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Concussions in Soccer Players Sample

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Although frequently overlooked. concussions can be one of the most serious hurts a association football participant can confront in their athleticss calling. Many jocks in contact athleticss focal point on acquiring playing clip and demoing others their accomplishments and disregard what their organic structures are stating them. Often times. jocks will brush off hurts because they feel it is normal. particularly in popular athleticss such as association football. Soccer has become the 2nd most popular athletics among kids and every kid will at least kick a association football ball about at some point in their lives.

When it comes to hurts that involve critical variety meats like the encephalon. any marks of hurt should non be ignored. About one out of 10 contact athleticss participants this season will have a concussion. Many association football participants pride themselves on being strong and can manage anything and ever want to demo the lookouts their pes accomplishments. but a batch of times that believing gets them in problem.

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When left undiagnosed and untreated concussions can do many more jobs down the line that could stop an athlete’s calling forever. All of this and more is discussed in an article released in Public Heath Reports. Concussions most normally occur when utmost force is placed on the cranial pit.

The force can either straight affect the encephalon. or the encephalon can be thrown frontward and hit the skull. This can do harm to the encephalon and nerve cells. If left unrecognised or untreated a concussion can do farther harm to the encephalon and its map. Since a concussion can non be physically seen. many participants and managers do non take earnestly the badness of its injury to the organic structure. Many times there are no obvious marks of a concussion other than common strivings such as a concern or sickness. Normally when encephalon or caput hurts occur. a scan is taken of the cranial pit to measure the harm. However. scans such as an MRI. CT. or EEG will non place a concussion. Most concussions do non show physical marks of harm on the encephalon. but alternatively demo cognitive and coordination reverses. They can do a lessening in encephalon map which can do the participant to demo marks such as sickness. deficiency of coordination of the eyes or organic structure motion. jobs kiping. sleepiness. giddiness. concerns. temper swings. and bleary vision. Symptoms can be more or less terrible depending on the sum of impact placed on the encephalon.

It is of import to understand cardinal marks of concussions such as jobs walking. speaking. seeing. or sing sickness and concerns. If common marks can be recognized in an athlete stairss can so be taken to name and handle the concussion. To name and handle a concussion. cognitive trials from trained physicians and specializers can let proper intervention of the hurt. To name a concussion frequently athletes will travel through a series of trial from a physician. Many times the best manner to name a concussion is by traveling through a cognitive trial. If the encephalon has been concussed frequently times the jock will non be able to walk consecutive lines. follow fingers with an oculus. go giddy easy. or concentrate on objects or conversations. A specializer can set the jock through trials such as walking. concentrating on objects. or gripping objects to see how their organic structure reacts. Depending on how the athlete reacts. a specializer will normally be able to name them. If the concussion is really serious it can besides take to a encephalon bleed which is normally diagnosed by scans such as an MRI or EGG. Once a participant is diagnosed with a concussion. the mending procedure must get down which takes a batch of forbearance and relaxation from the victim. Since the lone manner to mend from a concussion is relaxation to let clip for the encephalon to mend. many jocks return to athleticss excessively early.

All concussions are different. and depending on the force exerted when the concussion occurred. the badness will impact recovery clip. For some it may merely take yearss to retrieve. However. for others the recovery procedure may take hebdomads or months. If a concussed encephalon is strained excessively early in its recovery procedure it can do a slower healing procedure and can take to encephalon harm. The importance with concussions is acknowledging the symptoms and leting adequate recovery clip to decently mend from hurt. As managers and physicians learn more about concussions and their possible permanent affects. they have taken many stairss to assist prevent participants from hurt. In a athletics like association football. where much legerity and focal point is critical to a jocks playing ability. any little throw-off of their coordination will of course increase the hazard of concussion so bar is the best manner to maintain participants safe. Although it can non be wholly prevented. safety equipment is the best manner to forestall encephalon hurt. Sport plans are doing certain their jocks ever have proper equipment whenever contact will be made and all equipment is functional and will forestall hurt. Surveies have besides shown that participants are less likely to have a caput related hurt if they have a oral cavity guard. Because of this many referees and managers are implementing all participants to have on mouth guards.

