The period of life between the age of 18 and 25. emerging adulthood is now widely thought to be a spate stage of development.
Three major roles
By age 22 full adult body shape is present for both sexes
the immune system is strong— severe health problems are rare
Death is more likely from
accidents, suicide, homicide.
Three main attitudes about sex
sexual- reproductive system is strongest during emerging adulthood.
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Miscarriages are less common, serious birth defects unlikely.
Average age for first birth in the US is 25
Cost of raising children- economy
Cohort shift- living together before marriage, more accepted.
80% of emerging adults believe “always wrong”
Occupations or recreational activities that involve a degree of risk or danger. Emerging adults are more likely to take risks than other age groups.
Society benefits from risk-taking
Moving to a new state, getting married. Filming a documentary. Joining the military.
Risk taking can be destructive!!
High rate of severe injury in emerging adults; accidental death is more common.
Many young adults seek the rush of risk-taking in recreation.
Forms of recreation that include apparent risk of injury or death and are attractive and thrilling as a result. Between ages 18-24 there is a lag between impulses control and cognitive evaluation of risk.
The injection of a drug to the extent that it impairs the user’s biological or psychological well-being.
More common among college student!
25% of men, 5% of women reporting more than 10 drinks in a row in 2 weeks.
Post formal thought
A proposed fifth stage of adult cognitive development, following Piaget’s fourth stage.
Thee aspects of post formal thinking
Cognitive flexibility = countering stereotypes
Many adults have both unconscious prejudice and conscious tolerance- dual processing. As PFC matures, people rethink stereotypes.
The possibility that ones appearance or behavior will be misread to confirm another person’s oversimplified, prejudiced attitude.
Higher education improves health and wealth
A college degree adds about $20,000 per year to a worker’s slavery- middle age. College graduates are healthier– live 10 years longer. Obesity= 9% with BA and 30% without BA.
The idea that establishing higher learning institutions ad encouraging college enrollment could benefit everyone.
Perry’s Scheme of cognitive and ethical development during college
Thinking progresses over 9 levels of complexity in 4 years. The more years of higher education, the more post formal the person’s reasoning becomes.
Less critical thinking. Less analysis and communication compared to 20 years ago. Students study less. Academic expectations are reduced. Fewer students enroll in classes that are challenging.
Diversity = deeper thought
In every developed nation, more than half of college students are female. Majors that were traditionally male now include many women.
Non- traditional students
Older than 24, non-European and part-time.
Learning how to identity oneself amidst a multi-ethnic society. Increases in ethnic pride and acceptance. College classes allow students to learn more about their culture.
Between the ages of 18-27, the average person holds 8 jobs. Exploration vie vocational aptitude tests.
Emerging adulthood is a time that allows shifts in attitude and personality.
Continuity and change are both evident. Overall increases in self-esteem in emerging adulthood despite transition!
Diathesis- stress model
Interaction of genetic vulnerability (diathesis) and stressful environment factors and life events.
Types of disorders
Mood, anxiety, psychotic D/O and trauma- and- stress- related
Creates an either high or low mood. Major depressive, persistent depression, bipolar 1 and 2, cyclothymic disorder.
Panic, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, specific phobia disorder.
Schizophrenia – 1% of the population, schizophreniform, schizoaffective, brief Psychotic Disorder,and
PTSD, acute stress disorder, adjustment disorder
Intimacy versus isolation
The 6th of Erikson’s eight stages of development. Adults seek someone with whom to share their lives in an enduring and self- sacrificing commitment.
Changes in developing friendships
Social networking, texting, email, video chatting.
Relationship between love and marriages
Parents arrange marriage, parents supervise interactions, young adults choose marriage partners. Dependent on era and culture.
The three dimensions of love- Robert Sternberg
Intense, falling in love
Physical, emotional, and mental intimacy
Mutual decision- making
Having so many options that a thoughtful choice becomes difficult and regret after making a choice is more likely.
A couple live together in a committed romantic relationship but are not formally married.
Three facts about intimate partner violence
1. Emerging adults experience more intimate partner
2. Alcohol and drug abuse increases likelihood and severity
3. Rates are high, but accurate reporting is difficult
Demand/ Withdraw Interactions
A situation in a romantic relationship wherein one partner wants to address an issue and the other refuses, resulting in opposite reactions– one insistent on talk while the other cuts short the conversation
Two types of IPV
1. Situational couple violence
2. Intimate terrorism
Situational couple violence
Fighting between romantic partners that is brought on more by the situation that by the deep personality problems of the individuals. Both partners are typically victims and abusers.
A violent and demeaning form of abuse in a romantic relationship, where the victim (usually female) is frightened to fight back, seek help, or withdraw.
Lives in which the success, health, and well-being of each family member are connected to those of other members, including members of another generation. Family relationships tend to improve when emerging adults leave the home.m