Without comprehension one cannot fully belong, but with comprehension, belonging will thrive. If you do not understand someone or their beliefs or someone does not understand you or your beliefs it is not likely you will feel like you completely belong with them. In Arthur Millers The Crucible intolerance, hysteria and suspicion, greed (for wealth, land, power)and corruption of power turns a town against each other and highlights the different groups in the town and how they are linked or exiled from the rest of the town and how better understanding of each group could effect this.
In Lord of the Flies by William Golding the different views and beliefs of Ralph and Jack and the need for power in both boys’ segregates the group and the loss of innocence and humanity turns the group away from civilisation and towards Savagery. In George Orwell’s Animal Farm manipulation of society and breakdown of laws and class stratification, demonstrates the workings of a society as a whole and the different groups which cause a society to thrive or fail.
The Crucible tells the story of the Salem witch hunt of 1692 although it was not written and published until 1953 when the suspicion against the communists in America was as its height. Intolerance is a reoccurring theme in the crucible, the town of Salem was a theocracy so when John Proctor and Giles Corey, and others spoke out against the trials in order to defend their wives or themselves this was seen as an attack on the Government and the Church as well as God, Danforth states “A person is with the court or the must be counted against it there is no road in between”
In Salem if you don’t belong to God you belong to the devil that is seen as responsible for the acts of witchcraft therefore you are seen to be a part of witchcraft. The towns people lack of understanding towards things they perceive as supernatural is blemed on witchcraft so they feel the have a sense of understanding towards it. The people who were originally accused of witchcraft where the towns outcasts- The people that the majority of the town already had little tolerance for, these people were of the lower most class they were easy to accouse because they couldn’t stand up for themselves.
Abigail Williams saw this and used it to her advantage it was not until well respected towns people begun to be accused that the town started to doubt the trials but by then Abigail already had complete power using the courts lack of understanding to influence them, and intimidating the girls and proctor by the things she knows that will blacken their reputation therefore giving her the power to decide who lives and who dies. Hysteria and suspicion is what allows the towns people to believe their neighbours could have committed the various crimes they were accused of.
If the towns people had believed that the first to be accused were innocent, and held no suspicion towards them and understood abigails motives the witch trials may have never happened and the guilt would have returned to Abigail and the girls. The hysteria also allows certain towns people to express repressed feelings and act on past grudges such as Abigail accusing Elizabeth proctor of witchcraft using the poppet as she attempts to have Elizabeth killed so she can be with proctor.
An example of mass hysteria is in the court room is when Miller uses dramatic irony when Abigail and the girls accuse Mary Warren of being a bird and attacking them. Abigail says, “Oh, please, Mary! Don’t come down. Mary, please don’t hurt me! ” This is dramatic irony because they know Mary warren is innocent. Abigail is expressing repress feelings about Mry threatening to tell the truth in the beginning and Proctors support toward Mary eventually gives her the confidence to share the truth before turning back on proctor. The only reason hysteria and suspicion thrives is because people benefit from it.
Greed in the crucible mainly revolves around four individuals, Reverend Parris, Thomas Putnam, judge danforth and Abigail Williams. Reverend Parris was greedy toward wealth this is evident when parris preaches for weeks about gold candle sticks until he has them as well as the argument parris gets in over his pay including money for firewood or not Miller uses this argument to allow the audience to have a good understanding of who Parris truly is. Putnam used the witch trials as an excuse to get even with his neighbours and get their land. The characters lack of understanding
Judge Danforth’s greed for power this is evident when danforth refuses to cancel the hangings for the well respected Salem citizens as he fears the town’s people will over through the court. Abigail is greedy for someone else husband- proctor- she acts on this greed by attempting to get Elizabeth proctor hung. Abigail is also greedy in self interest she would rather turn against proctor- the man she supposedly loves- in order to shield any blame or suspicion from her. Parris is had a greed for the power that being the minister of the church gives him.
Parris has a change of heart about the witch trials once he realises the towns people are turning against him and he is losing his power. Proctor is also in a sense greedy he is greedy for pride when he refuses to sign the confection. “Because it is my name! Because I cannot have another in my life! Because I lie and sign myself to lies! Because I am not worth the dust on the feet of them that hang! How may I live without my name? I have given you my soul; leave me my name! Proctor decides that keeping a clean name and having a good reputation is more valuable then his own life.
