It’s Origin and Early Peopling
In 1891 in Central Java the upper skull of human being was found. It seems to belong to a large hominid at an intermediate stage of evolution between anthropoid ape and man. Java man was named pithecanthropus, in Greek pitnekos meaning ape and anthropus meaning man. Further evidences came to light in 1936 in Mojokerto (Surabay) in 1938 and in 1939 in Central Java. Negritos
Ages after the disappearances of the Dawn Man or Pithicanthropus, the Aeta, Agta, Balaga or Dinagat, as were called by the Spaniards as Negritos, have reached these islands. They were described as the smallest people in the world (below 5 feet tall), with flat noses. Their primitive culture belongs to the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age).
The next group of people who came was the Indonesians during the New Stone Age. They obtained their livelihood by hunting, fishing and crude farming (kaingin), which made them form an organized settlement. Malays
The Indonesians were followed by the so-called Malays.The Malays were more advanced than both the Negritos and Indonesians. These prehistoric Malays were the first discoverers, colonizers and conquerors of the Pacific world. Economic Life
Enough heat with abundance supply of water from nature is the pervasive factor that shaped the Philippines fertile soil – an ever agricultural setting. The most concrete illustration of early Filipino expertise in farming was the building of the rice terraces, is the well known Banaue Rice Terraces, probably the “Eighth Wonder of the World”. Social Classes
The early Filipinos in general were all very similar in their social classes. Each barangay was divided into three social groups: the datus or nobles, the timagwas or freemen, and the oripen or dependents. Each class
had its own particular duty and responsibility and the system was based on individual right over manpower. Marriage Customs
All members of the barangay preserved their dignity as a person. There was no rigid social division among them. But it was customary among them that marriage arrangements were done by parents as an expression of their continuing care and it was also a tradition that they married in a very early age. Laws
Each barangay was administered by a chieftain called datu. The datu served as the chief executive, legislator, and judge assisted by the elders. So far there were only two written codes of laws in the Philippines: the Luwaran and the Principal Sulu. Early Religious Belief
The ancient Filipinos, like other people, believed in may gods, with no concept of god as an absolute being. Their gods were believed to be self-willed, capricious, whose will is unfathomable either in wrath or grace. Language
The common language used by the early Filipino together with the rest of the Southeast Asian people was called Austronesian or Malayo Polynesian language. They used this language not only for their daily conversations but also as a media of communication for foreign trade and commerce. Education
The early Filipino children were taught with their parents and elders in the barangay as teachers. The regular barangay school was called bothoan in panay. Everyone was taught reading, writing, and arithmetic (the 3 R’s). Sciences and Calendar
The ancient Filipinos had their own concepts of mathematic and geometry. They utilized this knowledge not only in their domestic and foreign trade but also building the huge rice terraces. They could count up to 100,000,000.
The Ifugaos also used calendar to determine the number of days, months, and years, definitely to use them for planting and harvesting.