The spinal cord belongs to the
central nervous system.
The central nervous system is protected by
The division between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system is based on the anatomical differences between cells in the two locations.
Which of the following is not a function of the nervous system?
cushion and protect soft tissue
Which of the following is mismatched?
somatic motor nerves: smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands
Which of the following is not a type of neuron?
The cells of the nervous tissue are all neurons, cells that transmit nerve impulses.
Which of the following parts of a neuron is correctly matched?
axon-conducts nerve impulses
Which one of the following is entirely located within the central nervous system?
Which of the following is associated with the PNS but not the CNS?
Which of the following types of nerves is not covered by a protective myelin sheath?
gray matter of the CNS
The gap where there is no myelin sheath around a nerve fiber is called a node of Ranvier.
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Why is the outside of a neuron positively charged?
because sodium ions gather around the outside of the cell membrane
Depolarization of the neuron occurs when
sodium gates open and sodium moves inside the cell.
The action potential in a neuron is an all-or-nothing event.
The entire action potential (depolarization and repolarization) occurs in a matter of
What ensures the one-way direction of an action potential?
As soon as the action potential has passed by, that portion of the axon undergoes a short refractory period.
Which conducts an action potential faster and why?
myelinated fibers, the action potential jumps from one node of Ranvier to another
The intensity of a message is determined by how many action potentials are generated within a given time.
Place the events in the transmission of an action potential in the correct order. 1. An action potential begins in the receiving neuron. 2. Neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft. 3. An action potential arrives at an axon terminal. 4. Calcium ions enter the axon terminal. 5. Sodium ions diffuse into the receiving neuron. 6. Synaptic vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane. 7. Neurotransmitters molecules bind to the membrane of the receiving neuron.
Which of the following could happen to the neurotransmitter once it binds to the receiving membrane receptors?
reabsorbed by the sending membrane
Which of the following is not a neurotransmitter?
There are only two types of neurotransmitters: acetylcholine for excitation and norepinephrine for inhibition.
What is the summing up of the excitatory and inhibitory signals by a neuron called?
Which of the following statements is not true concerning acetylcholine’s function?
Acetylcholine has an excitatory effect on smooth muscle and glands.
When a neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft, the response of the receiving neuron will be toward excitation.
Which of the following statements is not true concerning the central nervous system?
The brain and spinal cord contain only white matter–myelinated axons that run together in bundles.
The spinal cord extends from the base of the brain through a large opening in the skull called the inferior ventricle.
Which of the following statements is not true concerning spinal nerves?
Spinal nerves are considered part of the CNS.
The white matter of the spinal cord surrounds the gray matter.
Which of the following is not a part of the brain?
The cerebrum is associated with the
two lateral ventricles.
Which is the largest part of the brain?
The brain stem contains the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata.
The thalamus is on the receiving end for all sensory input except the
sense of smell.
Wernicke’s area is associated with
the ability to speak.
Which of the following is not a lobe of the cerebral hemisphere?
Which of the following functions is not associated with the frontal lobe?
primary visual area
Which of the following statements concerning the primary motor area is not true?
The primary motor area is in the cerebellum.
The primary somatosensory area receives sensory input from
the sense of touch.
The structures of the limbic system are linked together because of their position within the cerebrum even though they have a variety of functions.
Which of the following is part of the limbic system?
What type of memory is involved in learning to ride a bike?
When a student crams for a test at 3 in the morning before the test, the information usually goes into
Which of the following are mismatched concerning memory and learning?
hippocampus and emotionally charged fearful memories
The left hemisphere of the brain is more involved in verbal functions than the right hemisphere.
What type of memory does language depend upon?
The two types of nerves in the peripheral nervous system are cranial nerves and spinal nerves.
Place the following steps in the correct order for a reflex arc. 1. Sensory neurons pass signals to interneurons. 2. Nerve signals travel along motor fibers to an effector. 3. Sensory receptors generate nerve signals. 4. Interneurons synapse with motor neurons. 5. There is a response to the stimulus.
Which of the following statements about cranial nerves is not true?
Humans have 31 pairs of cranial nerves.
The somatic division of the PNS controls all of the following except
In what way are the somatic motor pathway and the parasympathetic autonomic motor pathway similar?
Both use acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter.
In which way are the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic system similar?
Both utilize two neurons per message.
The postganglionic fiber in the parasympathetic division is long because the ganglia lie near or within the organ.
Which of the following is a neuromodulator?
How does caffeine work?
interferes with or decreases the action of a neurotransmitter
Dopamine plays a central role in the working of the brain’s built-in reward circuit.
How is alcohol classified?
Which drug is in the same category as nicotine?
Which two drugs are in the same category?
alcohol and heroin
Long term use of __________ results in damage to the frontal lobes, a decrease in overall brain size, and an increase in the size of the ventricles.
Long term use of heroin results in which set of symptoms?
addiction, hepatitis, HIV/AIDS, various bacterial infections