Classification of Living Things – Animal Kingdom Essay
A Species is a single organism, not a group. Some examples of species would be Southern Leopard Frog, Honey Mushroom, or White Oak. All seven types Of groups go in order from largest to smallest, like this: Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species As each group is split into smaller groups, the organisms are more and more alike. For instance, a White-tailed Deer, an Eastern Gray Squirrel, and an Eastern Chipmunk are all in the Mammal Class together. This is because they have more in common with each other than with other animals, such as turtles, birds, or insects.
However, it is easy to notice that there are some big differences between a deer and squirrels and chipmunks. The White-tailed Deer is in the Aristocratically Order (Even-toed Hoofed Mammals), while squirrels and chipmunks are both in the Retention Order (Rodents). In fact, squirrels and chipmunks have so much in common, they are also in the same Family, the Scurried Family.
However, even though squirrels and chipmunks are very much alike, they still have differences. The Eastern Gray Squirrel is in the Cirrus Genus, while the Eastern Chipmunk is in the Tamil Genus.
Did you notice that these groups have funny names? Scientists from around the world agreed to use the ancient language of Latin to give organisms, and heir groups, names. Sometimes a group will have a “Common Name” and a fancy, scientific Latin name. For example, there is a Family of frogs called “Iranian” (Scientific Latin name). This Family’s common English name is “True Frogs. ” Sometimes this gets confusing. Every Species gets a fancy scientific Latin name. A Bullfrog is also known as “Ran statistician. A White-tailed Deer is known as “Decouples Virginians. ‘ A Monarch butterfly is known as “Donnas plexus. ” One thing that makes it easier to understand all these names is to know that a Species always has a first and a last name; and that the first name is also he name of the Genus group that Species is in. So the Monarch butterfly is known as Donnas plexus and it is in the Donnas genus. Notice that the first name of a Species is always capitalized, while the second name is not.
Here is the classification of a Bullfrog, so you can see all the groups it is in: Bullfrog (Ran statistician) Kingdom: Animal phylum: Chordate Class : Amphibians Order: Salient Family : Iranian Genus : Ran Species: Ran statistician (Bullfrog) Basis Of Classification Levels of Organization 1. Cellular Level: In unicellular animals and some multicultural animals, the ell is responsible for all the metabolic activities in the animal body. This type of organization of function is termed as cellular level of organization. 2.
Tissue Level: In certain animals cells performing the same function are arranged in a group. Example: Coelenterates. 3. Organ Level: Some animals form specialized organs for specific functions. Example: Plainclothes. 4. Organ System Level: In higher and complex animals various organs group to form a complex organ system to perform specific function. Example: Mollusks, Chordate. Symmetry Animals can be categorized on the basis Of their Symmetry. Sponges are costly asymmetrical, I. E. , any plane that passes through the centre does not divide them into equal halves.
Radial Symmetry: When any plane passing through the central axis of the body divides the organism into two identical halves, it is called radial symmetry. Coelenterates, stereoscopes and echinoderms have this kind of body plan. Bilateral Symmetry: Animals like annelids, arthropods, etc. , where the body can be divided into identical left and right halves in only one plane, exhibit bilateral symmetry. Diplomatic and Thermoplastic Organization Animals in which the cells are arranged in two embryonic layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm, are called diplomatic animals, e. . , coelenterates. An undifferentiated layer, messages, is present in between the ectoderm and the endoderm. Those animals in which the developing embryo has a third germinal layer, mesoderm, in between the ectoderm and endoderm, are called thermoplastic animals (plainclothes to chordates). [Pick] Ocelot Collocates: Presence or absence of a cavity between the body wall and the gut wall is very important in classification. The body cavity, which is lined by mesoderm is called ocelot. Animals possessing ocelot are called collocates, e. G. Annelids, mollusks, arthropods, echinoderms, homesteaders and chordates. Accustomedness: In some animals, the body cavity is not lined by mesoderm, instead, the mesoderm is present as scattered pouches in between the ectoderm and endoderm. Such a body cavity is called pseudopodium and the animals possessing them are called accustomedness, e. G. , clannishness. Collimates: The animals in which the body cavity is absent are called collimates, e. G. , plainclothes. Segmentation In some animals, the body is externally and internally divided into segments with a serial repetition of at least some organs.
For example, in earthworm, the body shows this pattern called metric segmentation and the phenomenon is known as monetarism. Notched Notched is a masterfully derived rod-like structure formed on the dorsal side during embryonic development in some animals. Animals with notched are called chordates and those animals which do not form this structure are called non-chordates, e. G. , purifier to echinoderms. CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS Phylum – Purifier Members of this phylum are commonly known as sponges. They are generally marine and mostly asymmetrical animals.
