In 1956 г , in the USA left the book “ Youthful criminalism ” under edition S.Meklelana ‘s Grant. This book represents the aggregation of articles of the American writers who are engaged in research of a job of kids ‘s and vernal criminalism in its assorted facets. In the book sentiments of responsible solons, attorneies, head-shrinkers, sociologists, authors, instructors, parents and representatives of other groups of the population at a job of criminalism among bush leagues in the USA are stated.
In the present information those sentiments which represent the greatest involvement for the Soviet reader are short stated merely. In peculiar, considerable involvement is caused by sights of some the American writers of the grounds of kids ‘s and vernal criminalism and about methods with which aid, in their sentiment, apparently it is possible to accomplish lessening in growing of criminalism among bush leagues in the USA.
In the bulk the American writers look intoing inquiries of kids ‘s and vernal criminalism, are far from unwraping of the valid grounds of criminalism among bush leagues. In the USA they try to explicate tremendous growing of kids ‘s and vernal criminalism any the minor grounds. Merely separate writers in the articles presented in the considered book, seek to suggest shy at the true grounds of criminalism among bush leagues, without opening therefore wholly the sights on this point in inquiry.
All American writers who are engaged in research of a job of kids ‘s and vernal criminalism in the USA, grade immense growing of criminalism among bush leagues. The kids ‘s and vernal criminalism is a calamity of the modern American cogency. The job of kids ‘s and vernal criminalism in the USA, harmonizing to the bulk of writers, is sharper, than in any to the universe state.
Data, available FBI, show that the offenses of all toxicants made in the state in 1954, have increased on 8, 2 % in comparing with 1953, in 1953 the criminalism was above on 8 % in comparing with 1952 How much this general addition in criminalism in the USA is caused by growing of criminalism among bush leagues, it is seeable from the following information. Harmonizing to FBI, in 1953 immature felons to 18-year-old age had been made 53, 6 % from among all car larcenies in 1174 metropoliss ; 49, 3 % of all burglaries ; 40, 1 % of all other sorts of larcenies ; 18 % of all robberies and 16, 2 % of all colzas.
If the inclination to growing of kids ‘s and vernal criminalism takes topographic point and farther the undermentioned coevals will witness a consequence more than 41, 8 million instances of theft, 15, 8 million burglaries, 7, 4 million car larcenies, 2 million robberies, 3 million physical force and more than 200 1000 Americans will look killed. Now in the USA every twelvemonth more than 1 million adolescents make one or several offenses. If it will non be possible to suspend growing of criminalism among bush leagues, that, harmonizing to Klendenena ( see the named book, p. 9 and с л . ) , by 1960 the kids ‘s criminalism increases more than to 1, 5 million instances a twelvemonth.
The kids ‘s and vernal criminalism in the USA in the development as some writers mark, accepts more and more unsmooth and terrible signifiers. Young felons who broke 10 old ages ago street lanterns, interruption now skulls of people. Therefore, harmonizing to Evane ( p. 41 — 42 ) , the job of kids ‘s and vernal criminalism is one of the greatest jobs in a life of a modern American society.
Than so broad development and rise in offense among bush leagues in the USA speaks? On this inquiry among the American writers who are engaged in research of kids ‘s and vernal criminalism, there is no common sentiment. Barron Milton ( p. 59 — 63 ) considers that in motion of kids ‘s and vernal criminalism is observed defined or fluctuation. He can non explicate these fluctuations, but their perusal, from its point of position, allows to pull the of import decisions.
The kids ‘s and vernal criminalism additions during the periods of economic prosperity and falls down during the depression periods, additions in a readying clip to war and the war and falls during the universe. From here Milton concludes that most plausible grounds of addition in criminalism among bush leagues in the USA are either war or prosperity. The opposite image is observed with criminalism of grownups. The criminalism of grownups Begins to worsen during prosperity and war and rises during depression and the universe. Milton explains this opposite inclination of criminalism of grownups and kids to that character of economic alterations in military or the peace clip renders assorted psychological, societal and economic influence on grownups and kids.
Some American writers great value in development of criminalism among bush leagues give faiths. In their sentiment, incredulity in God — the serious factor act uponing growing of kids ‘s and vernal criminalism. Harmonizing to many, on growing of criminalism among bush leagues the great influence is rendered by the cartoon strips published in the USA in million circulations and in the bulk depicting offenses, made chiefly bush leagues. Influence of these cartoon strips on kids enormously. Comics specially intend for adolescents and, in kernel, contain all necessary lessons how it is necessary to perpetrate offenses. Adolescents study on such cartoon strips and travel on offenses already with the ready formula.