Miller uses the entire fourth seen as a climax to balance out the rather mild death of proctor. When someone’s greed is not controlled it can lead that person down a very destructive path which is exactly what happened in Salem, with more understanding from the town this death path or greed could have been stopped by the Salem town’s people. The Witch trials would not have happened if it was not for the corruption of power Abigail had power over the other girls who were dancing in the woods and she maintained this power by threatening them And mark this. Let either of you breathe a word, or the edge of a word about the other things, and I will come to you in the black of some terrible night and I will bring a pointy reckoning that will shudder you. ” Abigail understands completely the ramifications of being found guilty of witchcraft and admitted to dancing in the forest but threatens the girls not to tell anyone about her drinking a potion in order to kill Elizabeth proctor.
Reverend hale corrupts his power unknowingly, as he believes that Abigail and the girls are telling the truth, his image as a well educated Godly man makes him the perfect model for the towns people to mold their opinion of the witch trials from. “Let you not mistake your duty as I mistook my own. I came into this village like a bridegroom to his beloved, bearing gifts of high religion; the very crowns of holy law I bought, and what I touched with my bright confidence, it died; and where I turned the eye of my great faith, blood flowed up.
Hale eventually realises his mistake and knows that he has been deceived by Abigail and the girls and because of this is caused irreparable damage. In an attempt to right one of his wrongs Hale talks Elizabeth proctor into attempting to convince John proctor to the confession in order to save his life. Putnam is corrupted by the power of his reputation in Salem as well as out of town. When Hale first arrives he states the he did not expect such distinguished company once he learns of Putnam’s name.
Putnam uses the power of his reputation in order to accuse innocent people through his daughter for his own selfish means. In the trail scene the Court room is described as, ‘Empty, but for sunlight pouring through two high windows in the back wall. ’ The could sun refers to the light of God which may suggest that God is in the court room however this is a technique Miller uses in order to create false sense of security within the audience. This in a sense also shows the audience that ‘God’ has no real power in the court room.
In the crucible the puritan lifestyle is meant to rule those in Salem however this is not the case, Abigail has power over the other girls using fear, the court and the church so therefore she has power over the entire town. Danforth, Hathon and parris are the law, all of which are corrupt, next in the power line up are the Putnam’s, they have no real power but the power from their good reputation allows them to influence others and lie whilst still being believed.
Tituba is a slave from Barbados and she has no power, however after she confessed to siding with the devil and claiming to want God she is considered innocent but does not belong to any group within the town. The nurses, Coreys and proctors are linked together by their faith and goodness but they are exiled from the rest of the town after being accused of witchcraft and refusing to sign a false confession as they would not lie. John Proctor both belongs to the group of the nurses and Coreys but is also exiled from them after he states ‘God is dead’ and in a way is deigning his faith.
Lord of the Flies tells the story of a group of school boys trapped on a dessert island after a plane crash. The story begins with Ralph and piggy meeting on the beach, they discover a conch shell which Golding uses as a symbol Authority and a democracy, soon the boy assemble on the beach Jack shows up in a group dressed in uniform which he is clearly the leader of however Ralph I elected the leader and insists on having a signal fire which represents hope, salvation and their rescue.
Soon the rules breakdown and Jack starts his own group, one based on hunting, masculine aggression, war, the hunt and basic instincts. The complete destruction and breakdown of society and reason happens with the death of piggy and the shattering of the conch. There are two main different views in the lord of the flies, Ralphs and Jacks. Ralph acts as a democratic leader with an immense amount of help from piggy ont he island with a plan to keep the group as one and uses the conch as a symbol of his authority over the other boys “Ralph sat on a fallen trunk, his left side to the sun.
On his Right were most of the choir; on his left the larger boys who had not known each other before the evacuation: before him small children squatted in the grass. ” Golding uses this image to show that the boys naturally organize themselves in certain groups based on existing affiliations and age that govern ties to one another and also shows that the power lies with Ralph, Next in line of power are the older boys and at the bottom of the rank is the small children that don’t really provide anything for this society.
Throughout the novel there is constant conflict with Jack and Ralph Caused by Jacks need for complete leadership. In contrast to Ralph, Jack is a dictatorial ruler; he drives the boys to savagery through overthrowing Ralphs ruling raiding Ralph’s camp and intense hunts on at first wild pigs but begins to turn this hunt onto other boys who did not conform to his rule (Simon, Piggy, Ralph). ” He began to dance and his laughter became a bloodthirsty snarling. ” Jack has given into his primal instincts during a pig hunt and encourages the others to do the same.
Unlike Jack, Ralph never felt the need for power until it was forced upon him, he was content on being on an island with no adult restraint, but he steps up to his new role as leader and takes it in his stride to protect and have the group work together equally in order to keep them as safe as possible. It isn’t until Jack tries to steal and morph Ralph’s role, that Ralph releases he now has an uncontrollable need to keep the boys safe and ensure their best possible chances of being rescued through the signal fire.