Besides managers are learning their participants how to protect themselves. In patterns managers will learn ways to protect the caput and neck country and utilize proper signifier with each gesture. Doctors are besides get downing to observe how to forestall jocks from returning to physical activity excessively shortly. Many high school and college athleticss plans are get downing to educate all jocks and managers on concussion marks and recovery. Most jocks must now acquire cleared to play from a physician before returning to physical activity. Doctors are informing schools of the jocks demands as good. Many schools will now let clip off for late concussed athletes to take clip in remainder and non concentrate on strenuous work like reading or gazing at computing machine screens. Besides. many squads are taking note of old concussions suffered by an jock. If an jock has already experienced a concussion that can be noted and kept in head while the participant is on the field. Often if an athlete receives a hit that applies force to the encephalon the manager will hold that participant checked to do certain a 2nd concussion has non occurred. Prevention is really of import when it comes to protecting the encephalon and its critical map in the human life.

This article truly showed the importance of understand what a concussion is and how it needs to be handled. The most of import thing with recovery is make certain an jock does non return excessively early. In the article it talked of the sum of association football participants that use protective cogwheel. Merely four per centum of association football participants wore headdress and merely seven per centum wore mouth guards. This article is good for participants and managers to take note of. The demand for better protective cogwheel regulations is huge in association football association and will assist forestall caput related hurts like concussions. Another large issue with managers and jocks is that they do non understand precisely what a concussion is. the marks it has occurred. the badness of it. and proper recovery. A manner to repair this issue is to educate managers and jocks on concussions. Another manner to guarantee better concussion intervention is to do certain the trainers that work with the jock are able to properly diagnose and handle the participants with concussions.

The article was really good at depicting how popular association football is and how that could take to under-diagnosis of concussions. Since association football is so of import participants feel the demand to force themselves and stand out from the crowd. If they feel pain they will frequently seek to force through and play through it. but if that happens with a concussion it can increase harm and increase recovery clip. It besides was really good at explicating why so many managers and jocks underestimate the badness of a concussion. Since it does non demo any physical harm to the organic structure many participants will overlook it every bit merely a concern or sickness. Articles. such as the one printed in Public Health Reports. are really of import for educating the general populace. The cranial pit contains one of the most critical variety meats to human map and hence requires much protection. When the public becomes cognizant of what a concussion truly is. its symptoms. effects. and proper diagnosing and recovery it can see better intervention for those jocks that do have concussions and can assist forestall farther harm.


Concussion Directory. WebMD. WebMD. n. d. Web. 16 Jan. 2013.“Concussion. ” PubMed Health. American Accreditation HealthCare Commission. 30 Jan. 2012. Web. 16 Jan. 2013. Moss. H. Marilyn. . “Concussions. ” Pediatrics for Parents. 01 Jan. 2005: 4. eLibrary Science. Web. 17 Jan 2013. Nowjack-Raymer. Ruth E. . . Gift. Helen C… “Use of mouthguards and headdress in organized athleticss by school-aged kids. . ” Public Health Reports 111. ( 1996 ) :82 ( 5 ) . eLibrary Science. Web. 21 Jan 2013. Tannert. Emily. “Safer association football. ” Prevention. 01 Aug. 2002: 46. eLibrary Science. Web. 17 Jan 2013.

Use of mouthguards and headdress in organized athleticss by school-aged kids. ; Nowjack-Raymer. Ruth E. ; Gift. Helen C. Public Health Reports 01-11-1996

Injuries are a prima cause of morbidity and mortality in kids and young person in the United States [ 1 ] . Of turning concern are hurts that occur during engagement in organized athleticss [ 2 ] . One type of hurt. orofacial injury. can ensue in broken and avulsed dentitions. facial bone breaks. concussion. lasting encephalon hurt. TMJ disfunction. blinding oculus hurts. and even decease [ 3. 4 ] . The concern about orofacial hurt is addressed in a Healthy People 2000 Objective that calls for widening demands for the usage of orofacial protective devices to all organisations. bureaus. and establishments patronizing sporting and diversion events that pose hazards of hurt [ 1 ] .

