and shaped they become pertinacious infectious particles that are not cellular organisms or viral particles. Prior disease are transmissible from host to host of a single species or sometimes from one species to another. Microbiology for the healthcare professional (p. 155-156). Maryland Heights, Mo. : 6 Describe the classification of fungi with emphasis on the medically important species. Fungi are split into four major groups; committal, Committal, biostatistics, and terracotta.

Committal are multi nucleate molds, cost derive nutrients from nonliving organic material, and the rest are obligate parasites. Committal are the fungi that cause food spoilage. This pathogen also produces negative impact on the economy. However many are beneficial and best known as penicillin, the mold responsible for the antibiotic called penicillin. Another fungus is chromosomes it ferments sugar to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide, important for baking and brewing. Lastly neurosurgery is important contributor in genetic and biochemical research. Biostatistics include mushrooms. Some are edible and some are poisonous.

Biostatistics are important for digesting and decomposing dead plants. Terracotta are imperfect fungi and their reproduction is unknown. Venerate, K. , & Venerate, W. (2010). Microbiological Laboratory Techniques. In Microbiology for the healthcare professional (p. 165). Maryland Heights, Mo. : 7 Describe the general characteristics of algae and their possible life cycles. All algae have two things in common; all are photosynthetic organisms and all are aquatic. They all differ in distribution, morphology, reproduction, and biochemical references. Life cycle of all algae are capable of asexual production.

In unicellular algae the nucleus divides by mitosis and when the newly formed nuclei move to the opposite poles of the cell, the cell divides into two new cells by cytokines. Multicultural algae may also reproduce asexually by fragmentation, and each fragment is capable of forming a new thallium or filament. Unicellular algae can also reproduce sexually. In Microbiology for the healthcare professional (p. 167). Maryland Heights, Mo. : 8 Name and describe three protozoan’s that are human parasites. Three protozoan’s that are human parasites are archaize, microspore, and colleague.

Archaize are protests that do not have mitochondria bust instead possess mitoses. Mitoses can be found in intestine of humans. Microspore do not have mitochondria and also lack misconstrues. They are obligated intracellular parasites. The organisms are known to cause several human disease, mostly in AIDS patients. The group euglena has a parasite known as homelessness’s that are blood parasites. They are transmitted by the bite of blood-feeding insects. They have long slender bodies and an undulating membrane, giving them mobility in the circulatory system of the host. Microbiology for the healthcare professional (p. 71-172). Maryland Heights, Mo. : 9 Describe the fundamental difference between cellular and plasmid slime. The differences between cellular and plasmid slime is plasmid is diploid and cellular is haploid. Plasmid reproduces sexually and cellular reproduces asexually. Plasmid spores from meiosis, and cellular spores through mitosis. In Microbiology for the healthcare professional (p. 174). Maryland Heights, Mo. : 10 Describe the basic structure of custodies and their life cycle. Custodies (tapeworms) have long flat ribbon-like bodies with a single anterior holidays raga (scales) and numerous segments.

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