These are primitive multicultural animals and have cellular level of organization. Water Transport System in Sponges: Sponges have a water transport or canal system. Water enters through minute pores (Costa) in the body wall into a central cavity, sponges, from where it goes out through the calculus. This pathway of water transport is helpful in food gathering, respiratory exchange and removal of waste. Chanteuses or collar cells line the sponges and the canals. Digestion is intracellular. The body is supported by a skeleton made up of spiracles or sponging fibers.
Reproduction: Sponges are hermaphrodite animals. Sexes are not separate, I. . , eggs and sperms are produced by the same individual. Sponges reproduce asexually by fragmentation and sexually by formation of gametes. Fertilization is internal and development is indirect having a larval stage which is morphologically distinct from the adult. Phylum – Coelenterate (Cnidarians) They are aquatic, mostly marine, sessile or free-swimming, radically symmetrical animals. The name cnidarians is derived from the amontillados or syndicates (which contain the stinging capsules or nematocyst) present on the tentacles and the body.
Iconoclasts are used for anchorage, defense and for the capture of prey. Cnidarians exhibit tissue level of organization and are diplomatic. They have a central Castro-vascular cavity with a single opening, hypotheses. Digestion is extracurricular and intracellular. Some Of the cnidarians, e. G. , corals have a skeleton composed of calcium carbonate. [pick] : [pick] Cnidarians exhibit two basic body forms called polyp and medusa. Polyp is a sessile and cylindrical form like Hydra, Adams, etc. Whereas, medusa is umbrella-shaped and free-swimming like Aurelia or jelly fish.
Those cnidarians which exist in both forms exhibit alternation of generation (Ontogenesis), I. E. Polyps produce medusa asexually and medusa form the polyps sexually (e. G. , Bobble). Examples: Physical (Portuguese man-of-war), Adams (Sea anemone), Peninsula (Sea-pen), Gregorian (Sea-fan) and Meandering (Brain coral). Phylum – Stereophonic Stereoscopes, commonly known as sea walnuts or comb jellies are exclusively marine, radically symmetrical, diplomatic organisms with tissue level of organization. The body bears eight external rows of ciliated comb plates, which help in locomotion.
Digestion is both extracurricular and intracellular. Fluorescence (the property of a living organism to emit light) is well- raked in stereoscopes. Sexes are not separate. Reproduction takes place only by sexual means. Fertilization is external with indirect development. Examples: Bibliographic and Citronella. [pick] Phylum – Plainclothes They have doors-ventrally flattened body, hence are called flatworms. These are mostly indoctrinates found in animals including human beings. Flatworms are bilaterally symmetrical, thermoplastic and collimate animals with organ level of organization.
Hooks and suckers are present in the parasitic forms. Some of them absorb nutrients from the host directly through their body surface. Specialized cells called flame cells help in congratulations and excretion. Sexes are not separate. Fertilization is internal and development is through many larval stages. Some members like Planarian possess high regeneration capacity. Examples: Tania (Tapeworm), Fascicle (Liver fluke). Phylum – Clannishness The body of the clannishness is circular in cross-section, hence, the name roundworms. They may be freelancing aquatic and terrestrial or parasitic in plants and animals.
Roundworms have organ-system level of body organization. They are bilaterally symmetrical, thermoplastic and steamrollered animals. Digestive System: Alimentary canal is complete with a well developed muscular pharynx. An excretory tube removes body wastes from the body cavity through the excretory pore. Sexes are separate (decision), I. E. , males and females are distinct. Reproduction: Often females are longer than males. Fertilization is internal and development may be direct (the young ones resemble the adult) or indirect. Examples: Cascaras (Round Worm), Wheezier (Flair worm), Mastectomy (Hookworm).
Phylum – Annelid They may be aquatic (marine and fresh water) or terrestrial; free-living and sometimes parasitic. They exhibit organ-system level of body organization and bilateral symmetry. They are thermoplastic, meteorically segmented and collocate animals. Their body surface is distinctly marked out into segments or mattress (Latin, annulus : little ring) and, hence, the phylum name Annelid. They possess longitudinal and circular muscles which help in locomotion. Aquatic annelids like Nereid possess lateral appendages, paranoia, which help in swimming. A closed circulatory system is present.
Nephritic (sing. Nephritic) help in congratulations and excretion. Neural system consists of paired ganglia (sing. Angling) connected by lateral nerves to a double ventral nerve cord. Nereid, an aquatic form, is decision, but earthworms and leeches are unconscious. Reproduction is sexual. Examples: Nereid, Primate (Earthworm) and Hardwiring (Blood sucking leech). Male Female Phylum – Arthropods This is the largest phylum of Mammalian which includes insects. Over two-thirds of all named species on earth are arthropods. They have organ-system level of organization.