After Jack creates his own society Ralph and Piggy crucify some of their own values in order to belong to jacks group and gain acceptance and meat. ”Piggy and Ralph, under the threat of the sky, found themselves eager to take place in this demented but partly secure society”. Piggy and Ralph feel both wrong and right in participating in the mock pig attack. Jack feels the need to be a leader as he sees himself as the better leader and is also already the leader of the choir boys. At first Jack accepts Ralph to be the leader “we’ve got to have rules and obey them.
After all, we’re not savages. We’re English and the English are best at everything. ” Jack shows his respect for the democracy, the conch and Ralph’s rules. However Jack soon tires of the rules after he feels that his talents are being overlooked by Ralph and this evokes feelings of not belonging and leads the boys astray and into Anarchy. “The forest near them burst into uproar. Demoniac figures with faces of white and red and green rushed out howling, so that the littluns fled screaming.
Out of the corner of his eye, Ralph saw Piggy running. Two figures rushed at the fire and he prepared to defend himself but they grabbed half-burnt branches and faced away along the beach. The three others stood still, watching Ralph; and he saw that the tallest of them, stark naked save for paint and a belt, was Jack”. Golding uses the nakedness of the boys represents them stripping OF the remainder of English society and the rulings of Ralph in favour of the ‘freedom’ of jacks lifestyle.
The belt Jack wears sets him apart from the other boys signifying that he is in charge. This is the point where jack has complete power, almost. This story ends with the loss of life, the loss of innocence, the reawakening of humanity and immense knowledge that the boys were too young to fully understand. “Ralph wept for the end of innocence, the darkness of man’s heart, and the fall through the air of the true, is friend called Piggy. ” Ralph weeps at the feet of their rescuer moments before his life could have ended.
Animal farm tells the story of a group of animals that drive out the humans on the farm and eventually the pigs take control and fill the role of the absent humans and create a society harsher them form when the humans had control and the new oppressor takes totalitarian control. Throughout the cause of the animal farm society is manipulated and breakdown of laws happens, after the humans are run out the pigs naturally take charge being the smartest bread of animal on the farm, they create seven commandments which were originally 1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy. . Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend. 3. No animal shall wear clothes. 4. No animal shall sleep in a bed. 5. No animal shall drink alcohol. 6. No animal shall kill any other animal. 7. All animals are equal. However throughout the course of the book Squealer paints additions to some commandments without the other animals knowing to benefit the pigs while keeping them free of accusations of breaking the laws the laws where changed to “No animal shall drink alcohol to excess”, “No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets” added to it).
The laws are then completely replaced with “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others”, and the chant the sheep repeated constantly (four legs good, two legs bad) the sheep where instead taught “Four legs good, two legs better! ” one the pigs learnt to walk on their hind legs. Orwell uses this motif in an attempt to make the working class one and lose their individuality and it paints the pigs in a noble light when they are the main subject of these songs and slogans.
The change in these laws sets the pigs apart from the other animals as they are considered more highly and the other animals cannot belong to this exclusive club. The animals considered lesser are forced to do the pigs biddings as they are naive and can’t see what it is the pigs are doing. The Napoleon the overall leader takes charge of some pups and creates them into his personal body guards and ‘muscle, he uses the dogs as a constant threat to the animals if they were ever to try and rebel against him, “at this here was a terrible baying sound outside, and nine enormous dogs wearing brass-studded collars came bounding into the barn, They dashed straight for snowball, who only sprang from his place just in time to escape their snapping jaws” Napoleon also uses the dogs as a weapon to drive out his compition to be leader and forces him of the farm and constructs lies about him so that he no longer belongs on the farm.
In the beginning of animal farm the animals are unified in the face of a common enemy however one the human oppressor is overthrown- the common enemy eliminated- they animals are divided and the classes stratified even though animalism was invented to stand for total equality. Napoleon states to his human guests at a party he held one night “if you have you lower animals to contend with, we have our lower classes! The humans then go one to state that they have never seen animals worked so hard with so little food, it is at this point that the other animals realise they have been disserved, at this point it was too late for them to do anything about it. The Pigs and Dogs are divided into the upper class who considers themselves the brain workers whilst the other animals are the working class. Orwell uses the barn as a collective memory of the past society and through the revisions of the commandments as a fresh perspective of the modern nation.
Animal Farm is not written from the perspective of any one animal, Orwel did this to convey the shared emotions and thoughts of the animals. No one person can fully understand someone’s words thoughts or actions. If understanding is not attempted disastrous consequences may be the result. Even when one person is made to feel they don’t belong it damages the entire of society and cause the society to breakdown.