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Chemistry project on honey analysis

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Acknowledgement

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my chemistry mentors Mrs. Smiti Gupta for her vital support, genius guidance and encouragement without which this project would not have come forth from my side. I would also like to express my heartly gratitude to the lab assistants Mr. Rajkumar Singh for his necessary suggestions and initiations during the making of this project. I am grateful to My Parents and My Sister whose blessings and wishes have gone a long way in the completion of this arduous task.

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And at last by no means the least I am grateful to Almighty for giving me the strength to successfully conduct my experiment and for sustaining my efforts which many a times did oscillate.

CERTIFICATE

It is hereby to certify that, the original and genuine investigation work has been carried out to investigate about the subject matter. The approach towards the subject has been sincere and scientific. The related data collection and project work has been completed solely, sincerely and satisfactorily by __ of Class XII-B in the academic year 2013-2014, regarding her project titled ‘Honey Analysis’.

Contents

S.No.

Contents

Page No.
I.

Acknowledgement

1
II.

Certificate

2
III.

Content

3
IV.

Introduction to project

4
V.

Objective

5
VI.

Theory

6
VII.

Procedure

7-8
VIII.

Observation table

9-10
IX.

Result

11
X. Conclusion 12 XI. Bibliography 13

Introduction

Honey has been a staple of the kitchen for centuries. It is a natural substance produced by honeybees, Apis mellifera, in almost every country in the world. Honey is essentially a concentrated aqueous solution of inverted sugar, namely fructose and glucose, but it also contains a very complex mixture of other saccharides, enzymes, amino and organic acids, polyphenols, carotenoid-like substances, Mallaird reaction products, vitamins, and minerals. Honey is laid down by bees as a food source, and humans have exploited this. Apiarists (beekeepers) encourage the overproduction of honey within the hive, so that the excess can be extracted. Beekeeping for the purpose of obtaining honey is an ancient art, practiced in societies at least as early as the Egyptians (2000-5000 years ago) who used honey as food, medicine and for embalming. In many cultures, honey has associations that go far beyond its use as a food. As an energy source, honey appears to be one of the most effective forms of carbohydrate to ingest after exercise. From a non-nutritional point of view, honey has been used for years to treat a variety of ailments through topical application. It has been used as a remedy for burns, ulcers and wound healing, simply because it has a soothing effect during its application to open wounds.

AIM

To analyze the available honey for presence of different minerals and carbohydrates.

REQUIREMENTS

Apparatus:
1. Test tubes,
2. Test tube stand,
3. Burner,
4. Water Bath.

Chemicals:
1. Fehling solution A,
2. Fehling solution B,
3. Ammonium chloride solution,
4. Ammonium oxalate solution,
5. Ammonium phosphate,
6. Conc. Nitricacid,
7. Potassium sulphocyanide solution.

THEORY

Honey, thick, sweet, super saturated sugar solution manufactured by bees to feed their larvae and for the subsistence during winter. Bee honey is composed of fructose, glucose and water, in varying proportions. It also contains several enzymes and oils. Honey contains about 181 substances including sugars, proteins, water, vitamins, minerals, hydroxymethyfurfural (HMF), enzymes, flavonoids, phenolic acids, volatile compounds, and so on. However, the main constituents of honey (as previously stated) are glucose and fructose, water, maltose, sucrose, mineral matter and proteins. The color & flavor depends on the age of the honey and the sources of the nectar .Light colored honeys are usually of higher quality than dark coloured honeys. Other high grade honeys are made by bees from orange blossoms, clover and Alfalfa. A well known, poorer grade honey is produced from buckwheat.

Honey has a fuel value of about 3307 cal/kg [1520 cal/ lbs]. It readily picks up moisture from the air and is consequently used as a moistioning agent for Tobaco and in baking. Glucose crystallizes out of honey on standing at room temperature, leaving on uncrystallized layer of dissolved fructose. Honey to be marketed is usually heated by a special process to about 66oC [150.01 F] to dissolve the crystals and is sealed to prevent crystallization. The fructose in crystallized honey ferments readily at about 160C.

PROCEDURE

TEST FOR MINERALS

1. Test for Potassium:-

2ml of honey is taken in a test tube and picric acid solution is added. Yellow precipitate indicates the presence of K+.

2. Test for Calcium:-

2ml of honey is taken in a test tube and NH4Cl solution and NH4OH solution are added to it. The solution is filtered and to the filtrate 2ml of ammonium oxalate solution is added. White ppt. or milkiness indicates the presence of Ca2+ ions.

3. Test for Magnesium:-

2 ml of honey is taken in a test tube and NH4Cl solution is added to it and then excess of Ammonium phospate solution is added. The side of the testtube is scratched with a glass rod. White precipitate indicates the presence of Mg2+ ions.

4. Test for Iron:-

2ml of honey is taken in a test tube and a drop of conc. HNO3 is added and it is heated. It is cooled and 2-3 drops of Potassium sulphocyanide solution is added to it. Blood red colour shows the presence of iron.

TEST FOR CARBOHYDRATES

1.Fehling`s test :-

2 mL of honey is taken in a test tube and 1mL each of Fehling`s solution A and Fehling`s solution B are
added to it and boiled. Red precipitate indicates the presence of reducing sugars.

2. Tollen`s test:
2-3 mL of aqueous solution of honey is taken in a test tube. 2-3mL of Tollen`s reagent is added. The test tube is kept in a boiling water bath for about ten minutes. A shining silver mirror indicates the presence of reducing

carbohydrates.

OBSERVATION TABLE
Substance taken: honey
SL. NO
TESTS
OBSERVATION
INFERENCE
1.
Test for Potassium:-

Honey + Picric acid solution
Yellow ppt.is observed
Potassium is present.

2.
Test for Calcium:-

Honey + NH4Cl soln. + NH4OH soln. filtered + (NH4)2C2O4

White ppt.or milkiness is not observed
Calcium is absent.
3.
Test for Magnesium:-

Honey+ NH4OH (till solution becomes alkaline) + (NH4)3Po4
White ppt.is not observed
Magnesium is absent.
4.
Test for Iron:-

Honey+ conc.HNO3, heated and cooled, + potassium sulphocyanide Blood red colour is observed
Iron is present.

5.
Fehling`s test:-
Honey + 1mL each of Fehling`s solution A and Fehling`s solution B Red ppt. is observed
Reducing sugar is present.

6.
Tollen’s test:-
Honey + 2-3mL Tollen`s reagent, test tube in water bath for 10 minutes Shining silver mirror is observed
Reducing carbohydrate is present

RESULT

Potassium is present.
Iron is present.
Calcium is absent.
Magnesium is absent.
Honey contains reducing sugar.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Laboratory Manual of Chemistry

www.wikipedia.com

www.answers.com

www.icbse.com

www.google.com

www.investigatoryprojectchemistry.blog
spot.in

Cite this Chemistry project on honey analysis

Chemistry project on honey analysis. (2016, Aug 09). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/chemistry-project-on-honey-analysis/

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