While no systematic monitoring for orofacial hurts exists. it is estimated that every bit many as tierce of all dental hurts are sports-related [ 5. 6 ] . A peculiarly high prevalence of all baseball hurts. 41 % . occur to the caput. face. oral cavity. or eyes [ 7 ] . Prior to the establishment of regulations by the National Alliance Football Rules Committee in 1962 that required the usage of orofacial protective devices for high school football participants. an estimated 50 % of Associate in Nursing football hurts were to the oral cavity and face. Current estimations are that 1. 4 % of football hurts are to orofacial parts [ 8 ] . Similarly. informations from the mid-1970s indicate that 45 % of hockey hurts in kids ages 10 to 16 occurred above the shoulders. with 13 % being dental hurts. Following the constitution of criterions stipulating the usage of caput and face guards in hockey by combined associations and federations in 1977 and the subsequent demands in the regulations for recreational conferences every bit good as collegiate and high school competition. hurt rates dropped dramatically [ 9 ] .

Equipment that prevents orofacial hurts and. concussion has been available for decennaries. yet small is known about the extent to which it is used. This survey aimed to gauge current engagement of school age kids in organized athleticss and measure their usage of protective headdress and mouthguards. These national informations will supply baseline information for the development and rating of targeted schemes designed to cut down the happening of sports-related hurts in kids.


We analyzed family study informations obtained for the 1991 National Health Interview Survey ( NHIS ) of Child Health concentrating on responses given by the 9. 630 interviewed parents ( or defenders of kids ages 7 through 17. The National Center for Health Statistics ( NCHS ) followed established NHIS criterions for sampling of participants. behavior of interviews. and informations quality control procedures [ 10 ] .

In the 1991 study. parents were asked whether the sampled kid had played any of the fisted organized athleticss ( football. baseball or playground ball. association football. field or ice hockey. wrestle. lacrosse. rugger. pugilism. karate or judo ) during the old 12 months and. if yes. how often the kid wore protective headdress or a mouthguard. For the present survey. we looked at selected demographic and socioeconomic variables as follows: geographic part of abode. gender. school grade degree ( simple. classs 1 through 5 ; center. classs 6 through 8 ; high school. classs 9 through 12 ) . “race” ( black. white ) . ethnicity’ ( Latino. non-Hispanic ) . instruction of parent ( high school or less. more than high school ) . poorness position ( below. at/above Federal poorness degree ) . Race” and ethnicity’ were defined by the respondent’s self-perception and are separate variables. for illustration. a kid could be both black and Latino.

Statistical Analysis. For our analyses. trying weights were used in order to generalise to the 1991 non-institutionalized U. S. child population aged 7 to 17 old ages. SUDAAN statistical package. which was created for usage with complex. multistage sample designs. was used to cipher standard mistakes for estimations. All comparings that are reported as statistically important are at p [ less than or equal to ] . 05 after accounting for multiple comparings. Log additive chi-square was used to prove for independency. p-values are based on the F-statistic utilizing the Wald chi-square with denominator grades of freedom equal to the figure of Primary Sampling Units ( PSU ) minus the figure of strata.


Who Is at Risk for Orofacial Injury? In 1991. over 14 million school-aged kids in the United States participated in at least one of the listed athleticss. with over one-quarter of this group involved in two or more athleticss. ( See table 1 for estimated population of kids playing each sport. ) Males played an organized athletics more than females ( 23 % females played. 54 % male played ) . Playing an organized athletics varied by part of the state: in the south 33 % played. compared to 43 % in the Northeast. 43 % in the Northwest. and 41 % in the West. Playing an organized athletics varied by socioeconomic position: 28 % of kids below poorness played while 43 % at or above poorness played ; 33 % of kids whose parent had less than high school instruction played in contrast to 45 % of those whose parent had more than high school ) . White kids ( 42 % ) were more likely to play organized athleticss than black kids ( 27 % ) . Besides. non-Hispanic kids ( 40 % ) more frequently played organized athleticss than Latino kids ( 34 % ) .

A greater proportion of high school kids ( 12 % ) than simple school kids ( 6 % ) wore mouthguards. Besides. more black ( 17 % ) than white ( 6 % ) kids wore mouthguards ( table 2 ) . No differences were found for gender. and the cell sizes were excessively little to allow reading of the informations by other sociodemographic variables.

