Child Labor In The Philippines Research

Child Labor In The Philippines Essay, Research Paper

A Study of Child Labor in the Philippines

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THESIS STATEMENT: Exploitation of child workers continues in the Philippines due to the inefficiency of the policies promulgated by the authorities to eliminate child labour.

For all kids who are deprived of their rights.

? But even we have a duty excessively. Because while cipher is angered by their conditions or realizes the waste of a hereafter that is being easy squandered, they will stay in this universe and they will discontinue to be kids? ?

I. Introduction:

All people were born with rights. Childs are people excessively; so, kids besides have rights. These rights are violated through kid labour. Child labour is defined as, ? the employment of a kid in a concern or industry particularly in misdemeanor of province or federal legislative acts forbiding the employment of kids under a specified age. ? 1 Obviously, it has become a stiff societal job the universe over, specifically in 3rd universe states such as the Philippines where child labour is widespread.

The writers of this paper will undertake the instances of kid labourers, specifically in the metropolis and in states of the Philippines. And as for it being one of the societal jobs bing in the state, does the Filipino authorities expression for ways to pull off or better yet, eliminate kid labour? The paper focuses on this.

It is a known fact that the disadvantages outnumber the advantages of child labour. The research workers present three points, so the reader could break see the advantages and the disadvantages of the said job. The historical background could assist the reader to understand more of kid labour.

The intent of this survey is to show the rapid growing or addition of child labourers in the Philippines. Another would be to discourse the effects of child labour to the household, economic system, and to the ego. Last, to mention ways on how to halt kid labour.


1? Child labour, ? Webster’s Third New International Dictionary.


II. Analysis:

A. Historical Background

Industrial kid labour foremost appeared with the development of the domestic system. In this type of production an enterpriser bought natural stuffs to be? set out? to the places of workingmans to be spun, woven, sewn, or handled in some other mode. This permitted a division of labour and a grade of specialisation among assorted households. Pay was by piece, and kids were extensively used at whatever undertaking they could execute. This system was of import in England and in North America from the sixteenth to the 18th century and it lingers up to the nowadays in some industries and, in some states including the Philippines.

B. Child labour in the Philippines

The child who is coerced to implore on streets and aids make money for professional mendicants. The child cocotte who helps buoy the tourer trade. The liberated organic structure delving out dirt in mines and preies. The miss working as apprenticed retainer in a private place. The kid scavenging in garbage dumps. The smuggler assisting distribute illegal drugs. The marriageable miss working as a terpsichorean in a dark topographic point, and the adolescent starlet exposing mere tegument than necessary on the theatre screen. Truly, kid labour has many faces. It is a work performed by kids either endangers their wellness or safety, interferes with or prevents their instruction, or


supports them off from drama and other activities of import to their development.2

Childs have rights. Government administrative officials and the humanitarians tell us that. But we look about and we see a widespread denial of those rights. We can? t deny the fact that every twelvemonth, the figure of child labourers increases. International Labor Organization estimates that the authorities topographic point the figure of child labourers in the state at eight hundred 1000 ( 800,000 ) , but existent figures may be every bit high as five million ( 5,000,000 ) . 3

? No. of kid labourers

Region 1? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 56,000

Region 2.. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? .56,000

Region 3.. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? .36,000

Region 4? … ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 104,000

Region 5? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? … .64,000

Region 6? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 96,000

Region 7? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 48,000

Region 8. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? … 48,000

Region 9? ? .. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ..40,000

Region 10? ? ? .. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 48,000

Region 11? ? ? ? ? .. ? ? ? ? ? 80,000

Region 12? ? ? ? ? ? ? .. ? ? ? 40,000

NCR? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? … ? ? .24,000

Car? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 24,000

Sum? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? .. ? ? .800,000? 4

The tally above by the International Labor Organization, merely shows that there is a proliferation of the job on kid labour in the Philippines.


2? Child labour, ? New Illustrated Webster’s Dictionary.

3Emerson G. Cuyo, ? Children Labor in the Philippines, ? Filipino Daily Inquirer, 20 June 1997, p. 16.

