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Community Hazard Analysis

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    Community Hazard Analysis

    Maryland Emergency Management Bureau was established by the Maryland parliament in order for the State to be ready to handle the extensive emergencies. The bureau is accountable for synchronizing the State reaction in any major disaster. The process comprises propping up local administrations as required. The agency is part of the military department and under the control of adjutant general. Throughout the times of calamities, the governor might take the full control of the bureau. During such situations, the director has to report directly to the governor. (Maryland Crisis Control Bureau, 2009).

    In periods of calamities, the director stimulates the nation crisis action centre to prop up local administrations as required. The representatives from the State departments and central government agencies, personal division and unpaid-helper associations are also present in the State emergency operations centre. They have powers to distribute resources and finance essential for the emergency reaction. Once the governor announces a condition of emergency, the Maryland emergency bureau in effort with the central government bureau request for a presidential calamity announcement. The aim of this is to offer help to the victims (Haddow & Bullock, 2006).

    The Maryland bureau synchronizes several federal agendas comprising homeland security grant, crisis control acting funding, mitigation and recovery agendas. For example in 2005, the coordination between the bureau and the Chemical Stock Emergency Preparedness Agenda neutralized the mustard gas stocked up at Aberdeen Proving grounds. The power of such bureau emanates from Article 14 of the annotated policy of Maryland. The bureau works through mitigation to minimize and in the process eliminate the harmful effects of future calamities. The agency uses the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration weather satellites to track storms. In this way, mechanisms are devised to protect the communities from potential storms. The weather satellite is the basic source of weather information, predictions and warnings for the United States (Baltimore Metropolis Wellbeing Section, 2007).

    Hurricanes are not common in Maryland although sometimes people sustain damage and fatalities from the tropical storms that come after their occurrence. Storms such as Agnes in 1972, Floyd in 1999 and Isabel in 2003 are examples of storms occurred after hurricanes had emerged. Such type of rainstorms cause floods, coastal storm surge, wind damage and lead to tornadoes and thunderstorms. Power failure is as a result of such hurricanes. In Maryland, it is advisable that before hurricane season, residents should check insurance policies. This is to ensure that people are covered from flood destruction. Also buildings, structures, seawalls together with overpass are covered. People living in Coastal regions should put their disaster supplies kit together. Drains and downspouts should be eliminated as trees and shrubs are trimmed.

                During a storm risk, people need to stay tuned to the radio and TV for official weather information. Go after the guidance and orders specified by the crisis officers. Leave if living in mobile homes and keep away from casements and entrances even if covered. Close all internal doors while securing and invigorating external entrances. Inhabitants must not leave throughout the altitude of the storm. Refrigerators should be turned to maximum cold setting. Large bathtubs and containers be filled with water (Weill Medical College, 2004).

    Internal torrential can be a main danger to societies several kilometers away from the coast. Such floods are due to the intense rainfall from the enormous tropical air masses. Tropical rainstorm Allison in 2001 generated extremely heavy rainfall and floods in Houston, Texas region. The storm acquired subtropical properties and proceeded to generate heavy rainfall and floods near the path from Louisiana eastward to North Carolina. The rainstorms then kept

     on northward along the U.S east coast to Massachusetts. About forty one deceases were accounted for Destructions estimates. With regard federal Crisis Management Agency were near five billion dollars. Hurricane Floyd in 1999 generated strong precipitation and recorded torrential to the eastern U.S. Fifty six people passed on as fifty drowned because of inland flooding. The tropical rainstorm Alberto in 1994 drifted southeast U.S and generated torrential rainfall. Thirty three persons drowned while destruction surpassed 750 dollars. Tropical Claudette in 1979 led to damage of more than 600 million dollars. Hurricane Agnes in 1972 produced floods in northeast U.S which led to the death of 122 persons and damages of 6.4 billion dollars. Freshwater floods caused more than half that is 59% of U.S deaths (Maryland Crisis Control Bureau, 2009).

    Maryland is prone to flooding from numerous diverse sources. Flash floods have a tendency of emanating from short heavy rainfall periods. Impact on minute watercourses and rivulets. The general flooding comes from prolonged steady rain and affect large streams and rivers. Major rivers such as Potomac and Susquehanna reach flood stages frequently due to distant regions of their watershed. Hurricanes and tropical storms cause surges that establish tidal flooding along Maryland’s bays and tributaries. Flooding in Maryland has caused some of the worst disasters. From 1995 to 1996, Maryland has had several major floods that led to two disaster declarations. The rules applied here are easy where floods are a concern. Simply make sure an individual is insured and go to a higher region. Torrents can happen at any place including the higher region. It is good before flood has occurred to ensure that assurance policy covers up floods. Move equipment and valuables to higher regions or floors as water rise. Keep the car tank gas full in case of evacuation. Stay informed about the weather situation through the media. Don’t drive via torrential path. After floods, never take anything that was in touch with torrent water. Follow officials’ instructions. Clean and have electrical appliances checked before utilizing it and report destroyed utilities.

