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Type of cell flash card

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    _____ bind(s) to DNA enhancer regions.
    Activator
    What is the event that IMMEDIATELY follows the last event of this animation?
    binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter
    The operon model of the regulation of gene expression in bacteria was proposed by _____.
    Jacob and Monod
    Which of these is NOT a component of the lac operon?
    regulatory gene only
    Regulatory proteins bind to _____.
    the operator
    In the presence of a regulatory protein the lac operon is _____.
    not transcribed
    In this animation the blue sphere represents _____. (Activity 18E)
    Lactose
    In this animation the orange object represents _____.
    RNA polymerase
    Although all of the cells in your body contain a complete set of DNA, they have different functions because __________.
    different genes are switched on and off in each type of cell
    Which of the following binds to the operator of a bacterial gene?
    a repressor
    The DNA sequence that acts as a switch for turning the lac operon off or on is the __________.
    operator
    The lac operon of Escherichia coli, a bacterium, is composed of __________.
    three genes and two control sequences, the promoter and the operator
    This type of RNA, unknown until about 20 years ago, may regulate the expression of an estimated one-third of all human genes.
    microRNAs
    A DNA microarray is used to __________.
    visualize patterns of gene expression
    At one point, you were just an undifferentiated, single cell. You are now made of many cells; some of these cells function as liver cells, some as muscle cells, some as red blood cells, while others play different roles. What name is given to the process that is responsible for this?
    cellular differentiation
    In bacteria, what name is given to a cluster of genes with related functions, along with their DNA control sequences?
    operon
    In an operon, the ______ acts as an on/off switch.
    operator
    Which of the following turns off transcription by binding to the operator?
    repressor
    Repressors act by blocking the binding of _____ to the operator.
    RNA polymerase
    Which of these is a type of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression?
    altering of proteins
    Cells communicate with one another via ______.
    signal transduction pathways
    The “master control genes” that regulate other genes, which determine what body parts will develop in which locations, are called ______.
    homeotic genes
    How is it that the cells in different body tissues are able to perform different functions?
    The cells exhibit different patterns of gene expression.
    The initiation of transcription requires that enhancers bind to _____.
    transcription factors
    The lac operon is usually in the ______ position and is activated by ______.
    off… lactose
    A breakthrough in animal cloning in the late 1990s came with the development of nuclear transplantation. Nuclear transplantation is a process whereby __________.
    a nucleus from an adult donor is placed into a cell without a nucleus, put in culture to produce an early embryo, and implanted into a surrogate mother
    Which of the following cells is least differentiated?
    embryonic stem cells
    Possible uses of reproductive cloning include ______.
    the production of genetically identical animals for experimentation
    restocking populations of endangered animals
    the production of organs in pigs for transplant into humans
    What is a difference between embryonic and adult stem cells?
    Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated; adult stem cells are partially differentiated
    Why does the clone not resemble the surrogate mother?
    The clone would exhibit characteristics of the genetic donor, not the surrogate.
    pronto-oncogene
    a normal gene, that, if mutated, can lead to cancer.
    Growth factor
    proteins that stimulate cell division
    oncogene
    a gene that causes cancer
    tumor-suppressor genes
    proteins they encode normally help prevent uncontrolled cell growth
    What kinds of somatic cell gene mutations can frequently lead to the first stages of cancer?
    mutations in genes that regulate cell division
    All your cells contain proto-oncogenes, which can change into cancer-causing genes. Why do cells possess such potential time bombs?
    Proto-oncogenes are necessary for normal control of cell division.
    Tumor-suppressor genes are important in the prevention of cancer because they __________.
    produce gene products that prevent uncontrolled cell growth
    Most mutagens are carcinogens. This is because __________.
    both bring about cancer-causing DNA changes
    The second-leading cause of death in most developed countries (following heart disease) is __________.
    cancer
    What name is given to a gene that causes cancer?
    oncogene
    Inheritance of certain genes increases the risk of getting certain cancers; thus, it can be said that ______.
    predisposition to these cancers is inherited
    Data suggest that the normal version of BRCA1 functions as a(n) ______.
    tumor-suppressor gene
    You have pancreatic cancer and are considered a good candidate for precision medicine. Which of the following will have to be done?
    You will have your genome sequenced.
    Which of the following is currently seen as the biggest downside to precision medicine?
    cost
    You are a biotech engineer at Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, specializing in studying gene sequences of tumors. Which of the following tumor types has your hospital focused on?
    lung
    Which of the following is true?
    Cancer is not caused by genetic mutations.
    Patients with the same type of cancer may need different treatments.
    A treatment that works for one patient with a certain type of cancer will always work for other patients that have the same cancer.
    Patients with the same type of cancer have the same genetic mutations.
    Patients with the same type of cancer may need different treatments.
    What is expected to happen to the number of Alzheimer’s patients in the U.S. in the near future?
    It is expected to increase.
    Who is financing this large clinical drug trial?
    federal government, private donors, and the drug company
    if the drug works?
    That amyloid plaques are the underlying cause of some forms of Alzheimer’s.
    You are an Alzheimer’s patient. Which of the following tests should you have in order to see if your brain is shrinking?
    MRI Scan
    You are an Alzheimer’s researcher. You find a sample of cerebral spinal fluid with high tau levels. What does this indicate?
    That patient has many dying brain cells.
    Currently, which of the following would likely be most successful for regeneration?

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