4ibid, p16



The figure of kids working in the metropoliss are more than 70 1000 ( 70,000 ) .5 These kids truly struggle to last in the metropolis. Majority of them can non be seen during the twenty-four hours since they are working in big mills and in houses if non they? ll be working as cocottes at dark.

The Filipino garment industry normally uses child labour in industry of merchandises exported to the United States.6 Children workers are besides found in nutrient processing; the industries of wood and rattan furniture, fire plants or pyrotechnics, plastic bags, and pes wear.

In Metro Manila entirely, between 45 to fifty thousand ( 45,000-50,000 ) are child laborers.7 One of the grounds of the rapid growing of child labour in the metropolis is because they are recruited from the states and were promised to hold a good life here. Another is that they were forced to work due to poorness. Since kids are more hardworking compared to other people who are in the right age to work, employers normally get them. Harmonizing to the Department of Social Welfare and Development, bulk of the kid labourers that they have handled normally goes place to their households after their work is done.8 It is besides observed that they seldom


5? Child Labor thrust Pushed, ? Manila Bulletin, 19 January 1998, p. 1.

6Natasha Viscara, ? Government Blamed for Rise in Child Labor Abuses, ? hilippine

work entirely, they are in groups with their friends or guided by their? directors? normally pimps or police officers. ? DSWD besides noted that kids who don non hold households to travel place to; they frequently live in handcarts, streets, waste pipe, cemented pavings, or even on dead H2O. ? 9 Some of the kids that have stayed with them tried to get away because they prefer in streets, working and gaining money even though they are paid in little sums and really risky.

? This like the instance of Arnulfo Berano who finished who finished merely 3rd class and is now working at a rice shop and gets one 100 pesos ( P100.00 ) a month for transporting pokes of rice. He said it is better be on that shop instead than being like a captive with the DSWD. ? 10

? Eddie Malasi, 15 old ages old said, he dropped out of school and left place because there was non a twenty-four hours that his male parent forced him to work or else he was beaten. ? 11

There is besides this so called? legal? child labour in the metropolis. It is the misss who are involved in the amusement industry. They deny their existent age and feign to be 18 old ages old.

1. State

? Based on the statistics there are six hundred to seven hundred 1000s ( 600,000-700,000 ) kid labourers in the states and is larger than that of the metropolis? s. ? 12 It is because kids at that place help their parents in gaining a life and sometimes they are forced to halt schooling. Some of them work as a husbandman, fisherman, takes attention of their siblings, or serve as a maidservant of their rich neighbours and what is worse is that they work as a payment for their households? debt.

? Take the instance of Abrelia Pablo, 13 old ages old. For six hundred pesos ( P600.00 ) a month, with free repasts and lodging, Abrelia lived with her employer at the Midsayap Golden Miki mill in Cotabato where she works from 6:30 a.m. to 9:00 p.m. Monday to Saturday as a bagger. When she was new at work, the tips of her fingers were cut by machines in the mill that has no machine guards. ? 13

? Then there are Ronald and Felix, both 13 old ages old, who carry cement bags by the 100s each dark at the Pulauanan Port in Dipolog, and Joel, 14, who survived several cave-ins on Mt. Diwalwal on Mindanao. ? 14

Another is the instance of the kids in the documental Minsan Lang Sila Bata ( Merely Once They Are Children ) . ? Their narratives show 1000000s of Filipino kids at this minute backbreaking, unsafe and foul work for pathetic rewards and basking a little part of the wagess of their work. ? 15

? Tikboy, for case, works from 10 p.m. to 3a.m. , at the Cebu abattoir, charged with shaving off the staying hair on hog carcases. For five hours? labour spent amid the malodor and noise of deceasing animate beings, stealing on blood and backbones, and dodging crisp knives and ironss. Tikboy’s net incomes is a little plastic bag of porc fat, cartilage and sometimes a small meat, which he will sell in the market for money to give to his female parent. But he is even luckier than Delena, her brothers and other kids working as hornals in Ormoc. Tikboy at least has the fleeting pleasance of keeping hard currency in his custodies. Delena’s labours are chalked up to pay off her household’s debts to the haciendero, incurred during the fallow season when, with no work and no income, her household must borrow against future rewards for their subsistence. It’s hard work, particularly in the heat of the twenty-four hours, and besides unsafe work, exerting crisp bola tie to wham at weeds, so garnering them to be burnt. ? 16