Since the aforesaid criterions for baseball encourage batters’ helmets and catchers’ masks. there is more possibility time” to the headgear inquiries. To measure this. the responses to the 1991 inquiries on baseball or softball headdress were analyzed by ever ( 35 % ) . sometimes ( 43 % ) and ne’er ( 22 % ) . The same differences as reported above are observed for gender and race. In add-on. white kids were reported as “sometimes” utilizing headgear more frequently than inkinesss ( 46 % vs. 19 % ) ; kids whose parents were better educated were more likely to hold occasional usage of headdress than 1s with less-educated parents ( 45 % vs. 38 % ) ; and non-Hispanics had occasional usage more than Hispanics ( 43 % vs. 30 % ) . Lower socioeconomic kids ( utilizing any of the SES indexs ) and misss were more likely ne’er to utilize headdress in baseball or playground ball.

Soccer. Soccer was the 2nd most popular athletics among school-aged kids in 1991 ( table 1 ) . As might be expected given the absence of US Soccer Federation regulations for protection from orofacial hurt and no reference of such devices in texts for managers and jocks. our analyses found that merely 4 % of association football participants wore headgear and 7 % wore mouthguards. The usage of headdress did non vary by grade degree ; nevertheless. the usage of mouthguards among high school pupils ( 14 % ) was greater than among simple school kids ( 40 % ) . Cell sizes were non sufficient for reading of other demographic or socioeconomic factors.

Football. Ten per centum of US. school-aged kids played organized football in 1991 ( table 1 ) . While regulations mandating the usage of headdress and mouthguards have existed for over three decennaries. our analysis indicated that merely 72 % of kids who played football wore headdress and mouthguards all or most of the clip ( table 2 ) . Statistically important differences existed in the usage of headdress by gender ( 77 % males. 15 % females ) . grade degree ( 88 % high school. 52 % simple ) . ethnicity 77 % non-Hispanics. 46 % Hispanics ) . poorness degree ( 77 % at or above. 54 % below ) . and parental instruction ( 78 % . more than high school. 68 % high school or less ) .

We found statistically important differences in the usage of mouthguards by gender ( 77 % males. 15 % females ) . grade degree ( 88 % high school. 52 % grade school ) . ethnicity ( 75 % non-Hispanic. 52 % Hispanic ) . and poverty degree ( 75 % at or above poorness. 54 % below poorness ) .

Other Organized Sports. Overall population estimations for kid or youth engagement in wrestling. karate/judo. field/ ice hockey. lacrosse. rugger. and packaging are presented in table 1. Due to insufficient cell size. the usage of orofacial devices can non be analyzed by sociodemographic variables.


Differences exist in usage of headdress and mouthguards but are non consistent across all athleticss. Well more information is needed on hurts in young person athleticss and the usage of headdress and mouthguards.

The existent hazard to injury in childhood sporting activities may be greater than is represented here since merely selected organized athleticss were included in this study. e. g. organized hoops and less official signifiers of other athleticss were non listed. Other methodological artefacts potentially impacting the responses included the deficiency of differentiation among types of athleticss. e. g. . contact. ticket. or flag football. and the dependance on parent’s cognition of a child’s behaviours.

Rules and ordinances. Healthy People 2000 calls for the development of regulations and ordinances by all patrons of organized athleticss that pose a hazard of hurt. The information reported suggest that such ordinances are positive wellness publicity schemes: football. with regulations. had the greatest usage of equipment. The moderate usage of headdress among baseball and playground ball participants appears to be related to regulations that require usage for selected participants. In contrast. the really low usage of safety equipment in association football may be associated with an absence of ordinances on their usage. Barriers to development and credence of regulations appear to include deficiency of consciousness of the potency for hurt. inappropriate or unavailable equipment. and disbursal. Unlike other states. the United States has no overarching authorization to necessitate the usage of orofacial protective devices by participants or for the appropriate instruction of youth athleticss functionaries. The attempts of protagonism groups are thwarted by the disconnected nature of young person athleticss in the United States [ 1 ] .

Behavior alteration. Parental perceptual experiences of children’s hazards to injury. disbursals associated with protective cogwheel. and peer force per unit area may act upon usage of mouthguards and headdress. Interestingly. lower socioeconomic parents are reported to be more cognizant of menaces to their children’s safety than are flush parents” . One of the major beginnings of torment among kids is orofacial characteristics [ 16 ] . therefore. remarks by equals or the expectancy of remarks about devices may be sufficient to discourage gear use.