They are bilaterally symmetrical, thermoplastic, segmented and collocate animals. Structure: The body of arthropods is covered by chitin’s exoskeleton. The odd consists of head, thorax and abdomen. They have jointed appendages (arthropods-joint, pod-appendages). Respiratory organs are gills, book gills, book lungs or tracheal system. Circulatory system is of open type. Sensory organs like antennae, eyes (compound and simple), catalysts or balance organs are present. Excretion takes place through malignant tubules. They are mostly decision. Fertilization is usually internal. They are mostly oviparous.
Development may be direct or indirect. Examples: Economically important insects – Apish (Honey bee), Bombay (Silkworm), Lacier (Lack insect) Vectors – Anopheles, Excel and Aides Mosquitoes) Gregarious pest -? Locusts (Locust) Living fossil – Ilium’s (King crab). Phylum – Mollusks This is the second largest animal phylum. Mollusks are terrestrial or aquatic (marine or fresh water) having an organ-system level of organization. They are bilaterally symmetrical, thermoplastic and collocate animals. Structure: Body is covered by a calcareous shell and is instrumented with a distinct head, muscular foot and visceral hump.
A soft and spongy layer of skin forms a mantle over the visceral hump. The space between the hump and the mantle is called the mantle cavity in which feather like gills are resent. They have respiratory and excretory functions. The anterior head region has sensory tentacles. The mouth contains a file-like rasping organ for feeding, called radial. They are usually decision and oviparous with indirect development. Examples: Pill (Apple snail), Piñata (Pearl oyster), Sepia (Cuttlefish), Logic (Squid), Octopus (Devil fish), Plays (Share), Tantalum (Tusk shell) and Cataloguer (Chitin).
Phylum – Echinoderms These animals have an endorsements of calcareous icicles and, hence, the name Echinoderms (Spiny bodied). All are marine with organ-system level of organization. The adult echinoderms are radically symmetrical but larvae are bilaterally symmetrical. They are thermoplastic and collocate animals. Digestive system is complete with mouth on the lower (ventral) side and anus on the upper (dorsal) side. The most distinctive feature Of echinoderms is the presence Of water vascular system which helps in locomotion, capture and transport of food and respiration. An excretory system is absent.
Sexes are separate. Reproduction is sexual. Fertilization is usually external. Development is indirect with free swimming larva. Examples: Asterisk (Star fish), Echoing (Sea urchin), Anted (Sea lily), Cucumbers (Sea cucumber) and Euphoria (Brittle star). Phylum – Hemispherical Hemispherical was earlier considered as a sub-phylum under phylum Chordate. But now it is placed as a separate phylum under non-chordate. This phylum consists of a small group of worm-like marine animals with organ- system level of organization. They are bilaterally symmetrical, thermoplastic and collocate animals.
The body is cylindrical and is composed of an anterior proboscis, a collar and a long trunk. Circulatory system is of open type. Respiration takes place through gills. Excretory organ is proboscis gland. Sexes are separate. Fertilization is external. Development is indirect. Examples: Fabulousness and Glaciology’s. Phylum – Chordate Animals belonging to phylum Chordate are fundamentally characterized by the presence of a notched, a dorsal hollow nerve cord and paired pharyngeal gill slits. These are bilaterally symmetrical, thermoplastic, collocate with organ-system level of organization.
They possess a post anal tail and a closed circulatory system. [pick] Phylum Chordate is divided into three supply: 1. Orchards or Tunisia, 2. Expectorated and 3. Vertebrate. Supply Orchards and Expectorated are often referred to as protectorates and are exclusively marine. In Orchards, notched is present only in larval tail, while in Expectorated, it extends from head to tail region and is persistent throughout their life. Examples: Orchards – Acidic, Salsa, Dilution; Expectorated -? Brainstorm (Impious or Lancelet).
The members Of supply Vertebrate possess notched during the embryonic period. The notched is replaced by a cartilaginous or bony vertebral column in the adult. Thus all vertebrates are chordates but all chordates are not vertebrates. Besides the basic chordate characters, vertebrates have a ventral muscular heart with ;o, three or four chambers, dinned for excretion and congratulations and paired appendages which may be fins or limbs. Comparison of Chordates and Non-chordates [pick] [pick Cyclostomes All living members of the class Cyclostomes are catastrophes on some fishes.
They have an elongated body bearing 6-15 pairs of gill slits for respiration. Cyclostomes have a sucking and circular mouth without jaws. Their body is devoid of scales and paired fins. Cranium and vertebral column are cartilaginous. Circulation is of closed type. Cyclostomes are marine but migrate for spawning to fresh water. After spawning, within a few days, they die. Their larvae, after metamorphosis, turn to the ocean. Examples: Photometry (Lamprey) and Maxine (Hagfish). Class – Eccentricities They are marine animals with streamlined body and have cartilaginous endorsements.