    Snowfalls vary greatly in Maryland. Garret County gets much snow than the lower eastern shores. The heaviest snow documentation in Central Maryland was the three day president’s day weekend storm in 2003. The snow moistened above 32 inches of snow in the region. However, Maryland is susceptible to speedy warm-ups following main rainstorms. This also results to torrent dilemma. Maryland also comprise hail and cold rain and the extreme cold associated with problem present health problems for the ill, elderly, infants and the homeless. Snowfalls cause loss of power, heat and communication services. Advice here is that ensure there is flashlight and batteries. Stayed tuned on battery-powered nationwide ocean and environmental administration radio to get updated with the emergency information. Ensure there is extra food, water, medication and infant requirements. Provide first aid supplies and heating fuel. In vehicles and trucks, plan travel and check newest weather conditions information to evade storms (Arthur, et al. 1999).

    Maryland’s diverse geography and location on the east coast makes it prone to numerous innate disasters. The seismic activity is not common in Maryland although numerous earthquakes have hit the State in the last decade. However no harm has been accounted. Even though floods, tornadoes and hurricanes account for much superior yearly loss in the United States, harsh earthquakes pose the largest danger.  The loss is in conditions of sudden loss of life and property. There are lots of interconnected issues that decide the extent of loss of property and life. Greater quantity of seismic energy released pose greater destruction. The long period of trembling cause damage. Tremors strike abruptly, aggressively and with no warning. Therefore identification of probable disasters before they occur. Repair deep plaster cracks in the upper roofing and floors. Tie up shelves firmly to walls and put weighty things on lower shelves. Support overhead illumination fittings. Find a secure place inside and outside such as under strong furnishings. Also next to interior walls and away from where glass as it can break.

    Maryland has dense population and hence such kind of fires threaten more structures and human life. If the fire incident has occurred, evacuate pets and other relatives who are not vital in preparing the home. Anyone with medical or physical restrictions and the young and the elderly should be evacuated immediately. Remove combustibles. Remove items that will blaze from within the house as well as wood piles, grassland furnishings and barbecue grills. Shift them to a defensible space. Review escape routes for the residents (Baltimore City Health Department, 2007).

    Thunderstorms emerge unexpected just like earthquakes and present a number of hazards such as power outages. The storms affect Maryland in late spring, summer or early fall. Happen in anytime when chilly together with warm air stacks crash. Every year, lightning kills 80-100 persons and injures hundreds more. It is good to know the weather prediction all times and call off outside activities if thunderstorms are probable. The office of public wellbeing awareness and reaction performs together with the central, State and local authority. They formulate strategies and rules to get ready for and react to communal health crises. These comprise bioterrorist occurrences, natural catastrophes and disease occurrence. It also works in collaboration with health care facilities and academic partners in Maryland to coordinate responses to crises. Also conducts outreach to teach the public about crises awareness.

    Bioterrorism causes and sickness. The U.S. communal health system and primary healthcare providers are prepared to tackle a variety of biological agents and other pathogens that are seldom in the United States. High-priority agents comprise organisms that pose a threat to State safety as they are able to be transmitted from person to person. Also result in high death charges and contain the probable main communal wellbeing effect. Cause communal fright, social disruption and need extraordinary action for public wellbeing awareness. Such agents and diseases include anthrax, botulism, plague and smallpox. Others are tularemia, viral hemorrhagic fevers and arenaviruses. The next uppermost main concern agents comprise those that are fairly easy to propagate. Cause reasonable morbidity tolls and low death tolls and need specific enhancements of diagnostic capability and disease observation. The agents and diseases include brucellosis, epsilon poison of Clostridium and foodstuff security intimidations such as Salmonella species. Others are glanders, melioidosis and psittacosis. Q fever, ricin toxin and water security intimidations. Third main concern causatives comprise viruses that can be

    manipulated for collection propagation in the future as are available. The agents are infectious diseases like Nipah germ together with Hantavirus (Arthur, et al. 1999).

    The preparation and planning of bioterrorist include informing during the initial hours.
    The first hour’s project offer messages and other resources for central, nation and local public health officials to use during a reaction to a crisis. The CDC crisis MedKit provides an overview of the crisis MedKit evaluation study. This was premeditated to assess a strategy that addresses the timeliness of distributing antibiotics and other medical services to the general public. Community-Based Mass Prophylaxis which is a planning guide for communal wellbeing awareness. The guide helps the State, county and local officers meet central necessities to get ready for communal wellbeing crises. Addresses dispensing processes using a comprehensive operational structure for dispensing and vaccination centers based on the National Incident Management System (Maryland State School, 2006).

    References

    Maryland Crisis Control Bureau (2009). Emergency Management. Retreated Mar. 10, 2009 from

                <http://www.mema.state.md.us/MEMA/index.jsp>

    Baltimore City Health Department (2007). Crisis Awareness and Reaction. Retrieved Mar. 10, 2009, from

                <http://www.baltimorehealth.org/emergency.htmlpi>

    Weill Medical College (2004). Wellbeing care Research & Excellence, p. 98-95. Baltimore:        Cornell University.

     Bullock D. and Haddow S. (2006). The six Hazard Analysis Steps, p. 88 – 90. New York: Pockect books.

    Arthur, S. Robin, A. Beverly, J. & Jianghong, M. (1999). Use of Danger Scrutiny Critical         Management Point and Alternative Treatments, p. 134 – 138. Baltimore: Maryland.

    Maryland State School (2006). Model Policy: Emergency Plan for School Nurse, p.123 -130.

                Baltimore: Maryland.

     

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