? Bobbi, who counts as his existent household a pack of teenage male childs working as lading animal trainers at the wharf, wants to be a attorney when he grows up. He has stopped traveling to school and with his work: hauling cement bags on his caput from the lading clasp to the boat deck, inhaling cement dust that stings his anterior nariss and lungs. ? 17

There seems no terminal to the scope of occupations that these kids do, either by force or by pick. Still poorness is the ground why these kids in the states work. Obviously the authoritiess attempts? in protecting them and decreasing this kid labourers are non plenty.

A. Disadvantages of Child labour

1. Family

? A survey of Department of Labor and Employment showed that here in the Philippines 70 per centum ( 70% ) of these working kids return place every eventide. ? 18 They in short are non loads to their households. On the contrary, they contribute to the household’s income. They are frequently recruited by people who exploit child labour and in the procedure they are being wholly deprived of school instruction and the chance to see the admiration old ages of their lives which is their childhood. ? They deprived of their rights to a good rounded development of their personality, rights to equilibrate diet, vesture, shelter and healthy life. Most of all the right to instruction. ? 19

Some of these kids are forced to work at a really immature age about three to five old ages old by their parents. Often these parents become excessively dependent on their kids up to the extent that they merely stay home and allow their kids work and merely delaies for the rewards. But in some instances, parents do non truly desire their kids halt traveling to school and work. They try their best to gain in order to prolong the demands of the household but due to fortunes they have no pick but to allow their kids assist them to gain a life. Because of child labour they don? Ts have a deep relationship with each other.

? The household is, in fact, the communities foremost socialising bureau and the beginning of its strength and stableness. ? 20 It is here that the kid learns obeisance, cooperation, regard for the rights of others. It is here besides that the parents have changeless occasions to lift above selfishness in reacting to the demands of their kids but still there are kids engaged in child labour.

? All the kids say they bear no score to their parents for allowing them work, because they say, if they don? t all them will travel hungry. ? 21 If allowing these kids work is an reply to household’s poorness so this work which keeps them away from school will besides perpetuate their poorness. Without an instruction these kids and their households are doomed to sta

Y on this coevals rhythm everlastingly.

2. Self

1 ) Every kid is endowed with the self-respect and worth of a human being from the minute of his construct, as by and large accepted in medical idiom, and has, hence, the right to be born good.

2 ) Every kid has the right to a wholesome household life that will supply him with love, attention and apprehension, counsel guidance, moral, and material security.

The dependant or abandoned child shall be provided with the nearest replacement for a place.

3 ) Every kid has the right to a all-around development of his personality to the terminal that he may go happy, utile and active member of the society.

The talented kid shall be given the chance and encouragement to develop his particular endowment.

The emotionally disturbed or socially maladjusted shall be treated, with sympathy and understanding, and shall be entitled to intervention and competent attention.

4 ) Every kid has the right to a balanced diet, equal vesture, sufficient shelter, and proper demand of a healthy vigorous life.

5 ) Every kid has the right to be brought up in an ambiance of morality and uprightness for the enrichment and strengthening of his character.

6 ) Every kid has the right to an instruction commensurate with his abilities and the development of his accomplishments for the betterment of his capacity in service for himself and for his fellowmen.

7 ) Every kid has the right to a full chance and wholesome diversion and activities, single every bit good as societal, for the wholesome usage of his leisure hours.

8 ) Every kid has the right to protection against development, improper influence, jeopardies, and other conditions or fortunes damaging and other moral development.

9 ) Every kid has the right to populate in a community and a society that can offer him an environment free from baneful influences and contributing to the publicity of his wellness and the cultivation of his desirable traits and properties.

10 ) Every kid has the right to the attention, aid, and protection of the province peculiarly when his parents and or defenders fail or unable to supply him with his cardinal demands for growing, development, and betterment.

11 ) Every kid has the right to an efficient and an honorable authorities that will intensify his religion in democracy and animate him with the morality of the established governments both in their public and private life.