The force and sadism are preached in many cartoon strips. And all it is accompanied by apparent illustrations. Under the influence of one merely comics the criminalism of bush leagues in the USA has increased in 1954 in comparing with 1947 by 20 % . Vertham Frederik ( p. 78 — 91 ) as a consequence of legion supervising and researches has come to a decision that the cartoon strips depicting offenses, are the serious factor in growing of kids ‘s and vernal criminalism now. At the same clip he believes that cartoon strips non alone and in many instances at all the most of import factor, but, doubtless, most inexcusable factor.
The portion of writers considers kids ‘s and vernal criminalism in the USA as consequence of imitation. Finally, from their point of position, immature felons gain experience and cognition in condemnable trade from grownups environing them. Between criminalism of grownups and bush leagues there is a direct communicating: when kids on experience of grownups see that the Torahs set uping certain regulations of behavior, the regulation inquiries connected with inebriation, gamings, trade etc. , can be ignored ; see that grownups can go forth “ dry H2O ” , they start to copy this grownups.
On development of criminalism among bush leagues the great influence renders distribution to the USA alcoholic drinks and drugs. Along with alcoholic drinks and drugs in the USA on bush leagues fatal influence the exposure render, the illustrated playing cards, home bases, film, telecasting screens, the slides, the illustrated books and the booklets stand foring low sexual deformations. The big measure of all these adult stuffs specially intends for young person that makes the large concern which income fluctuates yearly between 100 and 300 million dollars.
Absence of effectual Torahs on battle against spread of drug dependence and the eroticas, poisoning heads and organic structures of adolescents, from the point of position of many writers, is one of the serious grounds of kids ‘s and vernal criminalism in the USA.
Some explain criminalism as consequence bad personal to environment. The portion of writers specifies in flood of schools, failing of Torahs, a broad circulation of instances kids parents, public indifference to kids who are in a hard state of affairs, and other fortunes as on societal conditions or the grounds which promote growing of criminalism among bush leagues.
Sightss of the American writers at the grounds of criminalism among bush leagues are inconsistent. Some writers consider kids ‘s and vernal criminalism as consequence of terrible conditions by which the life in slums is characterised. They specify that the households populating in these slums, normally really hapless, huddle in little suites. Parents frequently face the great troubles connected with unemployment. Therefore in blighted countries about all possible signifiers of offenses and defects more frequently dressed ore.
Harmonizing to other writers, a prevailing sight that immature felons in the bulk leave from countries and hapless households, now does non stand for the facts. Young felons leave every bit as households with an mean or tenable prosperity, and from households with a low prosperity.
The portion of writers asserts that the bulk of immature felons is “ s
ick children” . Their oppositions flatly deny it. From their point of position, immature felons mentally healthy and physically strong, like all those kids who do non do offenses.
Separate research workers a criminalism chief cause see in parents. They consider that in most instances offenses are made by kids of whom parents do non care or heedlessly concern their instruction. Incorrect instruction of the kid in household conditions consequences, from their point of position, in development of condemnable sets in the early childhood, and to neutralize these sets later barely. If parents heedlessly concern instruction of kids, the last spell on street and become felons.
As show the information when the adolescent goes on a offense, it is normally found out that this adolescent has been left by parents to the clemency of destiny, of it did non care, struggles made on it between parents, inebriation and any other indecent influences in a household bad impact. The divorce broad circulation, stiffness in common dealingss between parents, absence of normal conditions, attention and supervising and other abnormalcies in household conditions make considerable impact on growing of criminalism of bush leagues in the USA.
A figure of writers considers wrong the grounds of kids ‘s and vernal criminalism to cut down to influence of parents or unnatural dealingss in a household. They believe that the criminalism ground are bad material conditions, deficiencies of spiritual instruction, bad school conditions, the description of force in movies or telecasts etc.
Sightss of the American research workers and at a school function in development of kids ‘s and vernal criminalism in the USA are inconsistent. One assert that between criminalism of bush leagues and school there is a direct communicating, others deny it. So, for illustration, Howard Uajtman ( p. 71 — 78 ) specifies that the subject of adolescents became now the large job at schools of the USA. In a figure of schools direction and directors do non pass any work on discipline care at school. Uajtman consequences instances of drawing of physical hurts knifes, whippings of instructors, clashing of adult females downwards on school ladders, slayings of other students from fire-arms, extortionate dark onslaughts and other offenses made by students.
A spot different point of position on a instance in point Ernest adheres to O.Melbi ( p. 69 — 71 ) . He agrees that the subject at some schools of the USA truly is a critical job. However, in its sentiment, the serious antisocial Acts of the Apostless made by bush leagues, are instead rare. Now serious disciplinary jobs arise at the American schools where educational procedure is severely adjusted. At schools in which instructors are able to involvement the students, seldom it is necessary to run into troubles in subject.
