Resources in Indonesia are very large, especially sources that are food. One of the abundant resources in Indonesia is its fisheries resources, therefore the food must be processed in such a way as to have good quality and quality. Good quality and quality can help increase economic value and nutritional value in the community. There are many ways that are used to process food resources in the fisheries sector. One of the methods used is biotechnology. Methods of using biotechnology have existed since ancient times that still use traditional methods.
Currently biotechnology is increasingly sophisticated with increasing quality of technology used. Biotechnology itself is a branch of science that studies the use of living things (bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc.) And products from living things (enzymes, alcohols) in the production process to produce higher quality products. In fisheries technology, biotechnology is widely used to preserve products. This is due to fishery products that have a long lasting resistance. Products that are processed using biotechnology can have a different taste and aroma than the original. The taste and aroma of the product can be different because there is a change in the compounds contained in the product. Fermentation is one way in biotechnology for food preservation. Fermentation carried out on fish will produce a product in the form of fish sauce. Fish sauce itself can be used to give a delicious aroma to other cooking ingredients.
The advantages of fisheries in Indonesia, namely Indonesia has very abundant fishery resources, but it is unfortunate because the processing of fisheries products is still lacking and still not adequate both in terms of technology and facilities and infrastructure. Therefore, we must be able to use whatever is available to be able to process these fisheries resources. One method of processing abundant fisheries resources is by using fermentation. Fermentation is used so that fishery products can last longer and maintain quality even though they are in different forms.
Fermentation is one way of preserving fish. Fish is preserved because the fish quickly rot or retreat in quality and cause the quality to decline, the economic value will fall. Fish sauce is one way to ferment fish. According to Briani et al. (2014). Fish sauce is a clear brown liquid produced by hydrolysis of salted fish and is usually used as a flavor enhancer or salt substitute for various types of food. Fish fermentation can be done in two ways, traditional and modern. The traditional way of using salt. The manufacturing process is to mix salt and fish with a ratio of 1: 2 or 1: 3. Making fish sauce can also be done in a modern way by using biotechnology. Making fish sauce with biotechnology using enzymes or microbes that are not pathogenic to help speed up fermentation.
The production of spontaneous fermented fish sauce has several advantages, namely high economic value, easy and inexpensive processing, the raw materials used can come from various types of fish so that they can use catches that have low economic value or trash fish, long shelf life, have ideal delicious taste and aroma. But from some of the advantages of making fish sauce spontaneously also has the disadvantage of making the process long enough. The lack of spontaneous making of fish sauce is a relatively long fermentation time of 4 – 12 months, the length of the fermentation process for making fish sauce is to cut protein into amino acids and provide good color, taste and aroma in fish sauce (Wicaksana et al., 2013).
The raw material used in the study is fresh fish. The addition of 20% salt and the addition of papain enzymes with different concentrations were 3%, 6%, and 9% of each treatment. Tools carried out for making fish sauce are meat grinders, jars, basins, spoons, calico cloths, digital scales, autoclaves, centrifuges. The tools used for product quality analysis are the Conway cup, measuring pipette, erlenmeyer, measuring cup, stirrer, funnel, burette, incubator, beaker glass, filter paper, propipet, pipette drops, scoresheet.
The test method is done by a suspension test. The results of the total n fish sauce test showed an interaction between the concentration of papain and the duration of fermentation. The concentration of papain and the duration of fermentation have a significantly different effect. The total value of n has increased as the fermentation time of fish sauce and the concentration of the enzyme papain is increasing. The increase in total-n was thought to be the hydrolysis of proteins which resulted in n levels rising further. During the fermentation process a protein hydrolysis reaction occurs which breaks the peptide bonds that convert proteins into simpler forms, namely amino acids and peptides containing n elements. The longer the fermentation time, the more protein molecules are solved, so that total dissolved nitrogen tends to increase (Zahiruddin et al., 2010).
Differences in the concentration of papain enzymes and the duration of fermentation have a significantly different effect on the value of TVBN. The increase in the value of TVBN is thought to be due to microbial activity during fermentation which breaks down protein compounds from fish into simpler compounds and volatile compounds. TVBN content can also be caused by the rate of hydrolysis of fish meat by enzymes and microbial activity in fish meat during fermentation under conditions of low salinity. The fish sauce TVBN value with the addition of papain is lower, this is presumably because the process of making commercial fish sauce is longer than that of fresh fish sauce which is only done for 30 days. Commercial fish sauce is usually produced with fermentation for more than one year.
The difference in concentration and duration of fermentation had a significantly different effect on the yield value. The yield value tends to increase from the first day to the last day with each addition of the papain enzyme at different concentrations. This increase in yield value is thought to be due to the activity of the enzyme papain added to accelerate the process of releasing water. The higher the concentration added the faster the release of water. In meat tenderizer products besides papain there are also other ingredients, namely salt and sugar. The presence of this salt causes more acceleration of the osmosis process, so that water is more easily released from the fish meat network.
In the sensory test of fish sauce peroduk with the enzyme papain showed the results of observations on the color of the 10th day fermentation with the addition of the enzyme papain with a small concentration has the lowest value and has a faded yellowish brown color, while the 30th day fermentation with the addition of the papain enzyme many show colors that are almost the same as commercial soy sauce. This is presumably due to the browning reaction, the greater the enzyme added is more brown, due to the increasing amount of hydrolyzed protein content. The longer the fermentation, the color of the resulting fish sauce will be more brownish, because the opportunity between reducing sugars and amino groups of proteins reacts and is involved in browning reactions.
In the aroma test, variations in volatile compounds, acids contained in fish sauce such as carbonyl, the content of nitrogen compounds and sulfur compounds formed during the fermentation process are thought to affect the formation of different aromas in fish sauce. In the taste test, the taste of fish sauce on the 10th ri is different from the 30th day. This is thought to be caused by the presence of protein extracting into a compound that produces a distinctive taste. Protease enzymes (papain and bromelin) are able to break down proteins into several components such as peptides, peptones and amino acids that interact with each other to create a distinctive taste (Prasetyo et al., 2012). The fermentation process that occurs in fish is a process of biological decomposition of compounds that are more simple and controlled. During the fermentation process, fish protein will be hydrolyzed into amino acids and peptides, then the amino acids will decompose further into other components that play a role in the formation of product taste.