12 ) Every kid has the right to turn up as a free person, in an ambiance of peace, apprehension, tolerance, and cosmopolitan brotherhood, and with the finding to lend his portion in the edifice of a better world.22

It was said that kids have rights, but so once more, due to child labour, these so called rights are violated and someway taken away from them. The kids are to the full cognizant of their state of affairss, the fact is that kid labourers are the most prone to mistreat and risky working conditions, since they are more docile for they will make any hard work. ? Harmonizing to the International Labor Organization, approximately 2.2 million kids were exposed to risky environment; 1.8 million reported risky physical environment. In 1995, some 35 1000 ( 35,000 ) Filipino kids aged five to seventeen ( 5-17 ) reported they have suffered from work-related hurts or unwellnesss. ? 23? Another study resulted that in every one hundred ( 100 ) injured or ill kids, about three ( 3 ) had to halt working for good because of the unwellness or hurt suffered. ? 24 This lone shows that the wellness of these persons are at interest. Since they are still immature, their opposition is non strong besides they are truly prone to sickness and this may take to their decease. The dangers to their lives are obvious and utmost: long term psychosocial harm, corruptness of moral and religious values, the hazards of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, including the menace of physical force and maltreatment. Children in immediate danger are those enduring from physical, mental and emotional injury. Bing forced to work besides deprives them of instruction. The most brutalized are the kid cocottes, many of whom recover from physical and emotional injury.

Proper attention is the best investing that the seniors could give to the immature in constructing up a hitter universe in one’s state who gives precedence to its kids is so blessed and its hereafter as certain. It must be realized that in the rhythm of life, the kids are following in line.

D. Government on Child Labor

From the clip of the late Ferdinand Marcos up to now, many Torahs were approved to contend child labour. But as we can detect, there are still costs of working kids.

Filipinos can merely woolgather of the twenty-four hours when no kid is deprived of instruction and normal childhood. The authorities has tried to control kid labour, forcing for the enforcement of age bounds in the work topographic point, supplying protection for immature workers. The attempts have mostly failed because of the deficiency of musculuss to endorse up these Torahs.

1 ) Attempts

? Every kids has given a right to populate a normal life, the rights of a kids began with the League of Nations, acceptance of the general declaration of the rights of a kid in 1924? 25. In 1948, the United Nations General Assembly approved a cosmopolitan declaration of human rights within which the rights of kids were implicitly included. ? The United Nations declaration of the rights of the kid was added by 1959. ? 26 Children has been enshrined in our state and in our fundamental law.

? Meaningful stairss are now being taken for announcement of a amalgamate kids’s chapter that will guarantee the acceptance of policies and patterns in kid attention in maintaining with the spirit of the jurisprudence. ? 27 The aspirations, the people, the civilization of the state and reflect the thoughts adumbrated in the cosmopolitan declaration of the rights of a kid. It is an discourtesy to abandon or expose a kid under the age of two old ages whereby the life of such kid is for good injured.

? In the Philippine Constitution it was stated that the province shall beef up the household as a basic societal establishment. The natural right and responsibility of parents in raising of the young person for civic efficiency and development of moral character shall have the assistance and support of the authorities. It was besides said that the authorities every bit portion in the built-in right and responsibility of parents in preparation of their kids to be good utile, and worthy citizens. ? 28

After the People Power Revolution, ? President Corazon Aquino signed the International Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Participation of Children in the 1989 World Summit and the Philippines, early on, ratified the Convention of the Rights of the Child. Their section has a particular plan called? Sagip Batang Manggagawa? literally intending? Salvage the Child Laborer. ? 29 This peculiarly refers to kids in bonded or coerce environment and to those hard and risky fortunes. They pursue to deliver victims and prosecute mistaking recruiters and employers.

? Last November 9, 1993, President Ramos signed a jurisprudence forbiding the employment of kids below 15 old ages old. However, it allows employment of kids of the said age if they work straight under the direction and the duty of parents. ? 30

The House of Representatives has approved two child friendly measures.