In sights of the writers which articles are presented in the considered book, has non found the acknowledgement sentiment bing in the USA that the criminalism among the Negro population is more drawn-out than among the white population. In peculiar, as specifies Klendenen ( p. 14 and с л . ) , there is no footing to asseverate that the criminalism is apparently more built-in in Negroes, than any other members of the American society.
Therefore, many American writers analyzing kids ‘s and vernal criminalism, can non or merely make non wish to open the chief ground of growing of criminalism among minor century of the USA, rooting in the kernel of a capitalist system. From here, of course, and methods which they offer in battle against kids ‘s and vernal criminalism, can non impact a small basically lessening in criminalism among bush leagues and the more so, wholly to decide a job of kids ‘s and vernal criminalism in the USA.
In battle against kids ‘s and vernal criminalism in the USA the diversified actions are offered. Some of them have naif character. So, for illustration, Edgar Hoover ( p. 169 — 175 ) , considers that the job of kids ‘s and vernal criminalism can be resolved apparently ” merely by ingraining by the grownup of high moral qualities by agencies of faith. Other American writers besides specify in a faith great influence in the bar of offenses. In their sentiment, the church and a temple are the of import agencies for ingraining of moral and societal qualities of the American young person.
From the point of position of many, the most effectual action which can be undertaken for the control over kids ‘s and vernal criminalism, instruction of parents in the spirit of right public presentation of the parental responsibilities by them is. For lessening in kids ‘s and vernal criminalism it is offered to set about the certain stairss directed on strengthening of a household and riddance or, at least, limitation of many conditions, harmful to kids, care with councils and the aid in household inquiries, to perplex divorces, to better the plan of amusements, to beef up censoring of telecasts, movies, etc. As one of actions for battle against kids ‘s and vernal criminalism some offer strengthening of duty of minor felons. From their point of position, reform of condemnable penalty should convey success in battle against criminalism of bush leagues.
One of the practical actions apparently advancing realizations ” the control over kids ‘s and vernal criminalism in the USA, harmonizing to Hoover, is remotion of fingerprints at all adolescents arrested for serious offenses. He suggests to reassign carry oning battle against kids ‘s and vernal criminalism in custodies of national constabulary as last to make it easier and easier. Local constabulary: has no sufficient experience of battle against criminalism of bush leagues. Transporting out in a life of this action, harmonizing to Hoover, apparently is the of import measure to the determination of a job of kids ‘s and vernal criminalism to the USA.
Necessary action in battle against criminalism of bush leagues, from the point of position of separate writers, is the liability of parents for causation of a belongings harm of a private belongings by their kids. The imperativeness disclosing in the imperativeness names of those immature felons which commit heavy and perennial offenses, besides can do indispensable impact on parents and coerce them to give more than attending to behaviour of kids.
Many among bush leagues consider as serious action for the bar of criminalism a way of their energy on utile concern. In last coevalss, from their point of position, adolescents worked more, hence to maintain them in custodies it was easier, than now. During the modern mechanised epoch kids frequently appear in a problem of that at them it is excessively much free clip. For this ground it is necessary to back up more the civil ( secular ) , school and church administrations supplying the plans of remainder for young person.
Some American writers for battle against criminalism of bush leagues offer transporting out of certain system psychiatric and any to other aid to immature felons, strengthening of attention of kids in houses, any administration of constitutions, nines, infirmaries, etc. Many consider that with kids ‘s and vernal criminalism it is possible faster and to fight more economically by broad realization of plans of instruction and remainder for all kids in national comprehensive schools. The great value in battle against growing of criminalism among bush leagues, harmonizing to separate writers, has an employment of the immature work forces who have left school.
The large possibilities in the bar of criminalism of bush leagues many writers see at school. With that terminal in position they offer to pass a new kind of the subject at schools, which kernel consists in making unit of ammunition adolescents training conditions, to hold on them the psychological influence, a sense of duty conveyance by it for the Acts of the Apostless. And, the new subject, from their point of position, will be effectual agencies merely in the event that parents and instructors will hang together in transporting out of disciplinary influence on adolescents and at schools and at place.
As preventative care against ingestion of drugs separate writers offer hospitalization of nuts and a rigorous compulsory sentence about gaol arrangement without remotion of action or conditional glade on bond of the minor felons recognised guilty of spread of drug dependence.
For battle against kids ‘s and vernal criminalism some writers suggest to restrict or neutralize gamings for kids. From their point of position, the public sentiment should raise the voice against proprietors of the whorehouses, in secret selling to adolescents liquors and assorted adult merchandises. The care of the considered book is that in general.