The ascertained erosion forms of males and females may stand for perceptual and cultural differences. equal force per unit area. and/or the nature of athleticss played: 1 ) Percepts that females are less aggressive and therefore at reduced hazard of hurt may be. 2 ) Perceptions sing the absence of long-run committedness to a athletics may ensue in a differential willingness to give resources to females. 3 ) Aesthetic entreaty may differentially act upon protective orofacial cogwheel use. 4 ) Females may play in non-league-based athleticss with fewer or less rigorous regulations or may play less contentious athleticss than males. Since hurt rates for females playing specific athleticss are similar to those for males [ 17-19 ] . the differential usage of protection must be changed.

Product design. Problems associated with protective mouthguards include speech damage. uncomfortableness. limited lastingness and hapless fit [ 20 ] . However. custom-made mouthguards. while more dearly-won and clip devouring to hold made by a tooth doctor. cut down such ailments and supply the best protection from hurt [ 20-22 ] . In a survey of high school Lacrosse participants. both male and female preferable custom-made mouthguards. nevertheless. males reported that they would have on the less comfy “boil and bite” mouthguards to avoid multiple dental office assignments. Few females really wore either the criterion or usage mouthguards [ 21 ] .

While athleticss functionaries and tooth doctors are encouraged by professional organisations and others to originate mouthguard plans [ 5. 23. 18 ] . a reappraisal of the literature indicates that few plans exist20. Advanced schemes must be developed to increase the usage of custom-built mouthguards which are effectual. readily available. and low-cost for kids of all ages. Since mouthguards must accommodate to the quickly altering teething and to orthodontic contraptions. legion challenges exist in bioengineering. wellness professional audience and selling.

Health instruction and wellness publicity runs. In our survey. high school jocks wore orofacial protection more than elementary-aged kids. The differences in usage could be in portion attributed to resources. ordinances. and perceptual experience of committedness to the athletics in school versus community plans.

Some high schools have the advantage of officially educated managers. certified athletic trainers and squad doctors to develop athleticss safety plans. Yet. an estimated 80 % of all those who coach organized athleticss in the U. S. have ne’er taken categories designed to heighten their cognition of the athletics they are training [ 24 ] or the rudimentss of hurt bar and exigency processs [ 1 ] . Several organisations have developed educational stuffs and preparation Sessionss for managers [ 1. 14. 24 ] but the usage of these is discretional.

The literature indicates that behaviours of jocks are most influenced by managers [ 25 ] . Coaches report that most information about mouthguards comes from gross revenues representatives ( 72 % ) . educational stuffs ( 33 % ) . and tooth doctors ( 11 % ) [ 21 ] . Targeted instruction and wellness publicity could be directed toward each of these groups. every bit sebaceous cyst as the general populace. parents and athletes themselves.

Unfortunately. some youth athleticss organisers are declining to take part in educational plans because they believe that they can be held apt for hurts merely after having instruction. Recent legal suits have determined that managers can so be held apt with or without formal education26. One national organisation. in response to turning concerns about voluntaries. provides liability insurance as an inducement to managers who complete a three-year enfranchisement plan which includes first assistance and safety preparation [ 24 ] .

In decision. it appears that a set of complex issues surround the usage of orofacial protective devices for young person athleticss in the United States. Under the umbrella of Healthy People 2000. the public wellness sector. working with the private sector. must beef up plans. plan guidelines. methods for airing of information about successful attacks and surveillance systems. Clearly. if orofacial hurts are to be prevented in athleticss. presentation research undertakings and advanced plans utilizing many-sided attacks at all degrees. across many athleticss. and in many environments must be tested and. if effectual. implemented.