? One slaps a maximal punishment of 12 old ages in prison and a mulct of P500,000 against the parents or legal defenders and employers of individuals 18 old ages old and below who are forced to make risky occupations. The measure besides qualifies as risky occupations to those related to agriculture, hunting, logging, excavation, quarrying, conveyance and pilotage, building and workmanship, and production processing businesss that call for the handling of heavy equipment like overseas telegrams and semi-conductors. The measure makes no reference of kid histrions and commercial theoretical accounts who might besides be subjected to long hours of work. ? 31 In 1995, our senate ratified International Labor Organization Convention Number 138 on the minimal age for the disposal for employment. ? President Fidel V. Ramos signed a new jurisprudence making a Family and Children’s Court. ? 32 In hope to efficaciously implement this new pillar of justness on behalf of kids, including victims of kid maltreatment and unbearable kid labour instances.

Globalization is upon us with the benefits and hazards of liberalized trade. As demonstrated by the foreign currency speculators? onslaught on the Philippine Peso and other Asiatic currencies, the additions of a decennary could be wiped out in a affair of yearss. We have lost money and cherished resources for workers, for concerns, for schools, and even for public services. It is obvious that kids’s public assistance have been jeopardized every bit good. Even as we faced the old immoralities of kid labour, we see new 1s emerging from the planetary market topographic point.

Global March against child labour launched? ? A historic event unfolds in Manila last January 17,1998, with a launching of a? Global March Against Child Labor? , an international run to defend the cause of some 250 million kids worldwide who are forced to work for survival. ? 33

Unprecedented in Philippine history, incumbent President Ramos and former President Aquino are taking the lead of the run launching.

These are merely a few of the attempts and Torahs promulgated by the authorities but are these policies truly implemented?

2. Inefficiency

Obviously, the authorities has so many Torahs and measures approved but merely the same, development of child labour in the Philippines continue inspite of equal Torahs enacted in the past 50 old ages to set a halt tot the pattern. Harmonizing to one study merely a few of these are truly implemented or bear small consequence and another ground for its continued being is because of the low par enforcement of Torahs supplying protection to the minor workers. It is besides pointed that the authorities has the agencies to drastically change by reversal the situation- the revised labour codification, misdemeanors of those commissariats are now treated as condemnable discourtesies.

It was stated in the Philippine Constitution, Article II subdivision 4 that the authorities every bit portion in the duty of the parents in back uping the kids but the fact is the authorities Don? T portion even merely a small spot. What truly is upseting is that President Aquino during her clip signed a jurisprudence which allowed kids below 15 old ages of age work. It was merely in 1993, the clip of Ramos that he removed and changed this jurisprudence.

? Harmonizing to the ILO their true mission is to convey the attending of the authorities functionaries to stop the different signifiers of child labour. They besides result and another ground for its continued being is because of the low par enforcement of Torahs supplying protection to the minor workers. It is besides pointed that the authorities has the agencies to drastically change by reversal the situation- the revised labour codification, misdemeanors of those commissariats are now treated as condemnable discourtesies. ? 34

It was stated in the Philippine Constitution, Article II subdivision 4 that the authorities every bit portion in the duty of the parents in back uping the kids but the fact is the authorities Don? T portion even merely a small spot. What truly is upseting is that President Aquino during her clip signed a jurisprudence which allowed kids below 15 old ages of age work. It was merely in 1993, the clip of Ramos that he removed and changed this jurisprudence.

? Article 139 provinces that no kid below 15 old ages of age shall be employed and no instance let the employment of individual below 18 old ages in an project which is risky of hurtful in nature. ? If this is so why are at that place still kids engaged in difficult labour. ? Harmonizing to the ILO their true mission is to convey the attending of the authorities functionaries to stop the different signifiers of child labour. They besides said that the authorities is seeking with small success to command child labour. Many local functionaries ignore child labour jobs because they do non desire to pique parents with working kids. ? 35

It was noted that most of the politicians seeking public office are runing on the issues of jurisprudence and order, economic reform and morality and honestness in the authorities. No one speaks of children-why it is of import to educate, provender and house every Filipino kid. It has non occurred to them that the stableness is non possible in a universe where kids are deprived of human rights. A sytem that tolerates the captivity of kids in work topographic points and the development of immature spawns conditions of force, offense and disease.

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Child Labor In The Philippines Research. (2017, Jul 19). Retrieved from