It is readily abundant in saliva, but somewhat unpleasant to obtain in large annuities not to mention the health risks associated with a human product, hence fungal amylase will be used as the enzyme in all experiments conducted for this EYE. There are several doctors that detect the rate at which enzymatic reactions proceed including temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration and the presence of any inhibitors or activators (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, 2013).
The temperature of the environment that the enzyme is in can have several effects on the structure and activity of enzymes. Temperature greatly influences the rate of reactions. The optimum temperature of a particular enzyme corresponds to the temperature of its natural environment. The most favorable temperature value, the point where the enzyme is most active is known as the optimum temperature. Like most chemical reactions, the rate of an enzyme-catcalled reaction increases as the temperature is raised, but only up to a certain point.
The rate of reaction increases with temperature to a maximum level, then abruptly declines with further increase of temperature (Worthington Biochemical Corporation, 2013). This is because reactions speed up as the temperature does, the exception with enzymes is after a certain mint in temperature is reached the enzyme stops working because it denatures. High temperatures and those above the optimum temperature usually result in complete loss of enzyme activity due to denomination.
Without Enzymes, the thousands of biochemical reactions that take place within organisms will react too slowly to keep up with the metabolic needs and life functions of said organisms. Cold temperatures on the other hand affect the enzyme in a different way, in cold temperature the enzymes shape is not affected (like denaturing) because the temperature is lower the enzymes and particles will have less energy, so n turn they move around slower and the rate of reaction decreases.
As the temperature of the enzyme solution and substrate solution increase, the reaction rate of the enzyme and substrate once added together will increase. After reaching temperatures past the optimum temperature of the enzyme, the reaction rate of the enzyme and substrate will abruptly and rapidly decrease or cease to happen at all. If enzymes are subjected to cold temperatures, the reaction rate will be extremely slow, although we should see a general increase in the rate of reaction of reaction over time. The reaction rate is inversely proportional to the temperature.
The enzymes will work best at their optimum temperature (give or take a degree or two) because it is the temperature that they work best at and it mimics their natural habitat. I predict that starting from a relatively cool temperature, as the temperature increases so too will the reaction rate. I predict that the enzymes will not work at CO because there is little to no energy for the substrate and enzyme to interact in order for them to react, the experiment should show this by dark purple samples on the spotting plate.
Solutions with temperatures above the enzyme denaturing temperature will show a dark purple in the spotting plate samples indicating that starch is present; this is because the enzyme has denatured and ceases to function properly. Any temperature that is above the optimum temperature will experience an abrupt decline in reaction rate ( G RE-22 & 23 When testing the effects of temperature on enzymes, the enzyme needs to be maintained at its optimum pH to be a fair test.
Any test where temperature is being tested against the amylase and the amylase is not operating at its optimum pH will e an unfair test, because if the enzyme isn’t operating under its optimum pH the results of how temperature is affecting enzyme activity will be invalid and unfair. A constant temperature water bath will be needed to maintain temperature. All enzymes and starch solutions will be maintained in the optimum pH so as to ensure a fat test (REFER TO FIG-32). The following is an EYE designed to test the effects of temperature on the activity of the enzyme Amylase.
This experiment on enzymes was done to help convey how environmental factors affect the activity of an enzyme. The experiment will revolve round changing one variable (temperature), measuring one variable (color of the samples in the spot plate/reaction rate/time) and keeping everything else the same (optimum pH/volume of reactants and the reagent). To test the effects of temperature on the activity of amylase, solutions of the enzyme and starch will be reacted with each other at controlled temperatures ICC, ICC, ICC, room temperature and ICC and below.
All solutions were maintained at the enzymes optimum pH so as to assure a fair test, this is the first intro. The enzyme needs to be at its optimum pH to make sure that temperature is affecting the enzyme, not the PH. The following temperatures will be tested; 4 co and below, room temperature, 37 co, 50 co, and 70 co. Constant temperature water baths will be used to keep the 37 co and 50 co tests at their desired temperatures.
The hypothesis states that “As the temperature of the enzyme solution and substrate solution increase, the reaction rate of the enzyme and substrate once added together will increase. After reaching temperatures past the optimum temperature of the enzyme, the reaction rate of the enzyme and substrate will abruptly and rapidly decrease or cease to happen at all. ” The hypothesis and predictions are Justified and legitimated by the fact that enzymes are affected by temperature, and all reactions are faster at a higher temperature.
However enzyme catcalled reactions do become slower or stop it the temperature becomes too nigh, this is because enzymes operate within a temperature range and once the temperature gets too high and exceeds that temperature range the enzyme denatures. Adjustments were made when testing the 70 co temps. The water baths failed to reach the desired temperature and failed to raise the temperature of the two solutions falling short at a maximum of 58 co. The test tubes containing the amylase and starch were instead heated in a beaker placed on a hot plate; this worked well .
To obtain good results and ensure a fair test several measures were taken including: * making sure the same amount of reactants were used each time (ml of amylase and ml of starch) * the same amount of reagent was used with the spot samples * Maintaining constant temperature reactants in the test once they been mixed y keeping them in their water baths while taking samples out for the spot tests. * Keeping all equipment clean by washing them every time they were used with distilled water and some bench spray which is anti-biological.