[ 1. ] Healthy People 2000: national wellness publicity and disease bar aims. Washington DC: Government Printing Office ; 1991 DHHS saloon. no. ( PHS ) 91-50212. [ 2. ] Micheli. LJ. Sportswise: an indispensable usher for immature jocks. parents. and managers. Boston MA: Houghton Mifflin. 1990. [ 3. ] Chapman. PJ. Concussion in contact athleticss and importance of mouthguards in protection. Aust J of Sci Med Sport 1985 ; 17:23-27. [ 4. ] Gurdijian ES. Lissner HR. Evans FG. et Al. Intracranial force per unit area and acceleration attach toing caput impacts in human corpses. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1961 ; 113:185-190. [ 5. ] Lephart SM. Fu FH. Emergency intervention of athletic hurts. Dent Clin North Am 1991 ; 35:707-17. [ 6. ] Meadow. D. . Lindner. G. . and Needleman. H. : Oral injury in kids. Ped Dent 1984 ; 6:248-251. [ 7. ] US Consumer Product Safety Commission: Overview of athleticss related hurts to individuals 5-14 old ages of age. Washington DC: US Consumer Product Safety Commission. 1981. [ 8. ] Sane J. Comparison of maxillofacial and dental hurts in four contact squad athleticss: American football. bandy. hoops and handball. Am J Sports Med 1988 ; 16:47-51. [ 9. ] Castaldi CR. Eye. face and caput protection in athleticss. Association News 1985 ; 4:52-55. [ 10. ] NationalCenter for Health Statistics ( NCHS ) : Public usage file certification. National Health Interview Survey of Child Health. 1991. Hyattsville MD: National Center for Health Statistics 1992. [ 11. ] Christophersen ER. Bettering conformity in childhood hurt control. In Krasnegor NA. Epstein L. Johnson SB. Yaffe SJ ( explosive detection systems ) . Developmental Aspects of Health Compliance Behaviors. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 1993. pp. 219-231. [ 12. ] The National Committee for Injury Prevention and Control: Introduction: a history of hurt bar. Am J Prevt Med 1989 ; 5:4-18. [ 13. ] Perry CL. Barnowski T. Parcel GS. How persons. environments. and wellness behaviours interact: societal larning theory. In: K. Glanz. F. M. Lewis. B. K. Rimer explosive detection systems. Health behaviour and instruction. San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass Publisher 1990 ; 161-186. [ 14. ] American Sports Education Program: Successful coaching. Champaign IL: Human Kenetics 1990 ; 1-237. [ 15. ] Glik D. Kronenfeld J. Jackson K. Predictors of hazard perceptual experiences of childhood hurt among parents of kindergartners. Health Educ Q 1991 ; 18:285-301. [ 16. ] Shaw WC. Addy M. Ray C. Dental and societal effects of malocclusion and effectivity of orthodontic intervention: a reappraisal. Comm Dent Oral Epidemiol 1980 ; 8:36-45. [ 17. ] Chanby T. Grana W Secondary school athletic hurt in male childs and misss: a three twelvemonth comparing. Phys Sports Med 1985 ; 13:106-111. [ 18. ] Morrow RM. Kuebker WA. Sports dental medicine: a new function. Dent School Qu UTHSC at San Antonio 1986 ; 2:10-13. [ 19. ] Hodge-Williams V. Testimony presented March 16. 1994. Head Stand 1994 ; 12:3-4. 17. [ 20. ] Seals RR. Morrow RM. Kuebker WA. et Al. An rating of mouthguard plans in Texas high school football. J Am Dent Assoc 1985 ; 110:904-909. [ 21. ] DeYoung A. Godwin W. Robinson E. Comparison of comfort and wearability factors of boil-and-bite and custom mouthguards. Abstract 1390. J Dent Res 1993 ; 72:277. [ 22. ] Kerr IL. Mouthguards for the bar of hurts in contact athleticss. Sports Med 1986 ; 3:415-427. [ 23. ] American Dental Association. Bureau of Health Education and Audiovisual Services and Council on Dental Materials. Instruments and Equipment: Mouth defenders and athleticss squad tooth doctors. J Am Dent Assoc 1984 ; 109:84-87. [ 24. ] Kimiecik JC. Who needs coaches’ instruction? US managers do. Phys Sports Med 1988 ; 16:124-136. [ 25. ] Ranalli DN. Lancaster DM. Attitudes of college football functionaries sing NCAA mouthguard ordinances and participant conformity. J Public Health Dent 1993 ; 53:96-100. [ 26. ] Adams S. Sports and the tribunals: action moves from field to courtroom ; managers have defined legalresponsibilities. Interscholastic Athletic Administration 1990 ; 17:6-9.

Copyright 1996 U. S. Department of Health and Human Services

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